PLANT-BASED TRADITIONAL REMEDIES FOR SNAKEBITE IN INDIA: A RECENT UPDATE REVIEWHTML Full Text
PLANT-BASED TRADITIONAL REMEDIES FOR SNAKEBITE IN INDIA: A RECENT UPDATE REVIEW
Suresh Pullani and A. Lakshmi Prabha *
Department of Botany, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli - 620024, Tamil Nadu, India.
ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants are a potential source of therapeutic drugs and play a central role in the health care system throughout the world. Plants have been an integral part of the life of many indigenous communities. Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease. Snakebite remains a major health concern throughout the world, especially in India. The highest Morbidity and Mortality occurs in rural and tribal people in the country. The problem is complicated by delay in seeking medical help or not seeking medical help due to belief in traditional healers. However, abundant plant species are used as a folk medicine to treat poisonous snakebites all over the world. In the present study, given the145 plants from the 55 families that are either used as a traditional medicine to treatment of venomous snakebites, which phytocompounds responsible for the antivenom activity.
Snakebite, Antivenom, Mortality, Traditional medicine, Phytocompounds
INTRODUCTION: Medicinal plants are an important source of bioactive compounds that assist directly in the handling of ophidian envenomation, or ultimately, as supplements to conventional serum therapy. Thus, plant extracts are a valuable substitute, used either alone or in combination with other agents, when antisera are not available in emergency situations. Exploration of the traditional use of medicinal plants has attained significant consideration within the scientific community in recent years; about 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Globally, about 60% of the healthcare products available in markets are known to be derived from plant origin. In India, medicinal plants are widely used by the people.
Folk remedies, pharmaceutical preparations and also in different indigenous systems of medicine like Siddha, Unani and Ayurveda for the treatment of various diseases. About 80% of the world population relies on plants and their products for primary health care. Awareness of plant-based medications and therapeutics is continuously increasing worldwide, and hence there are high acceptance and demand. Since ancient times, plants have been used for the treatment of various diseases. The traditional systems of medicine, together with folklore systems, continue to serve a large portion of inhabitants, particularly in rural and tribal areas, despite the advent of modern medicine.
The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of the world’s population in developing countries depends on plants for the management of a variety of diseases because of the lack of modern healthcare services. India is home to different ethnic groups’ comprising 5. 4 corers of indigenous peoples living in various territories, having diverse cultures, religious rites, and food traditions that separate them from each other. These people also have a healthy awareness of traditional medicine, especially herbal and folk medicine, for treatment in snakebites. Traditional herbalists operate closer to the people, taking advantage of the biodiversity of plant species in such areas to cure various diseases and ailments.
Snake and Snake Venoms: Snakes have been used to symbolize war and peace, love, and hate God and devil, as well as life and death; many times, they have been used as contradictory symbols within the same civilization. Snakebites represent a severe medical, social, and economic challenge in many parts of the world, chiefly in tropical and subtropical nations.
Based on their morphological characteristics, including the arrangement of scales, dentition, osteology, mycology, sensory organs, etc., snakes are characterized into families. The snakes found in India show great biodiversity, and their length varies from 6 mm to 10 mm, while weight ranges between few grams to several kilograms. Snakes occupied deserts, forests, marshy, swampy places, lakes, streams, and rivers of difficult terrains. The families of venomous snakes are Atract aspididae, Elapidae, Hydrophidae and Viperidae. There are about 216 species of snakes in India, of which 52 species are reported to be poisonous (Bawaskar, 2004). The major families in the India subcontinent are Elapidae which includes common cobra, king cobra and krait, Viperidae which includes Russell’s viper, pit viper and saw-scaled viper and Hydrophidae (Sea snakes) of the 52 poisonous species in India, majority of bites and consequent morbidity is attributable to 5 species viz. Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra), Najanaja (Common cobra), Daboia rusellii (Russell’s viper), Bungarus caeruleus (krait) and Echis carinatae (Saw-scaled viper).
Snake venoms are one of the most intense “mysterious” biological fluids within class Mammalian, having complex medical effects owing to the presence of complex mixtures of proteins and peptides, and they contain at least 25 enzymes 25–27. There are many prospective effects in humans following envenoming by snakes, but just a few broad categories are of major clinical significance such as systemic myolysis flaccid paralysis, coagulopathy and hemorrhage, cardiotoxicity, renal damage and failure and local tissue injury at the bite site. Sometimes, it causes secondary effects such as potential morbidity and mortality.
