RECENT REVIEW ON HERBAL APPROACHES TO REGULATE CANDIDA INFECTIONSHTML Full Text
RECENT REVIEW ON HERBAL APPROACHES TO REGULATE CANDIDA INFECTIONS
Mahesh Prasad Singh, Mohit Kumar, Amandeep Singh and Uttam Kumar Mandal *
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University (MRSPTU), Bathinda, Punjab, India.
ABSTRACT: Herbal plants have long been known to have antifungal properties. The medicinal plants are prospective in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and other anti-candida drugs. This article aims to review the reported herbal medicines with their research findings that have an enormous future prospective for the effective treatment of Candida infections. Various species of Candida were classified and their pathogenesis and mechanism of action were highlighted. Mechanisms of action of commonly used synthetic anti-candida drugs were compared to that of the herbal plants. Recent plant-based antifungal activity studies were analyzed. Ten species of candida, namely Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, Candida lusitaniae, Candida guilliermondii, Candida rugosa, Candida zeylanoides and Candida tropicalis were found to be responsible for infection in human. Plant-based natural products were found to produce anti-candida actions based ongermination inhibition and formation of biofilm, cell metabolism, cell wall integrity, cell membrane plasticity, and induction of apoptosis. Around 20 research works were analyzed, and it was found that the majority of the active constituents that produced anti-candida action belonged to the alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid and anthraquinone class of compounds.
Keywords: Candida infection, Herbal medicine, Antifungal activity, Medicinal plants, Candida albican, In-vivo testing
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 8.7 million eukaryotic species have been found on earth, out of which, 7% are fungi (611,000 species). However, only around 600 species of this number are regarded as human pathogens 1. Some of the species have mild skin infections, i.e., dermatophytes and Malassezia species, whereas Some other have critical cutaneous infections, i.e., S. schenkii and the rest cause congenital infections, i.e., Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, C. neoformans and A. fumigatus 2.
In USA, Candida species cause hospital non-heritable infections with a fatality rate of 50% 3. Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen with a major reason of mortality and morbidity, particularly in patients with impaired immune responsiveness 4. The major two types of superficial infections in humans caused by C. albicans are mucocutaneous candidiasis, vulvo vaginal candidiasis and dangerous systemic infections (e.g., GIT and genital system) 5.
In the case of buccal cavity infection, around 75% of the community is infected by Candida species. The oral Candida infections are known as “oral candidiasis 6. C. albicans may be responsible for such infections and may impact the pharynx & the digestive tract of persons with malfunctions of the innate immune system. The disease which is mostly responsible for Oral Candidiasis is HIV 7.
Approximately 74% of females suffer once in their life from fungal infection of the vagina 8. Major synthetic drugs like 5-flucytosin, amphotericin B and azoles are routinely used to treat Candida infection 9. However, these medicines become resistant over time and suffer from serious side effects. Plants are medicines sources for decades. From the earliest, plants have been a prominent source of efficient and safe medicines. Most Countries use plants as remedies, particularly in Asia and Africa. Medicinal plants originating from the desert play a vital role in the modern health service 10.
Due to their safe, effective, and inexpensive cost, indigenous remedies are renowned amongst the masses of India's urban and rural areas. Several plants have been reported for their important antifungal activities 11. This review exclusively highlights the plants that have been assessed for anti-candida activities with a suggestion for Promoting the use of these plants and the requirements of their extensive analysis and in-vivo testing.
1. Candida: Candidais a pathogenic fungus. This is generally recognized to cause fungal infection to human 12, 13. This fungusis identified to cause deep tissue and mucosal infections. Candida also affects the oesophagus, vagina, and GIT, apart from mucosal tissues with mouth. Fungal infection of vagina persists to be a world health hassle to females. Hospitalized patients are commonly having Candidal infections and are not easy to prevent 14, 15. Regarding 50% of juveniles have Candida yeasts in their oral mucosa. Candida infections can widen through the body and become dangerous, particular in patients with impaired immune responsiveness 16, 17. Candida can be divided into two forms, hyphae and yeast forms. The major source of infectious agent i.e. Candida is hyphae 3. Candida species produce biofilms on artificial substances, which aid attachment of the entity to devices and make the organism comparatively resistant to antifungal treatment 18. Candida biofilms associated with catheter paves the way to infections of bloodstream 19. Candida-infected catheters, particularly those associated with microbial biofilms, can account for up to 90% of infections among hospitalized patients, making them a leading cause of mortality 20. Candida has different species, and each communicates with the body in different route 21. Ten species are described below to highlight their pathogenesis and their mechanism of action.
