PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON STEM BARK OF CHLOROXYLON SWIETENIA DC. AN ETHNOMEDICINALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL TREEHTML Full Text
PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON STEM BARK OF CHLOROXYLON SWIETENIA DC. AN ETHNOMEDICINALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL TREE
Sharanabasappa Melmari * and M. Jayaraj
P. G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
ABSTRACT: Chloroxylon swietenia DC. belongs to the family Rutaceae / Meliaceae / Chloroxylaceae, is a medicinal and aromatic tree of dry deciduous forests. It is popularly known as Yellow wood, East Indian satin wood and Ceylon satin wood. The stem bark is credited for its effectiveness in the treatment of common cough and cold, it is also used as an astringent. Its pharmacognostic data for authentication of the crude drug is not available, hence, in the present study, macroscopical, microscopical, and preliminary phytochemical investigations of stem bark is undertaken. Powder microscopy revealed that Cork cells, Calcium oxalate crystals, Phloem parenchyma, medullary rays and thick walled phloem fibers were abundant. Anatomical studies showed the presence of phellem, phellogen, and phelloderm with abundant secondary phloem. The qualitative chemical tests of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water extracts of stem bark revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins
Phytochemical Chloroxylon swietenia, screening, Stem bark
INTRODUCTION: Chloroxylon swietenia DC. belonging to the family Rutaceae / Meliaceae / Chloroxylaceae, is a tropical aromatic tree of dry deciduous forests 1. It is a moderate sized and deciduous tree of about 9-15 m in height and 1.0-1.2 m in girth with a spreading crown and clean bole up to 3 m. The tree is native to India and Sri Lanka and popularly known as Yellow wood, East Indian satin wood, Ceylon satin wood 2.
The whole part of this tree has long been used in the indigenous system of medicine such as the bark is used as an astringent 3, 4, leaves are applied to worm infested wound of animals, fungal infection of skin and for the treatment of inflammation related disorders like pain and rheumatism 3.
Stem bark paste is used as an external application on wounds 3. A decoction of the stem bark is astringent and used externally to treat contusions and painful joints; it is also given to treat chest pain among the tribal inhabitants of southern Bihar. Among the Gonds of Uttar Pradesh, a decoction of the stem bark, together with that of Mangifera indica, Madhuca indica and the leaves of Holoptelea integrifolia and Dendrocalamus strictus are used in bath to treat jaundice 4. The wood is often golden in color with a reflective sheen and used in the manufacturing of wooden furnitures.
The wood is used in bridge construction, for ploughs, oil mills, pestles, in well constriction and in Madras for cart shafts, axles, naves, folloes and spokes. Being a highly figured wood, if cut on the quarter, it is prized for cabinet work, picture frames, furniture, carving, turnery and other fancy work 2, 3, 5.
Owing to its heavy demand, the tree now has become endangered. The tree has been cited under Red List category under IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, as per the assessment of Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996) 1998 6, 7.
However, no scientific data are available regarding pharmacognostic, phytochemical and anatomical studies on stem bark of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Hence, the present investigation is undertaken to establish pharmacognostic profile which will help in identification of crude drug and to establish standards.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The stem bark of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. was collected from Karnatak University Campus Dharwad, Karnataka and subsequently identified by one of the authors Dr. M. Jayaraj. A voucher specimen has been deposited in the P. G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad for future reference.
Drying of plant material:
After authentication, the bark was removed and dried at room temperature until they were free from the moisture and then powdered with a mechanical grinder. The powder was passed through sieve and stored in a air tight container for further studies 8, 9, 10, 11.
Macroscopic and microscopic studies:
The macroscopy and microscopy of the stem bark studied according to the method 12, 13. Sections of the stem bark were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and erythrosin B stains as per the procedure 14. Powder microscopy is performed according to the prescribed procedure 12, 13, 14. Photomicrography of the selected sections were taken using Axio star plus (Carl zeiss) Bright field /fluorescent modular microscope and Cannon’s power shot G2 digital camera with required magnifications.
A small quantity of dried and finely powdered stem bark was placed on clean microscopic slide and added 1-2 drops of the freshly prepared reagent solution mixed by gentle tilting the slide and allowed for 1-2 minutes. The colors observed by application of different chemical reagents in different radiations were recorded 15, 16.