Snakebite envenomation is a neglected tropical disease that kills more than 100,000 people and maims more than 400,000 people every year. The country most affected by snakebites is India, with 46,000 deaths/year and around 4.1 cases of snakebite per 100,000 inhabitants.
Snake Bites Treatment: Snakebites are commonly treated by parenteral administration of horse or sheep-derived polyclonal anti venoms aimed at neutralization of toxins. However, despite the widespread success of traditional therapy, it is still important to search for other different venom inhibitors, either synthetic or natural, that could complement or substitute for the action of the traditional anti-venom.
FIG. 1: PLANTS PARTS USED FOR SNAKE BITE TREATMENT
Ophidia accidents are a serious problem in public health due to the resulting high morbidity and mortality rates. The only specific treatment available is anti-venom. Therefore, the search for complementary alternatives for snakebite treatment is very important and necessary. In order to develop alternatives to current therapies, researchers have been looking for bioactive compounds isolated from plant extracts with different properties such as analgesic, anti myotoxic, anti-hemorrhagic, and anti-inflammatory effects for many years. In recent years, studies have been published that have provided pharmacological evidence regarding the benefits of various extracts and compounds isolated from different plant species against the local and systemic effects induced by a wide range of snake venoms, including lethality. In India, as well as in other parts of the world, medicinal plants are used as antidotes for snakebites, administered either singly or in combination with other anti-snake venoms or supportive plants. Thus, in the management of snakebite, the study of herbal antidotes against snake venom is of considerable significance to society.
Procedure for Review Methodology: In this systematic review, we compile information on medicinal plants that are grown and utilized in various parts of India for the treatment of snakebites. As this is a detailed “scrutiny,” we also carried out an appraisal of plants used in the treatment of snakebite poisoning throughout India. An extensive review of the literature was conducted, which came from different scientific sources, such as Pub Med (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), Science Direct (http://www.sciencedirect.com/), Scopus (https://www.scopus.com/), Web of Science (http://www.web of knowledge.com/), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) (http://www. scielo.org/), Scifinder and Google Scholar (https:// scholar.google.com). The study databases included original articles published in peer-reviewed journals, as well as books, theses, dissertations, patents, and other reports covering information related to plants used in the treatment of snakebite envenomation (Ethnopharmacological studies, original articles, or comments). Publications with ethnobotanical studies, bioactive substances, or bio-guided pharmacological studies were analyzed in the search for therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of snakebites. This paper helps readers to find out more about these plants by including their local names from local inhabitants. A list of medicinal plants was produced, showing biological source(s), Family, local name(s) part(s) used, method of preparation, and reference(s). In this review, the precision of botanical identification of plants is obtained from the original sources Table 1.
TABLE 1: PRECISION OF BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION OF PLANTS IS OBTAINED FROM THE ORIGINAL SOURCES
|S. no.||Plant Name||Family||Part Used||Preparation Method|
|1||Abrus precatorius Linn||Fabaceae||Leaves, Seed, Root||2–3 g of fresh leaves or roots with seeds are made into paste and consumed along with cold water or cow’s milk. (Two times a day for 5–7 d to cure any poisonous bite, as well as root powder applied topically.)|
|2||Acalypa indica Linn.||Euphorbiaceae||Whole Plant, Leaves||Leaf, Whole plant Leaf paste applied over the bitten part or paste smeared on spot of bite (3–4 d) 29, 46–50.|
