PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF FRUITS PULP EXTRACTS FROM ADANSONIA DIGITATA L. (BOMBACACEAE) AND ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LAM. (RHAMNACEAE)HTML Full Text
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF FRUITS PULP EXTRACTS FROM ADANSONIA DIGITATA L. (BOMBACACEAE) AND ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LAM. (RHAMNACEAE)
Ablassé Rouamba *, Arnaud Pascal Wendpanga Barro, Alimata Bancé, Raoul Bationo, Vincent Ouedraogo and Martin Kiendrebeogo
Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Chemistry (LABIOCA), UFR-SVT, University Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 BP 7021, Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.
ABSTRACT: This current investigation was designed to assess in-vitro the ability of the extract to prevent free radical-induced oxidative cell damages. Fibroblasts were exposed to hydrogen peroxide and treated with gradual concentrations of ethanol and dichloromethane fruits pulp extracts from Adansonia digitata and Ziziphus mauritiana. The cell viability was measured after 24h of treatment by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Moreover, the capacity of extracts to scavenge free radicals was evaluated by using the DPPH and ABTS models. The polyphenol contents of extracts were also quantified by spectrophotometry. All extracts in a concentration between 100 and 400 µg/mL didn’t exhibit any cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts compared to the vehicle (p >0.05). However, extracts showed interesting cytoprotective activity against the hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative cell damage. The cytotoxic effects of the hydrogen peroxide were completely suppressed by adding the extracts of A. digitata. The ethanol extract of A. digitatas showed the best free radical quenching activities on DPPH radical (IC50 = 28.78 ± 4.97 µg/mL) and ABTS radical (IC50 =25.29 ± 2.27 µg/mL) as well as the highest phenolic content (11 728.07 ± 194.57mg GAE/100 g). The dichloromethane extract of A. digitata showed the highest flavonoid content (196.32 ± 15.49mg QE/100 g). All these findings suggested that the consumption of fruits of A. digitata and Z. mauritiana could prevent oxidative stress related-chronic diseases, probably due to their high polyphenol contents.
Keywords: Cell damage, Cytoprotective, Fruit, Free radicals
INTRODUCTION: Aerobic cells require the oxidation of organic molecules by oxygen for their vital function. This oxidation takes place at the level of the mitochondrial respiratory chain 1. During oxidation, many parts of the oxygen escape to the reduction process and generate reactive oxygen species 2.
These ROSs are hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide radical, and other derivatives such as peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals 3.
Although these free radicals are important in certain cell functions, including inflammation, phagocytosis, and intercellular communication, they are involved in the oxidative degradation of biological molecules such as nucleic acids, membrane phospholipids, and proteins 4. Many previous studies have shown the involvement of free radicals in many physiopathology of certain diseases such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and obesity 5-7.
The cell possesses an endogenous enzymatic (catalases, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E) antioxidant system responsible for counteracting the harmful effects of free radicals 8, 9. Exogenous antioxidants often supplement this endogenous antioxidant system in the fight against oxidative stress. Fruits and vegetables are the main sources of these antioxidant compounds.
Adansonia digitata belongs to the Bombacaceae family and is native to Africa 10. The fruit pulp is enclosed in a strong capsule and is divided into small powdery slices Fig. 1. The fruit pulp is eaten and is well known for its high vitamin C content. The pharmacological properties of the fruit pulp include antioxidant 11, 12, anticancer 13, anti-inflammatory 10, antihypertension 14, antidiabetic 15, 16, antiviral 17 and hepato-protector 18. Previous phytochemical investigations demonstrated that the fruit pulp contains bioactive compounds such as flavonoids (procyanidins, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, catechin and epicatechin), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-hydroxycinnamic acid) and saponins (triterpene and steroid glycosides) 19.
