PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATIONS OF THE LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANAHTML Full Text
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATIONS OF THE LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA
M. K. Gupta 1,A. K. Bhandari 2 and Ramesh Kumar Singh*2
Kota College of Pharmacy 1, Kota, Rajasthan, India
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University 2, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
ABSTRACT:Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual. The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium sized spiny tree. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins, fibers, tannins and phenolic compounds. Leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, gastric disorder, fever, liver damage and pulmonary disorders. The present work deals to summarize the Pharmacognostical studies like ash value, extractive value, moisture content, volatile matters, crude fibers, phytochemical test, fluorescence analysis and micro chemical test. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leave shows hepatoprotective, antioxidant and other important pharmacological activities. The results of above parameters show the clue for more medicinal properties of Ziziphus mauritiana.
INTRODUCTION:Herbal medicines are the staple of medical treatment in many developing countries. Herbal preparations are used for virtually all minor ailments. Individual herbal medicines in developing regions vary considerably, healers in each region have learned over centuries which local herbs have medicinal worth 1.
Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to the family Rhamnaceae and is generally propagated by seeds. Several cultivars have been selected among the seedling populations for their superior fruit quality. This fruit is commonly consumed in households as fresh and is dehydrated for later use. The powder from the fruit is used for baking and to prepare jam and a traditional loaf. Mature green fruits (unripe) are used in India to prepare chutney, pickle and jelly 2.
Flowers are minute, greenish-white or yellow, hermaphrodite, in sessile or shortly peduncled auxiliary cymes, and are insect pollinated with an acrid smell 3, 4, 5. The leaves are simple, shining green above and whitish tomentose beneath, commonly sub-orbicular to ovate-oblong, rounded at both ends, highly variable in shape and size 6.
Ziziphus mauritianaleaves contain 13-17% crude protein and 15% fibre, and make an excellent fodder for livestock. In winter, the shoots and fruit of the trees are an important feed source 7. Ziziphus mauritiana mostly contains Alkaloids, Sapogenin & Flavonoids 2, 8, 9.
It also contains Triterpenoids and Phenolic compounds 10, 11. Ziziphus mauritiana has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory & antiulcer properties 12, 13, 14.
They are also used in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular disorder 15, 16. Here we report the ash value, moisture content, volatile matters, crude fibers, phytochemical test, fluorescence analysis and micro chemical test of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The fresh leaves of Ziziphus mauritianawas collected in Sept., 2010, from Allahabad district (Uttar Pradesh, India) and identified by Dr. D. D. Patra, Scientist, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India. The fresh leaves were dried under shade, powdered and pass through 40 mesh sieve and stored in closed containers for further use. The powder was extracted with different solvents ranging from non-polar to polar solvents.
Total Ash: About 3 g of powdered leaves was accurately weighed and taken in a silica crucible, which was previously ignited and weighed. The powder was spread as a fine, even layer on the bottom of the crucible. The crucible was incinerated gradually by increasing temperature to make it dull red hot until free from carbon. The crucible was cooled and weighed. The procedure was repeated to get constant weight 17.
Acid Insoluble Ash: The ash obtained as described above was boiled with 25 ml of 2N HCl for five minutes. The insoluble ash was collected on an ash less filter paper and washed with hot water. The insoluble ash was transferred into a silica crucible, ignited and weighed. The procedure was repeated to get a constant weight 18.
Water Soluble Ash: The ash obtained as described in the determination of total ash was boiled for 5 minutes with 25 ml of water. The insoluble matter was collected on ash less filter paper and washed with hot water. The insoluble ash was transferred into silica crucible, ignited for 15 minutes, and weighed. The procedure was repeated to get a constant weight. The weight of insoluble matter was subtracted from the weight of the total ash. The difference of weight was considered as water-soluble ash 17, 18.
The result of total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and other physical parameters of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves are summarized in table 1.