|3||Acanthus ilicifolius Linn.||Acanthaceae||Fruit||Fruit For dressing snakebite crushed fruits are used.|
|4||Achyranthes aspera Linn.||Amaranthaceae||Root, seeds, whole plant, leaf, stem||The whole plant extract or root extract is given orally as well as the paste obtained from the root has been used (for 3 wk) 29, 38, 43, 49, 50, 53–74.|
|5||Aconitum balfourii (Bruhl) Muk.||Ranunculaceae||Root, tuber||Tuber paste used externally and internally 78–81.|
|6||Aconitum ferox Bikh, Bish||Ranunculaceae||Tuberous root||Tuberous roots 82.|
|7||Acorus calamus Linn.||Araceae||Rhizome||Rhizomes are crushed to paste and given with warm water as well as applied externally 29, 65, 68, 69, 72, 76, 83–86.|
|8||Adiantum lunulatum Linn.||Adiantaceae||Rhizome||Rhizome powder used for snake bite 87.|
|9||Adiantum philippense Linn.||Adiantaceae||Rhizome||Powder of rhizome is used.|
|10||Aegle marmelos (Linn.)||Rutaceae||Fruit, leaves, root bark||Fruit, leaves, root bark Decoction/extract (twice a day upto 5 d) of the leaves is given orally or root bark extract is administered internally for every 4 h up to 3 d 29, 41, 65, 66, 91, 92.|
|11||Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult||Amaranthaceae||Whole plant, rhizome, root||Juice is prepared and taken orally (for 11 d) 29, 72, 93, 94.|
|12||Ageratum conyzoides Linn.||Asteraceae||Leaves||Paste of leaf with rhizome of Zingiber officinale is used 50, 58, 96-98.|
|13||Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f) Wang.||Alangiaceae||Whole plant, root, leaf, stem bark||About 15 g of bark, ground with 10–12 black peppers and mixed with 60 g animal fat, is given every 2 h to cure snakebite. Root bark decoction is given internally to treat 29, 38, 60, 65, 70.|
|14||Albizia lebbeck (Linn). Benth.||Fabaceae||Leaves, bark, flower, whole plant, root||Paste of bark is used 45, 54, 55, 73.|
|15||Allium cepa Linn.||Liliaceae||Skin bulb||Skin bulb Paste taken from fresh skin bulb for external application (5 d) 29, 65.|
|16||Allium sativum Linn.||Liliaceae||Bulbs||Bulb is made into paste and given orally 68, 69.|
|17||Alstonia constricta||Apocynaceae||Whole plant, root, leaf, stem||75 Leaves juice, Whole plant paste applied on the snake bite|
|18||Alstonea scholaris (Linn.) R.Br.||Apocynaceae||Leaf, bark Bark||Leaf, bark Bark decoction given orally 54, 73.|
|19||Alstonia venenata R.Br.||Apocynaceae||Stem, bark root||Tablets made from paste of stem bark are taken with cow’s urine. Decoction also taken orally 49, 70.|
|20||Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Brown ex DC||Amaranthaceae||Stem, leaf||External application of stem and leaf paste is used 72.|
|21||Amaranthus spinosus Linn||Amaranthaceae||Roots, leaf, whole plant||Paste of leaves is applied locally 50, 72.|
|22||Amaranthus viridis Linn.||Amaranthaceae||Leaf, stem||Leaves/stem paste are applied externally 70, 96.|
|23||Ammannia baccifera Linn.||Lythraceae||Whole plant||Whole plant powder mixed with hot cow’s milk to drink 65, 70.|
|24||Anacardium occidentale||Anacardiaceae||Bark||Methanolic extract of bark|
|25||Andrographis echioides Nees||Acanthaceae||Whole plant||Paste of whole plant is given orally with water. It is also applied externally 65, 84.|
|26||Andrographis lineate Wallich ex||Acanthaceae||Whole plant, leaves||Paste of leaves is applied externally. About 30 g of whole plant paste is directly administered orally 29, 65.|
|27||Andrographis paniculata (Burm f) Wall. Ex. Nees.||Acanthaceae||Leaf, leaves, whole plant||A decoction of the leaves with the leaves of Andrographis alata is given. Decoction or extract is applied externally 29, 31, 33-35, 40, 49, 51, 57, 65, 68, 69, 72, 94, 98.|
|28||Andrographis stenophylla||Acanthaceae||Leavevs||Leaf powder of the plant along with Evolvulus alsinoides, roots of Aristolochia indica, Cryptolepis buchananii, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Rauvolfia serpentina and Rhinacanthus nasutus is administered orally|
|29||Annona squamosa||Annonaaceae||Leaves||Incision of snakebite is washed with this plant's juice and then Datura metel leaf paste is applied|
|30||Argemone mexicana Linn.||Papaveraceae||Leaf, Seed, root||Leaf/seed decoction given orally (7 d). Root paste is also used 29, 59, 65.|
