PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.HTML Full Text
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.
Priyanshu Jain, Nancy Jain and Umesh K. Patil *
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar - 470003, Madhya Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Moringa oleifera, a miracle plant, is praised for beneficial health nutrients and has potential cholesterol-lowering activity. Almost all the parts of the Moringa oleifera plant have potential bioactivity. The main active constituents of Moringa oleifera are flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, vitamins, minerals, proteins, glycosides, Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates, terpenes, saponins, tannins, and many more. The Moringa oleifera has potent activity towards various ailments such ascancer, diabetes, inflammatory, antibacterial properties, cardiovascular diseases, and many more. Hyperlipidemia is referring to the increase in the level of lipid in plasma, and that leads to cardiovascular diseases. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera is reported to be due to phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phytosterols, and phenols. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacological role of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The present article also describes the bioactive constituents of Moringa oleifera and its therapeutic activity.
Moringa oleifera, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological potentials
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidemia an abnormal elevation of excess fatty substances called lipids, largely cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood and common risk factor for cardiovascular diseases as a person with hyperlipidemia is about twice probable to develop coronary heart disorders 1, 2. The major causes are obesity, genetic diseases, dietary diseases, diabetes, etc. High lipid concen-tration elevates atherogenesis and leads to hyperlipidemia 3. Apart from this, there are other types of hyperlipidemia, which include Hyper-triglyceridemia and blended hyperlipidemia, in which both cholesterol, fatty substance (lipids), and triglycerides levels are raised.
Raised LDL-C can prompt the development of plaques inside the veins and is related to an expanded danger of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or ASCVD, including blockage or narrowing of the coronary arteries or stroke. As HDL-C capacities to eliminate cholesterol from the body, expanded degrees of HDL-C (≥60 mg/dL) can help decline the danger of ASCVD 4.
Hyperlipidemia demonstrates strangely raised degrees of lipids or lipoproteins in the blood because of unusual fat digestion or capacity, and it is brought about by dietary issues, obesity, hereditary ailments, for example, familial hypercholesterolemia or FH, and different ailments like diabetes 5. Patients with hyperlipidemia are about twice as liable to make cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whole parts of the plant Moringa Oleifera Lam. are highly nutritious and medicinal. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick tree, Family Moringaceae) is the most significant plant largely cultivated in India.
Among several species, Moringa oleifera is a current interest of research as it possesses tremendous potentials 6. This plant is generally utilized as a dietary spice and contains significant pharmacological activity like anti-diabetic 7 hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory 8 anti-asthmatic 9 anti-cancer 10 Antibacterial 11 antifungal activities 12 anti-oxidant 13 cardiovascular 14 CNS activity, anti-ulcer, wound healing 35 anti-fertility 15 anti-allergic activity, antipyretic activity and anti-epileptic 16. In the Philippines, it is known as 'mother's best friend' due to its usage to increment lady's milk creation and is once in a while recommended for iron deficiency or anemia 58. Many parts of Moringa have been accounted to be a rich source of protein, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, and b-carotene 59 and also serve as an abundant source of natural antioxidants and along, it increases the time span of usability of fat-containing foods because of the presence of numerous types of antioxidant agents for example flavonoids, ascorbic acid, phenolics and carotenoids 60.
1. Bioactive Constituents of Moringa oleifera: Moringa oleifera, ‘a miracle tree’is praised with health beneficial nutrients and is a rich source of antioxidants, and almost all parts are considered as nutritious in traditional herbal medicine. The plant contains different minerals and vitamins 16. Different parts of this plant are good source amino acid, proteins, beta-carotene, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and other phytoconstituents such as glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, tannins, and Saponins 17, 18, 19, 20. The phytoconstituents of this plant offer valuable nutrients and essential chemicals that help in preventing and treating disease Fig. 1. There are many pieces of evidence that prove Moringa oleifera as a good nutritious plant and possesses beneficial effects to human. The bioactive constituents show promising pharmacological activity, which is proven in several in-vitro and in-vivo studies 19.
2.1 Polyphenols: Flavonoids and phenolic acid are polyphenolic compounds majorly present in the dried leaves 21, 22 roots, flower 23 stem, pods, the seed of Moringa oleifera 24, 25. Flavonoids are the secondary metabolites and are the most common phytoconstituents present in plants. They exert health benefits to the human body and prevent many diseases. The leaves of M. oleifera consist of many flavonoids but Quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin are the most abundant flavonoids with potent pharmacological activity 24. The seeds of M. oleifera consist of 2.900 ± 0.0002 (mg Quercetin equivalents / g dry matter) of flavonoids when evaluated through colorimetric analysis 26. Flavonoids have reported anticancer and antioxidant activity along with anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-microbial, and many more 27. Phenolic content in the M. oleifera leave extract is about 962.6 mg RE/g and among several phenolic compounds, Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside exerts potent antioxidant activity 28, 29.
2.2 Vitamins: Moringa is the major source of several vitamins, minerals, protein, amino acid, and organic acids. Vitamins are the nutritional chemical compounds that are essential for human body 30, 31. Vitamins contents in Moringa oleifera leaf extract was determined to be as Vitamin A, Vitamin B, and Vitamin C as - 80 μg, - 2.324 mg, and 8.6 mg, respectively 61.
In another study, Vitamin C and Beta carotene, which have potent bioactivity, act as antioxidants and maintain a balance diet, were determined to be 6.26 ± 0.028 mg and 223 ±5.657RE per 100 ml of Moringa leave extract 32, 33.