FIG. 1: ADANSONIA DIGITATA FRUIT
Ziziphus mauritiana is commonly found in subtropical countries. The fruit is a globular drupe, oblong to ovoid in shape Fig. 2. HPLC analysis of methanol extract of its fruit pulp showed the presence of predominant flavonoids such as rutin, myricetin, and apigenin 20. Non-volatile compounds were identified in the methanol extract of fruit by GC-MS, the most abundant was5-hydroxymethylfurfural 21. The fruit pulp of Z. mauritiana is several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant 22, 23 anticancer 24, anti-inflammatory 24, anti-bacterial 25 and anti-diarrhoeal 26. In this study, the property of fruit pulp of A. digitata and Z. mauritiana to protect human fibroblasts against ROS-induced oxidative cell damages was investigated.
FIG. 2: ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA FRUITS
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Chemicals: 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethyl-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Gallic acid, Quercetin, Ascorbic acid, Hydrogen peroxide, Sodium carbonate, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, Aluminum trichloride, Potassium persulfate, Penicillin-Streptomycin, Fetal bovine serum, L-glutamine, Trypsin-EDTA, Dulbecco’s Eagle Modified Medium (DEMM), Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and bromure de 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT)were purchased from Sigma Aldrich, Germany. Ethanol, Dichloromethane were purchased from Prolabo (Paris, France). All reagents were analytical grades.
Plant Material and Extraction: The fruits of Z. mauritiana and A. digitata were purchased at the Zogona and Tintoulou markets, respectively (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso) during the month of August 2020. The fruits were identified by Dr. Evelyne PARE, associate researcher at the Plant Biology and Ecology laboratory of the UFR / SVT, Joseph KI-ZERBO University. For the extraction, pulps of fruits were scraped and powdered in a mortar. The powder of each pulp was soaked successively in ethanol and dichloromethane (24 h, 25°C, continuous stirring) to obtain the ethanol extract and the dichloromethane extract respectively. Each extract was filtrated, concentrated to dryness, and kept at 4 °C for further investigations.
Total Phenolics and total Flavonoids Determination: The total flavonoid content of fruit pulps extracts was assessed by spectrophotometry at 415 nm as described previously 27. Quercetin was used to generate a calibration curve (y = 0.0397x + 0.0523; R2= 0.99, p<0.0001). The amount of flavonoids was expressed as mg equivalent of quercetin/100g of extract. The total phenolic content was quantified at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteucolorimetric assay 28.
Gallic acid was used to generate the standard curve (y = 0.057x + 0.172 5; R2= 0.99, p<0.0001) and results were expressed as mg equivalent of gallic acid/100 g of extract.
Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Extracts' free radical quenching activity was assessed by evaluating their ability to scavenge DPPH radical and ABTS●+. The capacity of serial diluted concentrations of each extract to quench the DPPH radical was measured at 517 nm as described previously 29.
Results were expressed as concentration (µg/mL) quenching 50% of free radicals (IC50). The flavonoid quercetin and the phenol gallic acid were used as standard antioxidant compounds. The ability of extracts to scavenge ABTS●+ radical was assessed at 734 nm by using the method described previously 30.
Data were expressed as concentration (µg/mL) quenching 50% of free radicals (IC50). Ascorbic acid was used as a reference.
Cytotoxicity and Cytoprotection Activity: Human gingival fibroblasts provided by the university hospital center Bogodogo (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso) were exponentially grown in a Dulbecco’s eagle modified medium supplemented with 10% of fetal bovine serum, 20 mM of L-glutamine and 1% of penicillin-streptomycin in a humidified incubator (5% CO2, 37°C) until cells were reached confluence 80%. Cells were harvested with a trypsin-EDTA solution and seeded in a 96-wells plate (5000 cells/well) for the cytotoxic and cytoprotective study.
To assess the cytotoxic activity of extracts, cells were put in contact with different concentrations (100, 200,400 µg/mL) of each extract for 24 h and cell viability was recorded by using the standard MTT assay 31.
To assess the cytoprotective activity of extracts, cells were concomitantly treated with 100 mM of hydrogen peroxide and different concentrations (100, 200,400 µg/mL) of each extract for 24h and the MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability. Cells treated with hydrogen peroxide alone were used as positive control and cells treated with the DMSO 1% in a culture medium were used as vehicle.
Statistical Analysis: All experiments were performed in triplicate (n=3) and data were expressed as mean value ± standard deviation. The one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-keuls posted-test was used to verify the impact of the treatment on the cell viability. A significant difference was considered at p<0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Total Phenolic and Total Flavonoids Contents: Total phenolic and total flavonoids of fruits pulps extracts from A. digitata and Z. mauritiana were investigated and data were showed in Table 1.