|31||Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott||Araceae||Tuber, bulb||Paste of the tuber in applied. Infusion of fresh bulb is taken orally thrice a day 72, 77.|
|32||Aristolochia bracteolate Lamk.||Aristolochiaceae||Leaves, root||Leaves paste applied externally as well as infusion is taken orally 41, 49, 65, 72.|
|33||Aristolochia indica Linn.||Aristolochiaceae||Root, entire plant||Fresh roots are grounded along with rouwalfia serpentina mixed in water taken twice daily (3 d). Root powder is snuffed; root juice is given orally and root paste applied locally 29, 33, 35, 41–43, 63, 65, 68, 69, 72, 84, 94.|
|34||Aristolochia tagala Cham||Aristolochiaceae||Root||Root Crushed mixed with water and drunk as well as fresh roots are grounded and applied externally on affected portion 32, 63, 72.|
|35||Azadirachta indica A. Juss||Meliaceae||Flower, bark, leaf, fruit||Decoction/paste is prepared and given orally (7 d) 29, 49, 50, 66, 68, 69, 93.|
|36||Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell||Scrophulariaceae||Bark, leaf, whole plant||Juice mixed with castor oil is applied externally to treat. Leaf powder decoction mixed with hot cow’s milk taken orally 46, 65, 66, 70, 73.|
|37||Balanites aegyptica||Zygophyllaceae||Stem, bark||Acetone & methanolic extract of stem bark|
|38||Barleria cristat Linn.||Acanthaceae||Leaves, roots, seed, Leaf||Leaves, roots, seed Leaf juice is applied.|
|39||Bauhinia purpurea L.||Fabaceae||Flowers, seeds, bark||Flowers, seeds, bark|
|40||Bauhinia variegate L.||Fabaceae||Bark, roots, leaves, seeds||Bark, roots, leaves, seeds|
|41||Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch.||Oxiladaceae||leaves||Leaf powder with the leaves of Aristolochia tagala, Alangium salvifolium, stem bark of Strychnos nux-vomica, Wrightia tinctoria, Thespesia populnea and roots of Abrus precatorius is heated with water and taken internally for 14 days|
|42||Biophytum sensitivum||Oxiladaceae||leaves||Leaf powder with the leaves of Aristolochia tagala, Alangium salvifolium, stem bark of Strychnos nux-vomica, Wrightia tinctoria, Thespesia populnea and roots of Abrus precatorius is heated with water and taken internally for 14 days|
|43||Blepharispermum petiolare DC.||Asteraceae||Leaves, stem bark||Powdered leaf and stem bark with leaves of Strychnos nux-vomica, Pavetta indica, Cyanodon dactylon, the root of Sida cordifolia and Hedyotis umbellata is internally taking|
|44||Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.||Nyctaginaceae||Leaf, whole plant||Leaf juice is also applied locally and taken orally for 7 d 66, 67, 98.|
|45||Bombax ceiba Linn.||Bombaceae||Flowers, roots, bark, seed||Paste of flowers/fruits/leaves is applied on the bitten spot 46, 55, 59, 73, 92.|
|46||Boswellia delzielli||Burseraceae||Stem bark|
|47||Bryonia laciniosa L.||Cucurbitaceae||Seeds|
|48||Buchanania lanzan Spr.||Anacardiaceae||Bark||55, 58, 72, 83, 98|
|49||Butea monosperma (Lamk.)||Fabaceae||Bark, leaf, flower, gum, seed, stem bark, resin, latex||Bark paste applied on swelling. Paste of one seed in 10 mL lemon juice is given orally 58, 59, 66, 73, 83, 98.|
|50||Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb.||Caesalpiniaceae||Seeds||Seeds paste applied externally (2 wk) 29.|
|51||Caladium bicolor Vent.||Araceae||Tuber||Tuber paste is applied on the snake bite 88|
|52||Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br||Asclepiadaceae||Roots, latex, Root bark||Roots, latex, the Root bark is ground into paste and made into pills n given orally. Leaf latex is applied externally 29, 38, 43, 58, 62, 65, 68-70, 92.|
|53||Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br.||Asclepiadaceae||Latex, root, young buds, Leaves||Latex is applied on bitten area. Root is crushed and given to drink and applied externally 48, 58, 66.|
|54||Carica papaya Linn.||Caricaceae||Fruit, seed, latex Un ripped fruit||Fruit, seed, latex Un ripped fruit of Carica papaya is taken and the skin is removed by slicing. Salt is then rubbed over it. The fruit is then placed over the bite with sliced portions in contact with the bite and bandaged. Few drops of latex are applied to wound due to snakebite for quick healing 66.|
