PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTITUBERCULAR ACTIVITY OF FLOWERS EXTRACT OF MANGIFERA INDICAHTML Full Text
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTITUBERCULAR ACTIVITY OF FLOWERS EXTRACT OF MANGIFERA INDICA
Naveen K. Karumanchi*, Bhagwan S. Gupta, Darshana Mehta and Bhupendra K. Mehta
Laboratory of Natural products, School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh - 456010, India
ABSTRACT: About 5 extract (hexane, acetone, ethanol, methanol, aqueous extraction) from the flowers of Mangifera indica was extracted. Ethanol extract was characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy. Seven constituents from 7 peaks were identified. Icosanedioic acid monomethyl ester, nonadec-16-enyl-benzene, 1, 9 diphenyl nonane, icosane, octadecane, dodecanoic acid butyl ester, tetracosyl- benzene were identified. The antimicrobial activity of different extract was tested against human and plant pathogenic bacteria. Ethanol extract showed significant role on inhibiting almost all tested pathogenic organisms and antitubercular activities at various concentration.
Mangifera indica, antimicrobial screening, GC/MS analysis, Antitubercular
INTRODUCTION: India has a rich heritage of knowledge on plant based drugs both for use in preventive and curative medicine. Antimicrobials of plant origin have enormous therapeutic potential1. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with synthetic antimicrobials. The beneficial medicinal effects of plant materials typically result from the combinations of secondary products present in the plant. In plants, these compounds are mostly secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, steroids, tannins and phenol compounds, flavonoids, steroids, resins fatty acids gums which are capable of producing definite physiological action on body 2.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the choicest fruit of tropical and sub-tropical region of the world, especially in Asia. Its population and importance can easily be realized by the fact that it is often referred as “King of Fruits in the Tropical World”. Mango is popular due to its excellent flavour, delicious taste, delicate fragrance, attractive colour and nutritive value which make at rank among the best fruits of world 3.
Many phenolic compounds have been detected in mango peels 4, mango bark 5, mango puree concentrate 6, mango pulps and seed kernels 7. Carotenoids from mango 8, alkaloids, carbohydrate, phytosterols, resins, phenol, tannins, flavonoids and amino acid, triterpene 9, alkaloids 10 isolated from leaves Several pharmacological activities of mango extracts have been reported including anti-inflammatory 11, antioxidant 12, antiallergic and anthelmintic 13, antiamoebic 14, antitumor 15, antidiabetic 16, antibone resorption 17, antiviral18, antibacterial 19, antifungal 19, antiparasitic 20 and lipolytic activity 21. In the present study certain works such as phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity of extract and antituberculosis activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Plant Material: The flowers of Mangifera indica was collected from tropical area of Madhya Pradesh (Fig.1, 2)
FIG.1: MANGIFERA INDICA TREE
FIG. 2: MANGO FLOWERS
An amount of 5kg of fresh flowers was weighed and shade dried, cleaned, and then extracted serially hexane, acetone, ethanol, methanol and aqueous extraction for 95-126 hours each in a soxhlet extractor. Solvent was removed by rotary film evaporator and concentrated extracts were preserved in refrigerator for further use.
Analysis of ethanol extract:
Mass spectrometry analysis was performed on Shimadzu GCMS-QP-2010 SE model using Direct Injection Probe technique.
The different flower extracts were subjected to the antimicrobial assay followed by agar well diffusion method 22. 38 gm of Muller Hinton Agar was suspended in 1000ml of distilled water and heated up to boiling point for complete mixing. To sterilize, it was autoclaved at 15 lbs pressure at 1210C for 15 minutes. 100 mg of each extract was suspended in 5ml of 10% DMSO. Approximately 25 ml of sterilized selective medium was poured in to each Petridis and solidified at room temperature. Using a sterile cotton sweb, the bacterial culture was swabbed on the surface of pre-poured nutrient agar plates.
The plates were allowed to dry for 15minutes, before use in the test. A well of 10mm diameter, punched off at previously marked Petri plates in to agar medium with sterile cup before then it was filled with 100 ul of extract every time. Plates were places for 30 minutes in refrigerator for diffusion of extracts and then incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Zone of inhibition (excluding well diameter) formed was measured as a property of antibacterial and antifungal activity.
