MIRACLE TREE: MORINGA OLEIFERAHTML Full Text
MIRACLE TREE: MORINGA OLEIFERA
Vidhan Jaiswal, Gurinder Singh * and Jaswinder Kaur
H. G. Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Gurusar Sadhar, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.
ABSTRACT: Moringa oleifera is an angiosperm plant that belongs to the family Moringaceae. It is also known as the Drumstick tree or Horseradish tree. Alkaloids, protein, quinine, saponins, flavonoids, tannin, steroids, glycosides, fixed oil and lipids are among the active phytoconstituents present. It is distributed throughout the world's tropical and subtropical regions. Several studies show that various parts of the plant, such as seeds, flowers, bark, fruits, pods, gum and leaves, have antitumor, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, cholesterol-lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial and antifungal, antimicrobial, antiulcer, antifibrotic, antifertility, antiurolithiatic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, local anesthetic, antiasthmatic and are used in the indigenous system of medicine to treat various diseases. This review aims to provide complete data, including morphology, cultivation and propagation, distribution, phytochemistry, traditional uses & Pharmacological activities.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Phytoconstituents, Traditional use, Pharmacological activities
INTRODUCTION: Moringa oleifera is commonly known as 'drumstick tree' or 'horseradish tree’ belonging to the family of Moringaceae 1. It belongs to the genus Moringa having 13 different species. The most widely grown of them is Moringa oleifera, which is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world 2. The tree reaches a height of 5-10 m and can be found wild and cultivated across the plains, especially in hedges and house yards. It grows best in an insular tropical environment and is widespread near river and stream sandy beds 3. Alkaloids, protein, quinine, saponins, flavonoids, tannin, steroids, glycosides, fixed oil and fat and other active phytoconstituents have been found in this plant through phytochemical studies 4.
It is a good source of vitamins A, B, and C, riboflavin, pyridoxine, Folic acid, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, and alpha-tocopherol, as well as a significant source of essential amino acids due to its high mineral content for iron and calcium 5. Moringa has been used as a traditional medicine around the world for anemia, skin infections, blackheads, anxiety, bronchitis, catarrh, chest congestion, asthma, blood impurities, cholera, glandular, swelling, headaches, conjunctivitis, cough, diarrhea, eye and ear infections, fever, abnormal blood pressure, hysteria, pain in joints, pimples, psoriasis, respiratory disorders, scurvy, semen deficiency, sore throat, sprain, tuberculosis, for intestinal worms, lactation, diabetes and pregnancy 6.
Various parts of this plant such as leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers, and immature pods have antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, cardiac and antifungal activities and are used for the treatment of various ailments in the indigenous system of medicine 7, 8.
TABLE 1: TAXONOMY 9
3. Species: Moringa oleifera is the most famous of the thirteen species in the variety Moringa of the family Moringaceae. These are Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. drouhardii, M. arborea, M. borziana M. hildebrandtii, M. longituba, M. pygmaea, M. rivae, M. ruspoliana, M. ovalifolia, M. peregrine and M. stenopetalan 10.
4. Vernacular Name:
TABLE 2: VERNACULAR NAME 11, 12
|S. no.||Vernacular Name|
|2||English||Drumstick tree, Horseradish tree|
|8||Nepali||Sajiwan or swejan|
|21||Oriya||Sajana or Sujuna|
Bark: Smooth, dark grey slashes thin, yellowish bark. The tree's twigs and shoots are short and thickly-haired. The crown is made up of a single stem that is large, open, and umbrella-shaped. The tree has a strong root system and softwood 13.
Height: Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, deciduous-to-evergreen shrub or small tree with a maximum height of 7 to 12 m and a diameter of 20-60 cm at height.
Stem: The stem is normally straight that reaches a height of 1.5 - 2.0m before it begins branching, and it can reach up to 3.0m.
Leaves: The leaves are alternate, twice or thrice pinnate leaves crowded at the end of the branches, long petiole with 8-10 pair of pinnate leaves each bearing two pairs of opposite, elliptic or obovate, rounded or emarginate, entire, dull green on both sides, at first shortly grey, pubescent, glabrous 14.
Flowers: It has a pleasant fragrance and flowers that are 2.5 cm wide and delivered in axillary, hanging panicles 10–25 cm long. They have a cream or white coloration with yellow spots at the root.
Straight lanceolate sepals with slender-spatulate petals are the state of reflexed sepals. They include the stamens and staminodes, which are five stamens and five staminodes 15.