|55||Cassia alata Linn.||Caesalpiniaceae||leaves||Leaf Paste of leaves is applied externally as well as given orally 29, 65.|
|56||Cassia fistula Linn.||Caesalpiniaceae||Fruit pulp, seed, leaf, stem, roots, bark||The paste and decoction of root bark with black pepper is given orally. Paste of stem bark applied on bitten place 58, 62, 84, 98.|
|57||Cassia occidentalis Linn.||Caesalpiniaceae||Root, leaf||Root, leaf Oral administration of root paste 65, 70, 74.|
|58||Cassia tora Linn||Caesalpinaceae||Root, leaf||Root paste and leaf decoction is applied externally (14 d) 29, 65, 70, 98.|
|59||Cayratia trifolia Linn.||Vitaceae||Tuberous||Paste of tuberous|
|60||Cissampelos pareira Linn||Menispermaceae||Tuber, root||Root paste with long pepper is prescribed once daily for 5 d 59, 70.|
|61||Citrullus colocynthis (Linn) Schrad.||Cucurbitaceae||Seed, root, fruit||Seeds oil used externally as well as root is crushed and given to drink 66.|
|62||Clerodendrun viscosum||Verbenaceae||Root||Alcoholic root extract|
|63||Clitoria ternatea Linn.||Fabaceae||Roots||The root extract is taken with the root of A. indica and Rauwolfia serpentina 53, 55, 58, 62.|
|64||Cocculus villosus DC.||Menispermaceae||Root, Root bark||The root bark extract is given internally and applied 58.|
|65||Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottl. & Willd.) Hook. f.||Cucurbitaceae||Root, tuber||Root decoction given internally 3–7 times 41, 70, 71.|
|66||Costus speciosus (Koen) Sm||Costaceae||Root, rhizome||Rhizome and root paste is used internally and externally 59, 92.|
|67||Crinum jagus||Amyrillidaceae||Bulb||Bulb paste was applied externally 29.|
|68||Crypttolepis buchananii Roem. & Schult.||Asclepiadaceae||Root||Leaf powder of the plant along with Evolvulus alsinoides, roots of Aristolochia indica, Cryptolepis buchananii, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Rauvolfia serpentina and Rhinacanthus nasutus is administered orally|
|69||Curculigo orchioide Gaertn.||Amaryllidaceae||Root, tuber||Root paste use topically 31,72|
|70||Curcuma longa Linn.||Zingiberaceae||Rhizome||Rhizome paste is applied externally (3 wk) 29, 73.|
|71||Cyperus rotundus Linn.||Cyperaceae||Whole plant, root, tuber, rhizome||Decoction of root/tubers/rhizome given orally (7 d) 29, 53, 55, 84.|
|72||Datura metel Linn.||Solanaceae||Seeds, root, leaf||Extract of roots are taken with garlic 58, 68, 69.|
|73||Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC.||Fabaceae||Roots||Half-cup root decoction is taken orally 73.|
|74||Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. Ex Roem. & Schult.||Caryophyllaceae||Whole plant||Whole plant is used (crushed, paste applied) 97.|
|75||Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk.||Asteraceae||Whole plant||Whole plant juice is given orally (14 d) 29, 65.|
|76||Eclipta prostrata Linn.||Asteraceae||Leaves||Leaf paste is applied externally 29, 65.|
|77||Elaeodendron glaucum Pers.||Celastraceae||Bark, root||Roots and bark of plant made into paste taken orally with cow’s milk 48, 83, 84.|
|78||Elytraria acaulis (L. f.) Lindau||Acanthaceae||Root||Root paste with black piper is applied on snakebite|
|79||Emblica officinalis Gaertn.||Euphorbiaceae||Stem, leaves, fruit, roots||Root extract is given orally along with black pepper. Leaf juice as well as stem infusion is given orally 65, 68, 69.|
|80||Enydra fluctuans Lour.||Asteraceae||Whole plant||Whole plant, decoction given orally 29.|
|81||Euphorbia hirta Linn.||Euphorbiaceae||Latex, whole plant||Latex or whole plant, decoction given orally 29, 31.|
|82||Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.||Euphorbiaceae||Latex, root||Latex is applied locally. Root is used with black pepper 68, 69.|
|83||Ficus religiosa Linn.||Moraceae||Leaf, bark, fruit, stem bark||Leaf, bark, fruit 25 g stem bark and 8-10 cloves are pounded with animal fat (pure ghee) and given 4–6 times a day 50.|
|84||Gloriosa superb Linn.||Liliaceae||Tuber, root, rhizome, seed||Root paste or tuber paste is applied externally (2–5 d) 29, 59, 65, 75.|
|85||Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br.||Asclepiadaceae||Leaf, root||Root Tincture or leaf powder taken orally (4 d) 29, 41, 58, 68, 69, 92, 93.|
