PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN TIGRAY, NORTH ETHIOPIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL HOSPITAL BASED STUDYAbstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and associated factors among people attending ART clinics in Tigray, Ethiopia.
Method: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on patients attending ART clinics for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at Adigrat, Mekelle and Maichew Hospitals in Tigray region. Sample size was calculated using Epi info statcalc and 269 PLWHA were included in the study. The patients were interviewed by psychiatric nurses using the 21 item Hamilton’s depression scale Questionnaire. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 19.0). Levels of depression were calculated among various subgroups of patients, according to the Hamilton’s depression scale questionnaire. The possible associations of the presence and severity of depression with socio-demographic variables was explored using appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests. Specifically, the odds square and logistic regression was used in the exploration of associations; ethical clearance was obtained from Mekelle University College of health sciences.
Result: Out of 269 total participants, 142(52%) were females, 213 (79.2%) were from urban area and 56(20.8) were from rural. One hundred nine (40%) of the study subjects’ age range was 35-44 and 129 (48%) were married. Orthodox religion constituted 80% followed by Muslim (11.5%) and Catholic (0.4%). Sixty (22.3%) were unemployed and majority, 229(85.2%) had a minimum of primary education. Among 269 participants 43.9 % were depressed. Depression was associated with urban dwellers, with lower socio-economic class, unemployed and government employees, with OR of 3.19(1.5, 6.65), 4.43(1.35, 14.58), 2.74(1.34, 5.57), and 3.56(1.73, 7.30) respectively.
Conclusion: In summary, the magnitude of depression in PLWHA on ART was found to be high and was positively associated with urban dwellers, with lower socio-economic class, unemployed, and government employees. Hence, depression among PLWHA on ART is still under diagnosed and under treated; there is a need to incorporate mental health service as an integral component of HIV care.
Haftu Berhe* and Alemayehu Bayray
Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
15 October, 2012
30 November, 2012
26 January, 2013
01 February, 2013