1.1. Candida albicans: It is called an “expedient” fungus. C. albicans may cause the most common fungal infections in humans 22. Even though Candida albicans is typically not dangerous unchecked it can damage physiological processes 23.
1.2. Candida glabrata: It is present in the mucous membrane. C. glabrata may cause systemic & mucosal infections 24.
1.3. Candida parapsilosis: It is recognized for the reason of infection amongst newborns and in patients with impaired immune responsiveness 25, 26.
1.4. Candida krusei: It is a threat for persons who get received organ transplants 27.
1.5 Candida dubliniensis: It has been recognized in patients with HIV 28.
1.6. Candida lusitaniae: It is also known as opportunistic yeast; this fungus is found in patients with blood cancer 29, 30. Moreover, this fungus is resistant to the Amphotericin an antifungal drug 31.
1.7. Candida guilliermondii: This is a less recognized species. Candida guilliermondii can be hit to persons with low immunity 32.
1.8. Candida rugosa: It is a fungal pathogen 33. It has been found to be resistant to anti-fungicide drugs 34.
1.9. Candida zeylanoides: The sample of skin, blood and nails are the source of this fungus 35, 36. It has been possibly treated with intravenous (iv) amphotericin therapy 37.
1.10 Candida tropicalis: It is a common class of Candida which is resistant to fluconazole 38, 39.
2. Pathogenesis with Candida species: Three things are concerned for an infection to arise with Candida species: sources, the target of population, and transmission mode. Sources like surfaces and human skin are measured as the most vital sources for Candida infection 40. Immuno-compromised patients forever remain at high risk for Candida infection. C. albicansis normally transmitted from mother to newborn baby during childbirth. The unwarranted growth of C. albicansleads to disease symptoms and it arises due to the imbalances – Such as, alter vaginal acidity. The normal human microflora is the classic reservoir of C. albicans 41, 42. Candida contaminations are linked with the formation of biofilm. In fungal infections, biofilms can develop on an assortment of surfaces as well as host tissues and implanted biomaterials, including vascular catheters. Additionally, the systemic infection can be increased by biofilms. The biofilm-forming capability can be encouraged by various factors by C. albicans 43.
3. Complications with Candida Infection: According to earlier research, one-quarter of females who have had one yeast infection will have another within a year. Frequent yeast infections can jeopardize a person's health. Infections can also cause problems in relationships by interfering with normal sexual activity 44. Yeast infections are an unpleasant but minor health problem for most people. There aren’t many proofs that vaginal yeast infections might cause pregnancy complications. Pregnant women with yeast infections are more likely to have premature labour and preterm membrane rupture 45.
4. Antifungal Agents and Their Mechanism of Actions: There are numerous antifungal agents which are commonly used for Candida infection treatment. The list of conventional used antifungal agents, available dosage forms in the market, and the commonly observed side effects are listed in Table 1. The disruption of the cell membrane, cell division inhibition, and cell wall formation inhibition are common mechanisms of antifungal agents.
TABLE 1: LIST OF COMMONLY USED ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS AND THEIR COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS
|Name of Preparation||Active Ingredient||Dosage Form||Name of Manufacturer||Side Effects||Reference|
|1||Ketzol®||Ketoconazole||Cream||Anhui NHU Pharmaceutical||Burning, or irritation, severe itching||(www.everydayhealth.com)|
|2||Tebfin®||Terbinafine||Cream||Adams Pharmaceutical||Tingling dryness, redness Itching, Peeling, burning rash, stinging||(www.mayoclinic.org )|
|3||Canesten®||Clotrimazole||Cream||Bayer Healthcare||Severe dizzines, Swelling, rash, itching||(www.webmd.com)|
|4||Antifungal®||Tolnaftate||Lotion||Home Health||Dryness, itching, or peeling of treated skin.||(www.drugs.com)|
|5||FungaZoil®||Clotrimazole||Solution||PediFix||Vaginal/urethral itching, burning pain||(www.webmd.com)|
|6||Niosalic-6®||Clobetasol Propionate & Salicylic acid||Ointment||KLM Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.||Cracking, dry skin, changes in color of treated skin, blisters, pimples, acne||(www.rxlist.com)|
|7||Karpin®||Sodium thiosulphate, Sodium benzoate, Tartaric acid;||Lotion||DEYS Medicals||Dizziness, drowsiness, hypotension or a headache||(www.tabletwise.com)|
|8||Loprox®||Ciclopiroxolamine||Cream||Medicis Pharmaceutical Corp.||Redness, burning or itching a the application site||(www.webmd.com)|
|9||Mentax®||ButenafineHCl 1%||Cream||Mylan Pharmaceutical, Inc||Itching, burning, stinging||(www.rxlist.com)|
4.1. Cell Membrane Disruption: The membrane of cell interruption by attacking ergosterol occurs by ant fungicide agents. Ergosterol is same to mammal cholesterol 46.