|86||Helicteres isora Linn.||Sterculiaceae||Bark, root||Bark power is given in snakebite 70, 73.|
|87||Heliotropium indicum Linn.||Boraginaceae||Leaf||The leaf juice mixed with hot water is used 65.|
|88||Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br.||Asclepiadaceae||Root, leaf||Aqueous extract of root is prepared in water and given orally, and root paste is applied two or three times a day 29, 35, 49, 55, 58, 65, 68, 69, 84.|
|89||Hibiscus aethiopicus||Malvaceae||Leaves||Aqueous extract of Leaf given orally 29, 35.|
|90||Holarrhena antidysentrica wall||Apocynaceae||Bark, root||The root is crushed and applied as well as paste is taken orally with water 58, 72, 98.|
|91||Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G.Don||Apocynaceae||Seeds, root, stem bark||Paste is applied on the bitten area two times a day 70|
|92||Imperata cylindrical Beauv.||Poaceae||Rhizome||Paste is applied on the bitten area 29|
|93||Isonandra lanceolata Wight||Sapotaceae||Leaf, Fruit, Bark, Root||Laef, un ripened fruit and root bark along with leaves of Andrographis paniculata and leaf and root bark of Thespesia populnea are heated with water to make a decoction and taken internally for 30 days|
|94||Lantana camara Linn.||Verbenaceae||Roots, flower, stem, leaf, whole plant||Decoction of roots, flower and stem are used 66, 96.|
|95||Lantana indica Roxb.||Verbenaceae||Leaf||Leaf decoction externally used 70, 73.|
|96||Lecus aspera||Lamiaceae||Root and bark||Root and bark infusion of the plant and Leucas aspera leaves with roots of Ocimum adscendens and bark of Artocarpus mixed with milk and butter are filtered and used in snakebite|
|97||Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng||Lamiaceae||Whole plant||Decoction of whole plant (twice a day for 6 d) 29.|
|98||Leucas .linifolia (Roth) Spreng||Lamiaceae||Leaves||Fresh leaf juice (5 ml) is taken orally at an interval of 15 min in the treatment of snakebite|
|99||Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb.||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit, tendril, seed Tendrils||Fruit, tendril, seed Tendrils and seed paste is used 53, 55.|
|100||Madhuca indica (Koenig.) macbride Gmel||Sapotaceae||Flower, leaves, bark, seeds||Bark paste is externally applied (2–3 d) 45, 83, 84.|
|101||Malva sylvestris L.||Malvaceae||Leaf||Leaf extract mixed with lime juice is used in snakebite|
|102||Mangifera indica L.||Anacardiaceae||Stem bark||As a protective measure against snakebite, inflorescence of the plant is massaged on hands|
|103||Mimosa pudica Linn||Mimosaceae||Root, leaf, whole plant||Whole plants are made extract in drinking water and shaken well and filtered. Extract of whole plant is given twice a day in 1 d only. Leaves are ground and made into paste and applied over affected area 29, 49, 53, 55, 56, 58, 68, 69, 97.|
|104||Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth.||Rubiaceae||Bark, fruit||Bark, fruit paste applied externally on the snake bite place 44|
|105||Momordica charantia Linn||. Cucurbitaceae||Whole plant, Shoot, root||Juice of tender shoot or root is applied 29.|
|106||Moringa oleifera Lam||Moringaceae||Root, seed, whole plant, stem bark, leaf||Fresh extract of bark is taken orally. Bark, root tincture applied externally (3 d) 29, 62, 68, 69, 73, 91, 98.|
|107||Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC||Fabaceae||Seed, fruit, root||Aqueous extract of root is given orally for twice a day 50,56.|
|108||Murraya paniculata (Linn.) Jack.||Rutaceae||Root, leaf||Infusion prepared from shadily dried root/leaf powder and administered orally for every 1 h up to 2 d 59, 65, 70, 73.|
|110||Musa paradisiaca Linn.||Musaceae||Bark, stem, skin bark||A plant extract is given orally 29, 49, 74.|
|111||Nerium indicum Mill. Gard.||Apocynaceae||Leaf, bark, root||The root is crushed with roots of Capparis sepiaria and Datura innoxia, and paste applied externally thrice for 5 d 46, 66.|
|112||Nerium oleander Linn.||Apocynaceae||Seeds||Seeds paste applied externally (14 d) 29, 49.|
|113||Nicotiana tabacum Linn.||Solanaceae||Leaf||Leaves decoction given orally (3 d) 29.|