The ethanol extract of A. digitata fruits pulps presented the highest total phenolic content (11 728.07 ± 194.57mg GAE/100 g) while its dichloromethane extract exhibited the highest total flavonoids content (196.32 ± 15.49mg QE/100 g). In general, phenolic compounds of fruits pulps are more extractible by ethanol than dichloromethane
TABLE 1: TOTAL PHENOLICS AND TOTAL FLAVONOIDS CONTENTS OF FRUITS PULPS EXTRACTS
(mg GAE/100 g)
(mg QE/100 g)
|Adansonia digitata L.||Ethanol||11 728.07 ± 194.57 a||101.11 ± 1.55 b|
|Dichloromethane||1321.05 ± 88.07 b||196.32 ± 15.49 a|
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.
|Ethanol||225.15 ± 10.13 c||101.91 ± 4.27 b|
|Dichloromethane||118.42 ± 8.77 d||48.33 ± 7.24 c|
Values are expressed as Mean ± S.D. (n=3). Data in each column with different superscript letters (a,b,c,d )were statistically different (P < 0.05). mgGAE/g: mg gallic acid equivalent/gram; mgQE/g: mg quercetin equivalent/gram.
Antioxidant Activity of Fruits Pulps Extracts: The antioxidant potentiality of fruit pulps extracts was evaluated by measuring their ability to scavenge free radicals such as DPPH and ABTS●+. Data were showed in Table 2. The ethanol extract of A. digitata’s fruits pulps showed the strongest DPPH radical and ABTS●+ radical scavenging power with IC50 values ranging respectively from 28.78 ± 4.97µg/mL and 25.29 ± 2.27µg/mL. However, all fruits pulps extracts were less active than the reference compounds.
TABLE 2: ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FRUITS PULPS EXTRACTS
|Plants||Extracts||DPPH radical quenching activity IC50 (µg/mL)||ABTS●+ radical quenching activity IC50(µg/mL)|
|Adansonia digitata L.||Ethanol
|28.78 ± 4.97 c
102.72 ± 5.02 d
|25.29 ± 2.27 b
209.72 ± 8.04 d
|Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.||Ethanol
|1207. 50 ± 88.19 e
|128.55 ± 11.79c
526.52 ± 29.54 e
|Standards||Quercetin Gallic acid Ascorbic acid||1.38 ± 0.07 b, 0.38 ± 0.01 a Nd||Nd, Nd 10.52 ± 1.82 a|
Values are expressed as Mean ± S.D. (n = 3). Data in each column with different superscript letters (a,b,c,d,e) were statistically different (P < 0.05). IC50: Inhibitory concentration of extract quenching 50% of radical; Nd: Not determined.
Cytotoxic and Cytoprotective Activity: To assess the cytotoxic property of fruits pulps extracts, cells were treated with different concentrations of extracts and the cell viability was compared to the DMSO 1% treatment (vehicle) . Data were shown in Fig. 1.
The percentage of viable cells in all tested concentrations of the different extracts was more than 80%. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the percentage of viable cells when cells were treated with extracts or with vehicles (p>0.05).
This finding suggested that fruit pulps extracts (100-400 µg/mL) weren’t cytotoxic on human fibroblasts.
To assess the cytoprotective property of fruit pulps extracts, cell death was induced by hydrogen peroxide and the percentage of viable cells was compared to those that the concomitant treatment of hydrogen peroxide and extracts.
As expected, the hydrogen peroxide treatment observed significant cell death compared to the vehicle (p<0.05).
However, the concomitant treatment with extracts suppressed the cytotoxic effects of the hydrogen peroxide. A digitata fruit pulps exhibited more cytoprotective activity than Z. mauritiana fruit pulp.
FIG. 3: CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF FRUITS PULPS EXTRACTS. Cells were in contact with extracts for 24 h, and the standard MTT assay recorded the cells' viability. Data were expressed as the mean value ±std of three repetitive independent experiments. No significant difference was observed from the vehicle DMSO 1% (p>0.05). DCM: Dichloro-methane.