Branch: The branches develop in a disarranged way, and the covering is formed in an umbrella shape.
Fruits: The fruits are three-lobed pods 20-60 cm long and hang from the branches. When they're dry, they split into three parts. Between 12 and 35 seeds are contained in each pod 16.
Seeds: The seeds have three whitish papery wings and are dispersed by wind and water 17.
FIG. 1: LEAVES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
FIG. 2: SEEDS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
FIG. 3: MORINGA OLEIFERA TREE
FIG. 4 AND 5: PODS (FRUITS) OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
6. Cultivation: It grows in hot, semi-arid, and humid climates, as well as sandy or loamy soils with good drainage. The seed must be fresh to germinate successfully. Germination requires warm conditions. Because the seed is nutty and considered a good meal by mice and wood lizards, it would be kept out of reach of these small scavengers.
In the spring and summer, 10-60cm long stem cuttings can also be struck. Trees are often planted in tropical, subtropical, and warm-climate environments. After a bunch of years in a cold climate, trees adapt, but they may still go dormant in the winter 18.
7. Harvesting: During high-density cultivation, moringa trees can be harvested when they reach a height of 1.5 to 2 meters.
Cutting the leaf stems with a sharp knife or snapping leaf stems from branches 20 cm to 45 cm above the ground are the best methods for harvesting the leaves. This method encourages the growth of new shoots. It can take up to 35 to 40 days to harvest. However, when collecting fodder, the tree should be harvested every 75 days. The leaves should not be heaped together since they would deteriorate quickly.
Harvesting should be done early in the morning to avoid excessive water loss. Fresh leaves should be sold the same day as they are harvested because they lose moisture quickly. Moringa may be collected to a height of 50 cm above ground level, enabling mechanical harvesting easier 19.
8. Distribution: Moringa oleifera is native to India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Asia Minor, Africa, and Arabia in the western and sub-Himalayan regions.
However, it is also found in the Philippines, Cambodia, Central America, North and South America, and the Caribbean Islands. It is grown extensively in all tropical and subtropical parts of the world for various purposes 15, 19, 20, 21.
9. Phytochemical Constituents:
TABLE 3: PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND PURE COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM THE VARIOUS PARTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ARE DISCUSSED AS FOLLOWS
|S. no.||Part of Plant||Phytochemical Constituents|
|1||Bark||Moringine and moringinine, phytosterols like β-sitosterol and β–sitostenone, glucosinolates like 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate 22, 23, 24|
|2||Stem||Vanillin, β-sitostenone, 4-hydroxymellin, β-sitosterol, and octacosanoic acid 22|
|3||Leaves||Glucosinolates like 4-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)- benzylglucosinolate and three monoacetyl isomers of this glucosinolate, nitrile glycosides niaziridin and niazirin, isothiocyanate like 4-[(4’-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl], acetylated glycosides bearing groups like thiocarbamate, carbamate or nitrile, thiocarbamate glycosides niaziminin A and B, phenols like quercetin-3-O- glucoside and quercetin-3-O-(6"-malonyl-glucoside), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6"-malonylglucoside), 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid, rhamnetin, apigenin and myricetin 3, 24|
|4||Flowers||Flowers contain nine amino acids, as well as D-glucose, sucrose, wax, a few alkaloids, kaempferol, and quercetin, ascorbic acid, protein, D-mannose; calcium and potassium are present in the fiery remains. Alkaloids, rhamnetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and kaempferitrin are examples of flavonoid pigments that they contribute 22, 25, 30|
|5||Roots||Moringine, moringinine, spirachin, 1,3-dibenzyl urea, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, Deoxy-niazimicine, 4-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzylglucosinolate 4, 26|
|6||Whole-gum exudate||L-arabinose, L -galactose, L -glucuronic acid and L-rhamnose, L-mannose and L -xylose, while a homogeneous, degraded-gum polysaccharide consisting of L-galactose, β-glucuronic acid and L-mannose has been obtained on mild hydrolysis of the whole gum with acid 27|
|7||Pods||Isothiocyanate, nitrites, thiocarbamates, O-(1heptenyloxy) propyl
undecanoate, O-ethyl-4-(alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl carbamate,
methyl- p-hydroxybenzoate and β-sitosterol 4