|114||Ocimum adscedens Willd||Lamiaceae||Root and bark||Root and bark infusion of the plant and Leucas aspera leaves with roots of Ocimum adscendens and bark of Artocarpus mixed with milk and butter are filtered and used in snakebite|
|115||Ocimum basilicum||Lamiaceae||Whole Plant||Whole plant paste and fresh leaves juice was applied 29|
|116||Ocimum sanctum Linn.||Lamiaceae||Leaf, root, whole plant||A paste of ocimum leaf with the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) is applied externally. Leaf juice, oral (8 d) 29, 45, 66.|
|117||Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn.||Rubiaceae||Root||Root juice is given (twice a day for 6 days) 29, 43.|
|118||Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw||Cactaceae||Stem bark, fruit, entire plant||Stem bark, fruit, entire plant The fruits paste is applied 64.|
|119||Oxalis corniculata Linn.||Oxalidaceae||Whole plant, Leaves||Whole plant is crushed and paste is tied on the specific spot of bite, the juice is also drunk 86, 92, 97.|
|120||Pergularia daemia (Forrsk.) Chiov||Apocynaceae||Root, leaf||The decoction of the leaves is used 42.|
|121||Piper longum Linn.||Piperaceae||Roots||Roots 73|
|122||Piper nigrum Linn.||Piperaceae||Flower, seed, fruit||Seed powder mixed with butter is given orally against snakebite. Flower paste with ghee given orally (4 d) 29, 62, 84, 93, 94.|
|123||Plectranthus rugosus Wall. ex Benth.||Lamiaceae||Leaves||Leaf extract is mixed with hot water or milk to form bitter syrup and administered orally|
|124||Plumbago zeylanica Linn.||Plumbaginaceae||Whole plant, root||Whole plant paste is given internally 36, 62.|
|125||Radermachera xylocarpa (Roxb.) K.Schum.||Bignoniaceae||Fruit, seed||Fruit paste applied and taken internally as well as pulp of seeds with little water is taken 92.|
|126||Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.) Benth. ex Kurz.||Apocynaceae||Leaf, root||Leave juice used as antidote. Roots and leaf buds crushed with milk and make into paste used both internally and externally on affected area 29, 48, 50, 54, 55, 59, 62, 63, 65, 68, 69, 72, 84, 85, 92.|
|127||Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz||Acanthaceae||Leaves||Fresh leaves are taken orally as well as the paste of the leaf is applied externally 65,70.|
|128||Sapindus laurifolius Vahl||Sapindaceae||Fruit||Fruit foam is applied on snakebite while the fruit juice is given orally|
|129||Sauromatum venosum (Ait.) Kunth||Araceae||Tuber||The paste of tuber is applied on the affected part 72.|
|130||Semicarpus anacardium Linn.||Anacardiaceae||Root||Root is taken orally (7 d) 29, 72.|
|131||Solanum xanthocarpum Schard & Wendl||Solanaceae||Leaves, root||Fresh leaves extract (paste or decoction) of this species is given 66.|
|132||Soymida febrifuga A. Juss.||Meliaceae||Stem bark, root||Fresh bark of this plant together with root of H. pubescens (1:1) are made into paste, and mixed with drinking water, given orally three times a day for 3 d 56.|
|133||Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.||Loganiaceae||Root, seed||Root bark juice in cow’s milk is externally rubbed 3–4 times a day, to treat. The seed powder is also used 29, 32, 41, 49, 62, 65, 70.|
|134||Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn.) R.Br.||Apocynaceae||Root, leaf, seed||The extract of the seed is given as well as crushed, paste applied on bitten area 62.|
|135||Tamarindus indica Linn.||Caesalpiniaceae||Seed, root||Seed, root paste is used for snake bite 58, 69|
|136||Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.||Fabaceae||Root||Root decoction along with black pepper is prepared and taken orally (7 d) 29, 56, 98.|
|137||Terminalia arjuna (DC) Wight & Arn.||Combretaceae||Bark||Bark paste applied externally (5 d) 29, 65.|
|138||Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers ex Hook f. & Thoms||Menispermaceae||Leaf, root, stem||Stem juice or leaf juice along with garlic paste is applied on the spot and also taken orally (3–4 d) 68, 69, 92.|
|139||Tridax procumbens Linn.||Asteraceae||Leaves||The leaves are crushed and the juice is dripped on the wound of snakebite. Juice is taken orally after its dilution with some quantity of water 84.|