The different flower extracts were screened for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV strain using Lowenstein–Jensen medium method 23. Ten mg of each extract was dissolved in 10 ml of DMSO to get a concentration of 1000 ug/l. Further dilutions were made with DMSO to get different concentrations such as 100, 10, and 1 ug/ml. 0.8 ml of each concentration was used for the study. To this, 7.2 ml of Lowenstein–Jensen medium was added.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION: In the present study, an amount of 5kg of Mangifera indica flowers and solvents such as hexane, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water were used for the extraction. From each sample 10 ml extracts were collected for screening microbiology.
GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract: GC-MS analysis indicated that the ethanol extract contained about 7 peaks. The composition of ethanol extract and its retention time are given in Table 1. Icosanedioic acid monomethyl ester, nonadec-16-enyl-benzene, 1, 9 diphenyl nonane, icosane, octadecane, dodecanoic acid butyl ester, tetracosyl- benzene were identified.
TABLE 1: COMPOSITION OF MANGIFERA INDICA ETHANOL EXTRACT
|Number of Peaks||Retention Time (minutes)||Compounds|
|1||3.305||Icosanedioic acid monomethyl ester|
|3||6.990||1, 9 diphenyl nonane|
|6||41.705||dodecanoic acid butyl ester|
FIG.3: CHROMATOGRAM OF MANGIFERA INDICA ETHANOL EXTRACT
Antimicrobial activity of flowers extract of Mangifera indica:
In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of different extract of Mangifera indica was tested against nine bacteria (Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus heamolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aerusinosa, Klebisella aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas pyocyneaus, Diplococcus peunoniae). It was clear from the present result, that ethanol extract exhibited pronounced activity against all the bacteria. The presence of phytoconstituents in the flower extracts may be responcible for the antibacterial activity of plant. It has been documented that different solvents have diverse solubility capacities for different phytoconstituents. The result was represented in Table 2.
TABLE 2: ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA FLOWER EXTRACT AGAINST 9 BACTERIAL STRAIN BY AGAR WELL DIFFUSION METHOD
|Zone of inhibition in 100µl of 20mg/ml(mm)|
Pyrazinamide was used as the standard drug. The dilution of Pyrazinamide was made with DMSO to get different concentrations of 100, 10, and 1µg/ml. 0.8 ml of each concentration was used for the study. A sweep from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV culture was discharged with the help of nichrome wire loop with a 3 mm external diameter, into a sterile distilled bijou bottle containing 6 mm glass beads and 4 ml of sterile distilled water. The bottle was shaken with the help of a mechanical shaker for 2 min, and then using nichrome wire loop, 3 mm external diameter, a loopful of suspension was inoculated on the surface of each of Lowenstein–Jensen medium containing the test compounds. Lowenstein–Jensen medium containing pyrazinamide as well as control were inoculated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV strain. The inoculated medium was incubated at 370C for 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, readings were taken and recorded in Table 3.
TABLE 3: ANTITUBERCULAR ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT FLOWER EXTRACT OF MANGIFERA INDICA
|concentration in μg/mL|
+++ indicates intensive growth of M. tuberculosis -ve indicates complete inhibition of H37RV
FIG.4: ANTITUBERCULAR ACTIVITY
CONCLUSION: from this study it can be concluded that the ethanol extract of Mangifera indica exhibited pronounced activity against all the tested bacteria.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: We are thankful to National facility for drug discovery, Saurashtra University, Rajkot and Department of Pharmacology, R. D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain for providing facilities.
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How to cite this article:
Kumar KN, Gupta BS, Mehta D and Mehta BK: Phytochemical Analysis and Antitubercular Activity of Flowers Extract of Mangifera Indica. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2016; 7(8): 3472-76.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.7(8).3472-76.
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Naveen K. Karumanchi*, Bhagwan S. Gupta, Darshana Mehta and Bhupendra K. Mehta
Laboratory of Natural products, School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India
22 March, 2016
19 May, 2016
30 June, 2016
01 August 2016