Preliminary phytochemical screening:
Dried, coarsely powdered stem bark was extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water using Soxhlet apparatus 17, 18. All the extracts were screened for the presence of phytoconstituents. Preliminary phytochemical tests for various extracts were carried out according to the standard procedures 19, 20.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Stem bark is 0.5 to 1.0 cm thick, curved, cracked, uneven. Outer surface is yellowish green, whereas inner surface is creamish yellow in color (Plate 1), with characteristic odour and very light in weight. Taste is bitter and pungent.
TABLE: 1 ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERS OF STEM BARK POWDER
|Yellowish green.||Characteristic.||Bitter and pungent.||Fibrous, smooth.|
Manual sections of both transverse and longitudinal sections of stem bark were taken and stained (Plate 2 and 3). The sectional view of stem bark shows distinct layers such as Phellem, Phellogen and Phelloderm.
Phellem (cork) is the outer most layer, which consists of 12-16 layers of cells. The cells are irregular in shape, arranged in vertical rows, walls are slightly thick and content scanty (Plate 2). In transverse section phellogen (cork cambium) appears as a continuous Tangential layer of rectangular, radially flattened cells of 3-4 layers. They are compactly arranged without having intercellular spaces. In longitudinal section also phellogen cells are rectangular in shape (Plate 2). Phelloderm is broad and prominent. Cells are living, more or less isodiametric in shape. Number of brachysclereids (stone cells) are embedded in this region (Plate 2). Extended part of this region forms the secondary cortex (Plate 2 and 3A) with 10-15 layers of parenchyma cells and lignified Pericyclic fibers are embedded in it (Plate 3). Rest of the section is made of secondary phloem. Secondary phloem is abundant with phloem parenchyma, phloem fibers, medullary rays, sieve tubes (Plate 2, Plate 3B and 3C). Phloem fibers predominant, in groups of 20-25 in each group (Plate 3B). Medullary rays are uni or biseriate, cells rectangular, radially long, walls thin with dense content (Plate2 and 3B).
Powder microscopic analysis was carried out with small amount of stem bark powder, which was mixed with phloroglucinol: HCl (1:1) and then placed on microscopic slides. The slides are mounted in the glycerin and are observed under light microscope. The cork cells observed as compact mass of cells in surface view. The cells are hexagonal and polygonal in shape (Plate 4a). The fibers are observed to compose of elongated cells with pointed ends and thick walls (Plate 4b and c). The calcium oxalate crystals are observed as shining prism crystals (Plate 4d). Ray initials are observed, which are surrounded by sieve tube and parenchyma strand (Plate 4 e). The structural elements of phloem, which include, sieve tube, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and phloem fibers are observed. The cells are elongated and are arranged in linear shape (Plate 4 f).
Preliminary phytochemical screening:
The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical tests to detect the presence and absence of various phytoconstituents. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Stem bark powder is done following standard method 21 and the results are presented in Table 2. Phytochemical test shows the presence of carbohydrates in chloroform and water extract. Phenolic compounds and tannins showed only in water extract. Alkaloids observed in chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water extract, whereas glycosides and flavonoids were observed in ethanol extract (Table 2).
Fluorescence analysis: The fluorescence characteristics of stem bark powder with different chemical reagents are summarized in Table 3.
TABLE 2: PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF STEM BARK OF CHLOROXYLON SWIETENIA DC
|Plant constituents||Test/Reagent Used||Name of Extract|
|Petroleum Ether Extract||Chloroform
|Phenolic compounds and
|Ferric chloride test||-||-||-||-||-|
TABLE 3: FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF STEM BARK OF CHLOROXYLON SWIETENIA DC.
|Treatment||Visible/Day light||UV light|
|Powder(P) as such||Yellowish green||Light green|
|P+ phlouroglucinol : HCl (1:1)||Bottle brown||Black|
|P+ methanol||Yellowish green||Light green|
|P+ 50% H2SO4||Light green||Green|
|P+ 50% HNO3||Saffron||Light green|
|P+ 50% HCl||Yellowish green||Light green|
|P+ 10% NaOH||Dark saffron||Green|
|P+ ammonia||Dark saffron||Green|
|P+ glacial acetic acid||Dark yellow||Light green|
|P+ 1% Picric acid||Yellow||Yellow|
|P+ 5% FeCl3||Black||Black|
|P+ 10% potassium dichromate||Dark saffron||Green|
PLATE 2: a, a1: PHELLEM; b, b1: PHELLOGEN; c, c1: PHELLODERM; d, d1: BRACHYSCLEREIDS; e, e1: SECONDARY CORTEX; f, f1: MEDULLARY RAYS.