|140||Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr.||Asclepiadaceae||Leaf, root||Paste of leaf and root is mixed with equal amount of root paste of Rauvolfia serpentina and applied externally on the spot as well as leaf juice alone is also taken internally 65, 70.|
|141||Uraria picta Desv.||Fabaceae||Root, leaf||Leaf paste or root decoction is given twice daily 57, 98.|
|142||Verbascum thapsus Linn.||Scrophulariaceae||Whole plant||The infusion of whole plant is given 59, 77.|
|143||Viscum articulatum Burm.f||Santalaceae||Whole plant||The infusion of whole plant is given 29, 59, 77.|
|144||Vitex negundo Linn.||Verbenaceae||Bark, root, leaf, seed||Leaf paste applied over the bitten area (5 d) as well as root extract is given with warm water 29, 31, 49, 62, 65, 69, 93.|
|145||Vitex penduncularis Wall||Verbenaceae||Bark||Decoction of the bark is given orally at 30-min interval 84.|
|146||Withania somnifera (L.)Dunal||Solanaceae||Root||Root paste is applied on the bitten area 29, 59,77.|
Currently, the only accepted treatment for snakebite envenomation involves intravenous administration of conventional serum therapy aims to bind and neutralize the snake venom proteins. It is a fact that the antivenom allows the body to try to reverse the damage caused by the venom. However, it is known that such therapy can cause problems related to different antivenom charac-teristics, such as:
- Immediate hypersensitivity reaction to the alien immunoglobulins, including anaphylactic and pyrogenic reactions such as chills rigor, headache, and tachycardia.
Delayed antivenom reactions or serum sickness is observed after 8 to 12 days of treatment; these are characterized by cutaneous eruptions, fever, and allergies, among other effects
- Limited efficacy of antivenom therapy to protect the affected organ/s against immediate local tissue damage and low stability.
- Ineffectiveness of the antivenom due to significant geographic variation in the com-position of the venom.
- Antigenic reactivity due to the taxonomic diversity of the snakes.
- Improper use of the antivenom due to incorrect medical management, which contributes to a high incidence of adverse reactions, a low toxin is neutralizing potency, or both.
Review Findings: The present review is an attempt to compile information about traditional/ethno botanical medicinal plants used in various parts of India for snakebite treatment. This study will help future researchers understand various approaches to treat snakebites. Data obtained from the present investigation are presented in Table1, and plant parts used to treat snakebite Fig. 1.
CONCLUSION: One valuable gift to human health is provided by nature in the form of medicinal plants in the locality and one of the significant ways in which humans directly reap the benefits provided by biodiversity.
India has a long history of medicinal plant utilization in traditional and tribal culture. From the present review, a total of 145 species from 49 plant families have been used against snakebites, as reported by different ethnobotanical investigations mostly carried out during the past few years in India. In this review, we focused on the collection of data for the most frequently used plants in snakebite treatment. This work tried to be the most comprehensive review to date, and it shows striking similarities between medicinal plant uses in different nations. Thus, by triangulation, it is probably still possible to document most of the knowledge, but further, research should continue, especially in areas within nations that have received less attention. Ethnobotanical investigation of drug discovery has been found to be one of the most reliable approaches toward the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various conditions, and even now, there are still many more things for us to discover.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: We declare that we have no conflicts of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Pullani S and Prabha AL: Plant based traditional remedies for snake bite in India: a recent update review. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2020; 11(11): 5322-33. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.11(11).5322-33.
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