TABLE 1: THE RESULT OF TOTAL ASH, ACID INSOLUBLE ASH, WATER SOLUBLE ASH AND OTHER PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LEAVES
|Type of Ash||Percentage* (w/w)|
|Acid Insoluble Ash||2.72|
|Water Soluble Ash||4.11|
*Average of three determinations
Phytochemical test of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves: The successive extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were subjected to various chemical tests for the identification of the phytoconstituents.
- Fluorescence characters of the Ziziphus mauritianaleaves extract were observed under UV (254 & 366 nm.) and visible light 19, 20 with different solvents. The results are shown in Table 3.
- Fluorescence characters of the Ziziphus mauritianaleaves Powder were observed under U V (254 & 366 nm.) and visible light 19, 20 with different solvents. The results are shown in Table 4.
TABLE 2: PHYTOCHEMICAL TESTS OF THE SUCCESSIVE EXTRACTS OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LEAVES
|Chemical Constituents||Aqueous Extract||Pet. Ether Extract||Alcoholic Extract||Chloroform Extract|
|Proteins and Amino acids||+||+||+||-|
+ = Present, – = Absent
TABLE 3: FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERS OF THE ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LEAVES EXTRACT
|Name of the Extract||UV Light||Visible Light|
|Short (254 nm)||Long (366 nm)|
|Petroleum ether (40 - 60°C)||Greenish brown||Brown||Light Green|
|Chloroform||Greenish black||Greenish brown||Light brown|
|Methanol||Light brown||Blackish brown||Greenish brown|
|Aqueous||Greenish brown||Dark brown||Light Green|
TABLE 4: FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERS OF THE ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LEAVES POWDER
|Drug & Reagents||UV Light||Visible Light|
|Short (254 nm)||Long (366 nm)|
|Powder as such||Green||Light Green||Light Green|
|Powder + n-Butanol||Orange||Light Orange||Light Green|
|Powder + Conc. HCl||Dark Green||Greenish brown||Light Brown|
|Powder + Conc. HNO3||Dark Green||Dark brown||Blackish brown|
|Powder + Conc. H2SO4||Greenish black||Black||Black|
|Powder + Methanol||Light Orange||Greenish Orange||Light Green|
|Powder + Trichloro acetic acid solution||Green||Light brown||Greenish Brown|
|Powder + ethanol||Orange||Light Orange||Yellowish Green|
|Powder + Chloroform||Bluish Green||Light Purple||Dark Green|
|Powder + Ammonia||Light Green||Greenish brown||Green|
|Powder + toluene||Light Orange||Orange||Light Green|
|Powder + Glacial acetic acid||Light Green||Green||Greenish Brown|
Microchemical test: The behavior of the leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana with different chemicals was carried out to observe the color changes under ordinary light 21. The results are shown in Table 5.
TABLE 5: THE BEHAVIOR OF THE LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA WITH DIFFERENT CHEMICALS
|Powder as such||Green|
|Glacial Acetic acid||Light Brown|
|Conc. HCl||Greenish Brown|
|Dil. HCl||Light Green|
|Conc. H2SO4||Dark brown|
|Dil. H2SO4||Greenish Gray|
|Conc. HNO3||Dark Brown|
|Ammonia solution||Light Green|
|Ethyl acetate||Yellowish Green|
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The leaves of Ziziphus mauritianashow the presence of Saponins, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Triterpenoids, Glycosides and phenolic compounds (table 2). Extract of Ziziphus mauritianaleaves also shows characteristic fluorescence analysis in visible and under U.V. Light at 254 & 366 nm (table 3).
The same fluorescence analysis was also determined for the powder of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves with different reagents (table 4). Microchemical test with different chemicals and acids was also determined in ordinary light (table 5). Physical parameter of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves powder like ash value, moisture content, and crude fibers also shown (table 1).
Ziziphus mauritiana showed significant anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, anti-allergic and antiulcer activity. The leaves also possess immunostimulant and cardiovascular properties. Many other biological and pharmacological properties of Ziziphus mauritiana are yet to come.
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M. K. Gupta , A. K. Bhandari and Ramesh Kumar Singh
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
30 October, 2011
26 December, 2011
21 February, 2012