|8||Seeds||Mature seeds contain O- ethyl -4- (α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl carbamate, 4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate, 4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzylglucosinolate, niazimicin, 3 –O-(6’-O-oleoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β- D-glucopyranoside, niazirin, β-sitosterol, glycerol-1- (9-octadecanoate), isothiocyanates, thiocarbamates and flavonoids, Moringyne, mono-palmitic and di-oleic triglyceride, Crude protein, Crude fat, carbohydrate, methionine, cysteine, Hemagglutin, and seed oils contain Vitamin A, beta carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A, Campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, delta5-avenasterol,delta7-avenasterol, Clerosterol,24- methylenecholesterol, delta7-campestanol, stigmastanol, 28- isoavenasterol, unsaturated fatty acids, Saturated fatty acids- behenic acid and palmitic acid, Monoterpenoidcompounds contains α-phellandrene, p-cymene 26, 28, 29|
|9||Fruits||Cytokinins, O-ethyl-4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl carbamate 30|
10. Traditional Uses: The Moringa tree has a wide range of medicinal applications, including both prevention and therapy. In several countries, the bark, sap, roots, leaves, seeds, oil and flowers are used in traditional medicine. A folk remedy for stomach complaints, catarrh, cancer, gastric ulcers, skin diseases, lowering blood sugar, increasing bone density, nervous conditions, diabetes, fatigue, increased lactation, hay fever, impotence, edema, cramps, haemorrhoids, headaches, sore gums; to strengthen the eyes and brain, liver, gallbladder, digestive, respiratory, and immune systems and as a blood cleanser and blood builder 8.
Leaves: The leaves were traditionally used as a treatment on the stomach to expel intestinal worms. Conjunctivitis is treated with a leaf infusion used as an eyewash.
The natural prevention of tuberculosis, bronchitis, and asthma is highly effective when made with drumstick leaves soup. The decoction of drumstick leaves is consumed as a soup; lime juice, pepper, and salt can be added to improve the flavor at the patient's choice 31. Thyroid hormone can be reduced by using leaves 32. To boost breast milk production, Philippine women use Moringa leaves combined with shellfish and chicken soup 33. The leaves are mashed and used to scrub utensils and clean dividers. Its blossoms are known to be cholagogues, stimulants, diuretics, and tonics, all of which serve to increase the flow of bile 34.
Agriculturists add leaves to animal feed to keep up sound domesticated animals 35. Leaves have been used as antibacterial infection, urinary tract infection, HIV-AIDS, fever, hepatic, antitumor, antihypertensive, diarrhea, dysentery, ulcer, headache, antioxidant, protein and iron deficiency, vitamin (a mineral deficiency, lactation enhancer, catarrh and scurvy 36
Bark: As a medicinal, the powdered form of the bark improves the quality of sperm and treats problems like premature ejaculation in men. To cure the problem of premature ejaculation, a decoction of bark powder and water sweetened with honey should be eaten 31. Bark has been used for dental caries/toothache, common cold, sore/ulcer, antitumor, snakebite, scorpion bite, digestive, epilepsy, hysteria, headache, birth control, and scurvy 36. Antifungal, abortifacient, antibacterial, and emmenagogue properties are all found in the bark. Bark can be used for tanning and also produces a coarse fiber 37.
Pods: The pods are used to treat diabetes and are anthelmintic, antipyretic, and anthelmintic. Amino acids such as arginine and histidine can also be found in moringa pods. The delicate pods are boiled or pickled before being used in a culinary arrangement 34.
Roots: Roots have been used for dental caries/toothache, common cold, fever, asthma, diarrhea, flatulence, epilepsy, hysteria headache, gout, low back/kidney pain, scurvy 36. The root juice is used as a heart tonic, antiepileptic, anxiety, asthma, and an enlarged liver and spleen. Almost every element of the plant serves as a source of nourishment 30.
Seeds: In Malaya, the seed is reported to be eaten like a peanut. Salad greens, vegetable curries, pickles, and flavorings are all made with foliage. The oil extracted from the seed is odorless and transparent, making it suitable for the manufacture of perfumes and hair treatments 30. Seeds have been used for numerous ailments in warts, antitumor, ulcer, rheumatism, arthritis, mineral/vitamin deficiency 36.
Flowers: Flowers have been used for throat infections, common cold, antitumor, rheumatism, tonic abortion, hysteria 36. High medicinal value as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, abortifacient, and cholagogue; used to treat inflammations, muscle diseases, hysteria, tumors, and spleen enlargement; lower serum cholesterol, phospholipid, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, and atherogenic index in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits; decrease lipid profile of liver, heart and increased the excretion of fecal cholesterol 38.