FIG. 4: CYTOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FRUITS PULPS EXTRACTS. Cells were concomitantly treated with different concentrations of extracts and a single concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and the cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. Data were expressed as the mean value ± std of three repetitive independent experiments. Histograms with different letter (a,b,c) were statically different at p <0.05. DCM: Dichloromethane.
Fruits have long been used in human alimentation because of their sweet taste. Many previous studies demonstrated their high nutritional value 32, 33. Indeed, fruits contain micronutrients (Ca, Na, P, Mg, Fe, K), proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins 34, 35. In addition, the fruits contain bioactive secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenol acids, and terpenes 36. Parallel to their food uses, fruits are also used as sources of medicaments. Epidemiological studies have established a link between the consumption of fruits rich in antioxidants and the reduction in the prevalence of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases 37, 38. These health properties of fruits are due to their bioactive compounds that can directly or indirectly trap the free radicals involved in the development of these pathologies 39.
Indeed, the free radicals generated at the mitochondrial respiratory chain level can degrade cellular components such as membrane phospholipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, leading to cell death or carcinogenesis. In this study, as in previous studies, the fruits of A. digitata and Z. mauritiana showed good DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities 15, 23. These antioxidant activities are believed to be largely due to their polyphenol contents. Through their antioxidant activities, fruit extracts may protect cells against oxidative damage mediated by hydrogen peroxide. The extracts could intervene at several levels: reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water, neutralization of the hydroxyl radical resulting from the homolytic cleavage of hydrogen peroxide (Fenton reaction), protection of membrane phospholipids by preventing the initiation and propagation of lipid peroxidation, modification of membrane permeability or induction of antioxidant enzymes expression.
In previous studies, fruit pulp of A. digitata and Z. mauritiana showed a very strong anti-lipid peroxidation activity (inhibition percentage more than 96 %) and restored the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity that could justify their cytoprotective activity against the oxidative stress 40, 41.
CONCLUSION: Fruits pulp of A. digitata and Z. mauriatiana are potent sources of antioxidant compounds that can prevent oxidative cell damage. The daily intake of these fruits as food supplements could reduce the prevalence of oxidative stress-related diseases. Further phytochemical investigations are necessary to identify the bioactive compounds.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We acknowledge the medical personal of the university hospital center Bogodogo (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso)
CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS: All authors declare that no conflicts of interests exist
- Patergnani S, Bouhamida E, Leo S, Pinton P and Rimessi A: Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and “Mito-Inflammation”: Actors in the Diseases. Biomedicines 2021; 9: 1-25.
- Hameister R, Kaur C, Dheen ST, Lohmann CH and Singh G: Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and oxidative stress in arthroplasty. J Biomed Mater Res - Part B Appl Biomater 2020; 108(5): 2073-2087. doi:10.1002/jbm.b.34546
- Adwas AA, Elsayed ASI, Azad AE and Quwaydir AF: Oxidative stress and antioxidant mechanisms in human body. J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng Rev 2019; 6(1): 43-47. doi:10.15406/jabb.2019.06.00173
- Pizzino G, Irrera N and Cucinotta M: Review Article Oxidative Stress: Harms and Benefits for Human Health. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017; 2017: 1614.
- Gupta RK, Patel AK and Shah N: Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Disease and Cancer : A Review. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2014; 15: 4405-4409.
- Sarawoot P and Phantt K: Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathology : A Review. Sains Malaysiana 2015; 44(10): 1441-1451.
- Vona R, Pallotta L, Cappelletti M, Severi C and Paola M: The Impact of Oxidative Stress in Human Pathology : Focus on Gastrointestinal Disorders Antioxidants 2021; 10(201): 1-26.
- Wang L, Ding L, Yu Z, Zhang T, Ma S and Liu J: Intracellular ROS scavenging and antioxidant enzyme regulating capacities of corn gluten meal-derived antioxidant peptides in HepG2 cells. Food Res Int J 2016; 90: 33-41. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2016.10.023
- Chiarelli F, Santilli F and Sabatino G: Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation on Intracellular Antioxidant Enzyme Production in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes and Early Microangiopathy. Int Pediatr Res Found Inc 2004; 56(5): 720-725. doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000141990.12375.13
- Sundarambal M, Muthusamy P, Radha R, Jerad Suresh A. A review on Adansonia digitata J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015; 4(4): 12-16.
