PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM STEROIDAL AND TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FRACTIONAbstract
Allium sativum L. (Liliacea) is a perennial bulb with a tall, erect flowering stem. The bulb of the plant has been used in many parts of the world as a stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, anthelmintic and diuretic. This study has been planned to assess the diuretic activity of fresh garlic bulb extract targeting the steroidal and triterpenoidal saponin content. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 animal each as vehicle control (2 % tragacanth suspension), standard drug frusemide (20 mg/kg, p.o), and n-butanol extract (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o) treated. Urine was collected in a graduated cylinder and its volume was measured for next 5 hr. Na+, K+ and Cl– concentrations were measured. Phytochemical analysis of A. sativum n-butanol fraction showed presence of steroids, triterpenoidal saponins and carbohydrates. At 20 mg/kg dose onset of diuresis and total volume of urine formed was significantly (P<0.01-0.05) higher. Fifth hour urine volume at 20 mg/kg dose was 9.3 ml as compared to 5.5 ml of control. Extract at 20 mg/kg dose produced 24.57% increase in Na+ excretion against 132.65% increase by frusemide when compared to control signifying natriuretic and aquaretic response. The study confirmed the ethnopharmacological and Ayurvedic use of A. sativum as a diuretic agent.
S. Tiwari, B. Sirohi, A. Shukla and P. Bigoniya *
Radharaman College of Pharmacy, Fatehpur Dobra, Ratibad, Bhopal- 462 002, Madhya Pradesh, India
24 April, 2012
14 June, 2012
27 August, 2012
01 September, 2012