Gum: Gum is astringent and rubefacient and has been used to treat tooth cavities. Gum, mixed with sesame oil, is used to relieve headaches, fevers, digestive ailments, dysentery, asthma, and is sometimes used as an abortifacient and to cure syphilis and rheumatism 38.
11. Industrial Uses: The seed oil is used in the arts and lubricating watches and other delicate machinery. It is also utilized for the production of perfumes and hairdressing products. After oil extraction, the pressed cake can be used as a fertilizer. The drumstick tree's wood is used in the paper and textile industries, the bark is used in tanning, and the seeds are used in water purification 39.
12. Pharmacological Activities:
12.1 Anti-Inflammatory Activity: In an LPS-induced in vitro inflammatory model, the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera extract exhibits significant anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. Its anti-inflammatory activities were mediated by inhibiting the production of numerous inflammatory proteins in the signaling cascade and suppressing NF-kB activation and translocation into the nucleus. To investigate the cellular and molecular basis for Moringa oleifera ethyl acetate fraction's anti-inflammatory activity and explore Moringa oleifera therapeutic potential as a nutritious functional food for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases and disorders 40.
12.2 Wound Healing Activity: The wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was studied. The extract of Moringa oleifera was studied in rats using resutured incision, excision, and dead space wound models at 300 mg/kg body weight doses. Increased collagen deposition and better alignment and maturation seem to be involved in wound healing. It can be determined that Moringa oleifera aqueous extract has significant wound healing properties 41.
12.3 Antioxidant Activity: Using specific in-vitro standard procedures, evaluate the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activities of Moringa oleifera pods against free radicals. Free radical scavenging activity of the hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera pods was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) assay, reducing power assay, Ferric thiocyanate (FTC), Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and non-specific assay. The assay's results are compared to a natural antioxidant, Quercitin, as well as rutin, butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). In the present study, the extract had a high level of significance (p<0.001) when compared to the standards. The extract of Moringa oleifera pods is a good source of antioxidant properties, and it also showed significant free radical scavenging activity, reducing power activity and total antioxidant activity 42.
FIG. 6: PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
12.4 Antitumor Activity: Moringa oleifera leaf and ethanolic seed extracts have significant antitumor activity. Thiocarbamate and isothiocyanate-related substances have been found as tumor promoter inhibitors. The presence of three recognized thiocarbamate and isothiocyanate-related chemicals, which act as inhibitors of tumor promoter teleocidin B-4-induced Epstein-Barr virus, was responsible for the in-vivo antitumor potential 4.
12.5 Anti-fibrotic Activity: Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract's effect on liver fibrosis. The oral dose of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) twice weekly for eight weeks was used to induce liver fibrosis. Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract (1 g/kg) was also given orally on a daily.
According to biochemical and histological studies, Moringa reduced liver damage and symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. Moringa administration also reduced elevations in hepatic hydroxyproline concentration and myeloperoxidase activity.
According to immunohistochemistry research, Moringa also reduced the number of smooth muscle α-actin positive cells and the build-up of collagens I and III in the liver. Moringa seed extract substantially reduces antioxidant power and a significant inhibitory effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical. After treatment with Moringa, superoxide dismutase activity was restored, as was the concentration of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, both of which are oxidative stress markers. This research showed that Moringa seed extract could protect rats from CCl4-induced liver injury and fibrosis through an antioxidant mechanism, an anti-inflammatory action, and attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation 43.
12.6 Antiulcer Activity: The antiulcer activity of an ethanolic root-bark extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) in albino Wistar rats was examined utilizing two experimental models: ethanol-induced and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulceration. For 15 days, the extract was administered orally at three different doses (150, 350, and 500 mg/kg). The antiulcer effects in rats treated with different doses of the extract and omeprazole (30 mg/kg, p.o.) were measured and statistically compared to the antiulcer effects in saline-treated control rats (NaCl, 0.9 %). Compared to the control group, MO at doses of 350 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the ulcer index (p < 0.01). In the pylorus-ligated ulcer model, the %age protections against gastric ulcers were 82.58 %, 85.13 %, and 86.15 %, respectively, at MO doses of 150, 350, and 500 mg/kg, and 55.75 %, 59.33 %, and 78.51 %, respectively, in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Compared to the control group, the MO significantly reduced free acidity, total acidity, and ulcer index (p<0.01) and elevated the pH of gastric content. This research reveals that MO has antiulcer, antisecretory, and cytoprotective properties. As a result, an ethanolic Moringa oleifera root-bark extract can be used as a source for an antiulcer medication 44.