- Ogunleye OO, Jatau ID, Natala AJ and Ola-fadunsin SD: Effects of aqueous extract of fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata on the oxidative stress profile against Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in albino rats. Clin Phytoscience 2020; 6(57): 1-9.
- Ayobamidele BA, Duyilemi TI, Falarunu AJ and Akande OA: Inclusion of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Fruit Powder Enhances the Mineral Composition and Antioxidative Potential of Processed Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) Beverages. Prev Nutr Food Sci 2020; 25(10): 400-407.
- Kadam SD and Kondawar MS: Research article Coden (USA ): Evaluation of in-vitro anticancer activity and quantitation of active ingredient of Adansonia digitata fruit. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res 2019; 11(6): 358-369. doi:10.25004/IJPSDR.2019.110613
- Liman AA, Salihu A and Onyike E: Effect of Methanol Extract of Baobab ( Adansonia digitata) Fruit Pulp on N G ‑ Nitro ‑ l ‑ Arginine Methyl Ester (l ‑ NAME) Induced Hypertension in Rats. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2021; 28(3): 291-300. doi:10.1007/s40292-021-00448-8
- Braca A, Sinisgalli C and Leo M De: Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) from Mali, as a Source of Health-Promoting Compounds Alessandra. Molecules 2018; 23: 1-18. doi:10.3390/molecules23123104
- Gwarzo MY and Bako Y: Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Fruit Pulp Extract of Adansonia digitata on Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Fruit Pulp Extract of Adansonia digitata on Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan Induced D. Int J Anim Vet Adv 2013; 5(3): 108-113. doi:10.19026/ijava.5.5585
- Selvarani V and Hudson JB: Multiple inflammatory and antiviral activities in Adansonia digitata (Baobab) leaves, fruits and seeds. J Med Plants Res 2015; 3(8): 576-582.
- Makena W, Otong ES, Dibal NI, Ishaku B and Bazabang SA: Aqueous fruit pulp extract of Adansonia digitata (L) protects against lead ‑ acetate ‑ induced hepato ‑ renal damage in rat model. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 2021; 10(59): 1-7. doi:10.1186/s43088-021-00151-6
- Ismail BB, Pu Y, Guo M, Ma X and Liu D: LC-MS/QTOF identification of phytochemicals and the effects of solvents on phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit pulp. Food Chem 2018; 2018: 1-32. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.056
- Siriamornpun S, Weerapreeyakul N and Barusrux S: Bioactive compounds and health implications are better for green jujube fruit than for ripe fruit. J Funct Foods 2015; 12: 246-255.
- Pankaj K, Shiv SY, Vigyan S and Dwivedi LK: GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Int J Pharm Sci Res 2019; 10(6): 2911-2916. doi:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(6).2911-16
- Kaur R, Kaur U and Walin H: Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana and Eriobotrya japonica through in-vitro Antioxidant Assays. Glob J Res Rev 2015; 2(1): 30-36.
- Delfanian M, Kenari RE and Sahari MA: Utilization of Jujube Fruit (Ziziphus mauritiana) Extracts as Natural Antioxidants in Stability of Frying Oil Utilization of Jujube Fruit (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) Extracts as Natural Antioxidants in Stability of Frying Oil. Int J Food Prop 2016; 19(00): 789-801. doi:10.1080/10942912.2015.1043638
- Beg MA, Teotia UVS and Farooq S: In-vitro antibacterial and anticancer activity of Ziziphus. J Med Plants Stud 2016; 4(5): 230-233.
- Yahia Y, Benabderrahim MA, Tlili N, Bagues M and Nagaz K: Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts from different plant parts of two Ziziphus Mill. Species. PLoS One 2020; 5: 1-16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0232599
- Mesaik AM, Poh HW, Bin OY, Elawad I and Alsayed B: In-vivo anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-diarrhoeal activity of Ziziphus jujuba Fruit Extract. J Med Sci 2018; 6(5): 757-766.