PLATE 4: A: CORK CELLS, B: SINGLE FIBER, C: FRAGMENTS OF FIBER IN GROUPS, D: CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL, E: MEDULLARY RAY WITH PARENCHYMA, F: PHLOEM PARENCHYMA.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides in-depth macroscopical, microscopical features and showed presence of Carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and flavonoids. It also provides pharmacognostic data, which could be used for determining correct identity and purity of stem bark and for the detection of adulteration.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Author acknowledges the financial assistance from UGC-UPE fellowship to one of the author. Chairman P.G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad for extending facilities.
- Kiran SR, Pillay SV and KJ Reddy. Studies on mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2012; 3 (2): 123-125.
- Kiran SR, Devi PS and KJ Reddy. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem essential oils of Chloroxylon swietenia World J. Microbial Biotechnol, 2008; 24:1909-1914.
- Reddy KN, Trimurthulu G and Ch. S Reddy. Medicinal plants used by ethnic people of Medak district, Andhra Pradesh. Indian J of Traditional Knowledge, 2008; 9 (1): 184-190.
- Parotta AJ. Healing plants of Peninsular India. CABI Publishing Company, USA, 2001: 636-637.
- Jana GK, Gupta A, Das A, Tripathy A and P Sahoo. Herbal Treatment to Skin Diseases: A Global Approach. Drug Invention Today, 2010; 2 (8): 381-384.
- Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996) 1998. Chloroxylon swietenia. In: IUCN 2012.IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012. 2.
- Nilip KD and GK Dash. A review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and bioactivity of Chloroxylon swietenia Int J of emerging trends in pharmaceutical sciences, 2013; 1 (1): 11-19.
- Anupam B, Zaman K, Mamta S, Richa G, and S Vinod. Pharmacognostical studies on Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent. Stem bark. Int J of Natural Products and Researches, 2011; 2 (4): 472-478.
- Mandeep S and E Sharma. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of Berberis aristata, Acacia catechu and Ficus bengalensis-important medicinal plants for Photoprotection, Int J of Biological and Pharmaceutical Research, 2013; 4 (9): 614-617.
- Chaturvedi S, Joshi A and BK Dubey. Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Cardioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica Bark. Int J of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2011; 2 (11): 3019-3027.
- Ashok K, Jha KK, Kumar D, Agrawal A and A Gupta. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf and Bark (Mixture) Extract of Ficus infectoria The Pharma Innovation, 2012; 1:71-76.
- Evans WC, Trease and Evans. Pharmacognosy, WB Saunders Ltd. London, 2002; 32-33, 95-99 and 512-547.
- Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy, 18th Nirali Prakashan, Pune, 2007: 31-40 and 100-101.
- Khasim SM. Botanical Microtechniques: Principle and Practice. Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, 2002: 41-52 and 85-88.
- Kokashi CJ, Kokashi RJ and M Sharma. Fluorescence of powdered vegetable drugs in ultra-violet radiation. J American Pharma. Assoc, 1958; 47: 715-717.
- Bhattacharya S and MK Zaman. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Zanthoxylum nitidum Intl. J. Pharm. Tech. Res, 2009; 1: 292-298.
- Ahmed F and U Asna. Paharmacognostical studies on Ficus racmosa stem bark. Paharmacognosy J, 2011; 3 (19): 19-24.
- Mandeep S, Hayat MM, and V Deepak. Standardization of stem bark of Ficus bengalensis. Int J of research in Pharnacy and Chemistry, 2012; 2 (3); 790-793.
- Kokate CK. Preliminary phytochemical screening. In 4th Practical Pharmacognosy. Nirali Prakashan, Pune, 2000: 107-111.
- Pramod VP and M Jayaraj. Paharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of Sida cordifolia - A threatened medicinal herb. Int J of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 4 (1): 114-117.
How to cite this article:
Melmari S and Jayaraj M: Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigation of stem Bark of Chloroxylon Swietenia DC. An Ethnomedicinally Important Medicinal Tree. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015; 6(2): 825-29.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6 (2).825-29All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Sharanabasappa Melmari * and M. Jayaraj
P. G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.
18 June, 2014
28 August, 2014
17 November, 2014
01 February, 2015