12.7 Antidiabetic Activity: Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male rats; the antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100mg/kg body weight, in the diet) was evaluated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. When compared to the negative control group (G1), the diabetic positive control (STZ treated) showed higher levels of lipid peroxide, IL-6, and antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate. Diabetes increased immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the Positive control group rats (G2). Albumin was also reduced; however, liver enzymes and α-amylase were unaffected. Furthermore, renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in the Positive control group (G2) were elevated, indicating diabetic nephropathy. Glycosuria and elevated potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels were detected in the urine. Compared to the negative control group, the kidney and pancreatic tissues showed pathological changes. When diabetic rats were administered 50 mg (G3) and 100 mg (G4) Moringa seeds powder/kg body, the levels of all these parameters ameliorated, approaching negative control values, and the normal histology of the kidney and pancreas was restored, compared to the diabetic positive control group 45.
12.8 Antifertility Activity: In female Wistar rats with artificially induced decidualization, the effects of ethanol extract at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg on fertility, implantation, decidualization, and local cytokine signalling during decidualization were studied. Compared to the control group, Moringa oleifera at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg resulted in defective implantation, with smaller and dull-colored implants, which could be due to defective decidualization.
Furthermore, artificial decidualization studies revealed dose-dependent reductions in weight gain, oestradiol levels, and progesterone levels, which led to reduced expression of various local cytokines, include cyclooxygenase-2, leukaemia inhibitory factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin 11, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies. Moringa oleifera ethanol extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg inhibited implantation in female rats, indicating that it has an antifertility effect and should be investigated further for potential contraceptive action 46.
12.9 Antiurolithiatic Activity: The antiurolithiatic activity of an aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera bark administered orally was evaluated in albino rats of Wistar strains. The stones were produced in this research by inserting a zinc disc foreign body into the bladder, supplemented with 1% ethylene glycol in the drinking water. The weight reduction of the stones was used to evaluate whether the bark of this plant had a preventive or curative antiurolithiatic effect. For the prophylactic and curative groups, two doses of the extract were administered. When compared to the control group, oral administration of Moringa oleifera bark extract resulted in a significant reduction in the weight of bladder stones in both groups 47.
12.10 CNS Activity: The effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extracts on healthy mice motor and behavioral activities. For 14 days, male mice were divided into three groups: a control group (administered 0.9% NaCl orally) and three groups treated with the extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. Motor and behavioral activity were evaluated by quantifying motor activity, exploration (hole-board), neuromuscular coordination (rota-rod treadmill), pain (hot plate, cold-water tail-flick, and acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction), and depression (forced swimming test, FST). Moringa oleifera extracts demonstrated a significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect (p<0.05). In the FST, the extract (400 mg/kg) reduced exploration activity and neuromuscular coordination and decreased mobility time, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. Motor activity was not significantly affected by any of the doses used. The research shows that the plant aqueous extract may have a dose-dependent depressant activity of the central nervous system (CNS) 48.
12.11 Anticonvulsant Activity: At different dose levels (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg i.p.), the anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximum electroshock (MES) caused convulsions was determined. Diazepam and phenytoin (5 mg/kg i.p. and 25 mg/kg i.p., respectively) were used as a reference standard. It significantly (P<0.0001) delayed the onset of clonic seizures in PTZ-induced convulsions and significantly (P<0.0001) reduced the duration of hind limb extension in the MES test at both doses. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins were shown to be major constituents in the phytochemical analysis of the plant. According to the studies, a methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves may help in the treatment of grand mal and petit mal epilepsy 49.
12.12 Analgesic Activity and Local Anesthetic Activity: Using the Hotplate and Tail immersion methods, the analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera alcoholic extract and its various fractions, such as Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, and n-butanol, was evaluated. The alcoholic extract and its different fractions of Moringa oleifera seeds showed significant analgesic activity that was comparable to that of aspirin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. The study revealed that the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. have significant analgesic activity and are comparable to a standard drug (aspirin), showing that Moringa oleifera Seeds can be used as a regular analgesic 50. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera was studied for local anesthetic activity in frog and guinea pig models, and it was revealed that the plant (root bark) produced significant local anesthetic activity in both animals 51.