- Shi P, Du W, Wang Y, Teng X, Chen X and Ye L: Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of bulbs, leaves, and flowers made from Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. Food Sci Nutr 2019; 7(1): 148-154. doi:10.1002/fsn3.834
- Galvão MAM, Arruda AO de, Bezerra ICF, Ferreira MRA and Soares LAL: Evaluation of the Folin-Ciocalteu Method and Quantification of Total Tannins in Stem Barks and Pods from Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul) L. P. Queiroz. Brazilian Arch Biol Technol 2018; 61: 1-20. doi:10.1590/1678-4324-2018170586
- Sirivibulkovit K, Nouanthavong S and Sameenoi Y: Paper-based DPPH assay for antioxidant activity analysis. Anal Sci 2018; 34(7): 795-800. doi:10.2116/analsci.18P014
- Ilyasov IR, Beloborodov VL, Selivanova IA and Terekhov RP: ABTS/PP decolorization assay of antioxidant capacity reaction pathways. Int J Mol Sci 2020; 21(3): 1-27. doi:10.3390/ijms21031131
- Kumar P, Nagarajan A and Uchil PD: Analysis of Cell Viability by the MTT Assay. Cold Spring Harb Lab Press 2018; 7: 469-472. doi:10.1101/pdb.prot095505
- Rejman K, Hanna G-W, Kaczorowska J and Laskowski W: Nutritional Significance of Fruit and Fruit Products in the Average Polish Diet. Nutrients 2021; 13(2079): 1-18.
- Suchànkovà M, Kapounovà Z, Dofkovà M, Ruprich J, Blahova J and Kourilovà I: Selected Fruits and Vegetables : Comparison of Nutritional Value and Affordability. Czech J Food Sci 2015; 33(3): 242-246. doi:10.17221/353/2014-CJFS
- Jena C and Pramanik K: Micronutrients: A way to quality fruit production. Food Sci Reports 2020; 1(9): 58-59.
- Marles RJ: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis Mineral nutrient composition of vegetables, fruits and grains: The context of reports of apparent historical declines. J Food Compos Anal 2017; 56: 93-103. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2016.11.012
- Lima PGP, Vianello F, Corrêa CR, Campos RA da S and Borguini MG: Polyphenols in Fruits and Vegetables and Its Effect on Human Health. Food Nutr Sci 2014; 5(3): 2015). doi:10.4236/fns.2014.511117
- Bayir AG, Aksoy AN and Koçyigit A: The Importance of Polyphenols as Functional Food in Health. Bezmialem Sci 2019;7(2): 157-163. doi:10.14235/bas.galenos.2018.2486
- Arfin S, Jha NK and Jha SK: Oxidative stress in cancer cell metabolism. Antioxidants 2021; 10(5): 1-28. doi:10.3390/antiox10050642
- Williamson G: The role of polyphenols in modern nutrition. Nutr Bull. 2017; 42: 226-235. doi:10.1111/nbu.12278
- Kumar S, Yadav P, Jain V, Malhotra SP. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative System in Ripening Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) Fruits. Food Technol Biotechnol 2011; 49(4): 453-459.
- Althwab SA, Alsattane SM, Al-mundarij TI, Hamad EM and Mousa HM: Protective Effect of Baobab Fruit Pulp (Adansonia digitata) from Oxidative Stress Induced in Rats by High-Fat Diet. Life Sci J 2019; 16(1): 63-71.
How to cite this article:
Rouamba A, Barro APW, Bancé A, Bationo R, Ouedraogo V and Kiendrebeogo M: Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of fruits pulp extracts from Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacaceae) and Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (Rhamnaceae). Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2022; 13(7): 2944-50. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.13(7).2944-50.
All © 2022 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Ablassé Rouamba *, Arnaud Pascal Wendpanga Barro, Alimata Bancé, Raoul Bationo, Vincent Ouedraogo and Martin Kiendrebeogo
Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Chemistry (LABIOCA), UFR-SVT, UniversityJoseph KI-ZERBO, 03 BP 7021, Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.
05 October 2021
06 December 2021
26 June 2022
01 July 2022