2.3 Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates: The most investigated secondary metabolites in plants are glucosinolates with bioactive and nutraceutical potentials 34. Moringa oleifera contains two potent glucosinolates namely α-4-rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate and acetyl-α-4-rhamno-pyra-nosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate Isomer III which also possess potent bioactivity against cancerous cells 34. Moringa oleifera also possesses an uncommon glucosinolate, namely glucomoringin, which is a potent anti-proliferative and anti-microbial agent 36. Glucosinolates get converted to Isothiocyanates in the presence of enzyme myrosinase which is present in the tissues of plants and also in GIT tract of humans 37, 38. Isothiocyanates are a plant constituent with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory potentials 39, 40.
2.4 Terpenes, Saponins and Tannins: The saponin content of Moringa oleifera is about 0.67% 41. Similarly, saponin content in bark, leaves, and seed is reported to be 1.20 ± 0.70%, 3.20±0.90%, and 13.65 ± 4.56%, respectively 27. The saponin from Moringa leaves was isolated and characterized using High-performance liquid chromatography 42. Terpenes and tannins are widely distributed in several plants and also occur as glycosidic form. Phytochemical evaluation of Moringa Oleifera also reported the presence of tannins and terpenoid compounds 21, 43.
2.5 Alkaloids: All parts of this plant contain alkaloids in abundance (5.60 ± 0.60 -13.83 ± 1.03%) with many therapeutic activities.
Others suggested the quantity of alkaloids as 460 mg. 100 g-1 of in moringa leaves extract 27. The total alkaloids from Moringa oleifera were evaluated from anti-hypertensive activity.
FIG. 1: BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA WITH ITS THERAPEUTIC USES
3. Pharmacological Potentials of Moringa oleifera: Moringa oleifera possess the tremendous activity and potentials against cancer 44, cardiovascular diseases 45 diabetes 46, antioxidant 47 antimicrobial 48, and other 49. Iron nanoparticles synthesized using Moringa oleifera fruit and leave aqueous extract were investigated for their antibacterial against S. aureus and B. subtilis, which resulted in the zone of inhibition of 15 mm showing antimicrobial potentials of Moringa.
Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera has investigated for anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat model. Moringa oleifera possesses the ability to reduce the damage caused by streptozotocin to hepatic and nephron and decrease the interleukin levels showing anti-inflammatory activity.
It also upregulates Bcl2 level and downregulates NFKβ level proving its anti-apoptotic activity 8. Antiproliferative activity of hexane fraction of crude ethanolic seed extract Moringa oleifera was investigated against breast cancer cell (MCF7). The result clearly showed that it inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells and arrest the cell cycle at S and G2/M phase. Hexane fraction of crude ethanolic seed extract Moringa oleifera induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, regulates the cell death markers, and act as an anti-cancer agent 10.
In a study, silver nanoparticle was incorporated in leave extract Moringa oleifera and this resulted in increased in cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells and also increase in antioxidant activity 44.
The antioxidant property of Moringa oleifera leave and fruit ethanolic and aqueous extract was evaluated through in-vitro and in-vivo assay and reported antioxidant activity at the dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight 50. Moringa oleifera is the solution of varieties of health-related problems, having the potentials to cure many diseases and can be the future herb to be investigated for immunity booster activity especially to support COVID-19 treatment 51.
FIG. 2: MEDICINAL POTENTIALS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
4. Potential Role of Moringa oleifera in Treatment of Hyperlipidemia: Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for hypolipidemic activity in Albino Wistar rats (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) taking simvastatin (4 mg/ kg, p.o.) as standard for 30 days. This study showed that Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol and act as a hypolipidemic agent 52.
In a study Moringa oleifera, leaf powder was incorporated in the patient's diet to evaluate its effect on LDL, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, Bodyweight, HDL, and other. Major reduction of LDL, Total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, Bodyweight was observed with a significant increase in the level of HDL. This suggests that moringa is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent and regulates the lipid profile 53. Another study on Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (200 mg and 400 mg/kg) also suggested that anti-hyperlipidemic activity, when evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats. The results indicated that Moringa oleifera significantly affects total cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, and LDL along with an increase in the body temperature 54. Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (400 mg/kg) significantly regulates the lipid profile in the Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats 55. Phytosterols are the main component of Moringa oleifera which is very much responsible for lipid-lowering action. The mechanism of action involved in lowering the cholesterol is that it increases the faecal excretion of cholesterol by reducing the absorption of it. Also, it lowers the triglyceride levels in liver and plasma, both 56. Another study also revealed the mechanism of phytosterol action as inhibiting the absorption of cholesterol and increase excretion of it 57. The hyperlipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera is well proven by many researchers. But still, the exact mechanism of action involved is not yet clear. This can be a prospective area of research for the future.
CONCLUSION: Moringa Oleifera is a potent and valuable plant with tremendous biological and therapeutic activity. It consists of numerous bioactive constituents that are potent and possess bioactivity against various ailments. The present review describes the bioactive constituents of Moringa oleifera with its potent therapeutic applications. This review also focuses on the potential role of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of Hyperlipidemia. Further, studies directed toward the detailed mechanism of action of Moringa oleifera constituents in the treatment of hyperlipidemia should be conducted. This updated review confirms the pharmacological activity of Moringa oleifera.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful to the HOD-Pharmaceutical Sciences and Coordi-nator-SIC, Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar for Infrastructural facility provided under DST-PURSE Phase-II.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: None
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How to cite this article:
Jain P, Jain N and Patil UK: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Moringa oleifera Lam. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2020; 11(12): 5968-73. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.11(12).5968-73.
All © 2013 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
P. Jain, N. Jain and U. K. Patil *
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India.
01 October 2020
22 November 2020
26 November 2020
01 December 2020