12.13 Cardioprotective Activity: To study the cardioprotective effects of a lyophilized hydroalcoholicextract of Moringa oleifera in a myocardial infarction model induced by isoproterenol (ISP). Compared to the ISP control group, chronic Moringa oleifera administration resulted in significant favorable modulation of biochemical enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase) creatine kinase-MB), but no significant effect on reduced glutathione. Treatment with moringa significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in cardiac tissue. Moringa oleifera also protected against the deleterious histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP. According to the result of this research, Moringa oleifera extract has a significant cardioprotective effect, which can be related to its antioxidant, antiperoxidative and myocardial preservation properties 52.
12.14 Antiasthmatic Activity: Moringa plant alkaloid closely resembles ephedrine in action and can be used to treat asthma. Morning, an alkaloid, relaxes the bronchioles. During a study to assess the efficacy and safety of seed kernels for the management of asthmatic patients, the seed kernels of MO also showed potential for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The study found a significant reduction in the intensity of asthma symptoms as well as improvements in respiratory function 53.
12.15 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity: The distillate of M. oleifera inhibited the growth of test microorganisms significantly, showing an antibacterial effect. E. coli showed the most inhibition among the microorganisms studied, followed by S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. Fungi inhibition was also observed as a reduction in colony diameter in distillate-poisoned plates compared to control plates. A. niger showed the most inhibition, followed by A. oryzae, A. terreus and A. nidulans. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of M. oleifera steam distillate could be attributed to the essential oil portion of the plant material present in the distillate fraction 54.
12.16 Anthelmintic Activity: In an in-vitro study, fresh eggs, embryonated eggs, L1 and L2 larvae of Haemonchuscontortus were evaluated against macerated and infused aqueous extract as well as ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera. Extracts were prepared at five different concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5 mg/mL). Fresh eggs were exposed for 48 hours to the various concentrations, while embryonated eggs and larvae were exposed for 6 and 24 hours, respectively. Distilled water and 1.5% DMSO were used as the negative control. At 3.75 and 5 mg/mL, the ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera was shown to be the most effective on eggs, inhibiting 60.3% ± 8.2% and 92.8% ± 6.2% egg embryonated, respectively 55.
12.17 Antimicrobial Activity: Ervianingsih et al (2019) reported the antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera L. leaf extract against the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Three different concentrations of Moringa leaf extract were used, namely 2% b/v, 4% b/v and 8% b/v which were tested on S. epidermidis bacteria using the paper disk diffusion method. The results showed that Moringa oleifera L. extract could inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis by showing the inhibition zone around the extract. The biggest inhibition zone at a concentration of 8% b/v was 14 mm, for a concentration of 4% b/v was 10.8 mm, and the smallest zone at a concentration of 2% b/v was 9.3 mm 56.
12.18 Hypolipidaemic Activity: For 30 days, Albino Wistar rats were administered methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with a hyperlipidemic diet to observe the hypolipidemic effect. M. oleifera and simvastatin were demonstrated to lower serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL and atherogenic index while increasing HDL levels when compared to a high-fed cholesterol diet group (control). M. oleifera was also found to increase fecal cholesterol excretion. As a result, M. oleifera possesses a Hypolipidaemic effect 57.
CONCLUSION: In today's market, there is a significant need for plant-based pharmaceuticals, food supplements, health products, Pharma-ceuticals, cosmetics etc. The plant or individual parts of the plant, including leaves, bark, seeds, pods, gum, flower, and fruit, are used to treat a variety of human ailments.
The plant possesses many secondary metabolites and has various pharmacological activities, as discussed in the present paper. In conclusion, it can be further investigated in the future for the development of nutritional supplements that may be effective in a range of disease circumstances and thus improve quality of life.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are thankful to Principal G. H. G Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Gurusar Sadhar (Ludhiana), and the management for providing us all the facilities.
CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS: The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Jaiswal V, Singh G and Kaur J: Miracle tree: Moringa oleifera. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2022; 13(5): 1924-34. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.13(5). 1924-34
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Vidhan Jaiswal, Gurinder Singh * and Jaswinder Kaur
G. H. G. Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Gurusar Sadhar, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.
18 July 2021
17 October 2021
26 March 2022
01 May 2022