PREVALENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND RELATED ANTI-MICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN INDIA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSISAbstract
Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are one of the most commonly occurring infections in medical practice despite the widespread availability of antibiotics. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence of uropathogens and determine their antibiotic susceptibility or resistance patterns in the Indian population. Methods: A thorough search on the research studies concerning UTIs and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in India was conducted through electronic databases including Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, Web of Science, Elsevier, etc. Search results were evaluated for the appropriateness of being included in the study. A total of 12 reports published from different regions of India were involved in the study. Analysis of data was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software. Results: The most commonly isolated uropathogens were observed to be E. coli, and Klebsiella spp., with a prevalence of 49.6% and 12.8%, respectively. The highest mean resistance was found to be towards Ciprofloxacin, followed by Ampicillin. Resistance patterns in E.coli were found to be more towards Ampicillin (74.11%) and followed by Ciprofloxacin (61.32%). In the other uncommon uropathogens, the highest resistance was recorded towards Ampicillin (62.98%) and Ceftriaxone (62.7%). Conclusions: Over the past years, the resistance levels have been increasing gradually to the traditional drugs used for the treatment of UTI, and hence, a therapy based on the individual culture report and antibiotic sensitivity test is highly encouraged. The use of combinational drugs in the treatment of common infections may help reduce the spiking levels of resistance.
M. A. A. Faraz, S. Mendem *, M. V. Swamy and P. Shubham
Department of Pharmacy Practice, MNR College of Pharmacy, Sangareddy, Telangana, India.
03 August 2020
06 September 2020
23 May 2021
01 August 2021