4.2. Inhibition of Cell Division: Division of cell is influenced by nucleoside antifungal agents 47.
4.3. Inhibition of Cell Wall Formation: Interference of fungal cell layer synthesis has not been as better and efficient as penicillin’s and beta-lactam antibiotics oppose the bacteria 48.
5. Herbal Medicine as a Boom for Treatment of Candida Infections: Herbal medicine has developed to be a thing of global impact, both therapeutic and economical. Although the tradition of these herbal drugs has amplified, their worth, safety and effectiveness are serious concerns in industrialized and developing countries. Herbal preparation is receiving growing patient conformity as they are devoid of typical adverse effects of allopathic medicines 49, 50. Plants have been well-acknowledged for decades as a foremost basis of medicines since age. Several countries still utilize them as main preparations, mostly in Africa and Asia 51.
Herbal plants have been a rich resource of effective and harmless medicines from the earliest times. Due to their safe, effective, and inexpensive nature, indigenous remedies are admired among the people of both urban and rural areas in India 52.
5.1 Mechanism of Action of Anti-candida natural Products: The anti-Candida mechanisms of action began by plant-based natural products can involve germination, inhibition, and formation of biofilm, metabolism of the cell, the integrity of cell wall, the plasticity of the cell membrane, or may engage induction of programmed cell death given in Fig. 1. They are further elaborated on in the following section:
FIG. 1: MECHANISM OF ANTI-CANDIDA NATURAL PRODUCTS
Inhibition of Formation of Candida Biofilm and Transition to Hypha form: The switch of Candida from yeast to hyphae is mainly followed by the resistant formation of biofilm. Candida biofilms are hard to remove and are linked with resistance against many existing antifungals. Thyme oil is a chief element of Thymol, which can interfere with the metabolic activity of biofilm and the formation of biofilm grown-up 53.
Inhibition of Candida Germ Tube Formation: Among yeast and hyphal cells, GTF is a transitional stage which is an essential stage for Candida malignancy activity. GTF promotes fungal adhesion to inflamed tissues as well as penetration. C is inhibited by oregano essential oil. When compared to other essential oils, albicans are the most potent. The lipophilicity of essential oils and their interaction with the Candida cell wall cause alterations and damage to fungal cell structural and enzymatic elements, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 54.
Candida Cell Membrane Alteration: Terpenes can alter Candida cell permeability by getting entrapped between the fatty acyl chains of membrane lipid bilayers, altering lipid packing and, as a result, membrane shape and function 55.
Candida Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Interference: The respiration process in mitochondria is accompanied by the production of a large amount of ROS. ROS can injure proteins of cells, lipids, and DNA. HsAFP1 shows apoptic action against C. albicans 56.
Inhibition of Candida Adherence: The anti-adherent activity of C. albicans illustrated by the oil of R. officinalis. The bioactivity of R. officinalis is connected with its main chemical constituents, inclusive of limonene, cineole, and cymene 57.
Induction of Candida Apoptosis: Baicalein flavonoid shows potent activity as opposed to fluconazole-resistant C. albicans. C. albicans mainly inhibits by Baicalein by apoptosis Silibinin, extracted can cause Candida apoptosis through mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling interference. Ca2+ signaling plays a vital role in physiological processes and is associated with stress responses in fungi 58.
Interference with Candida Cell Metabolism: Allicin has a high anti-Candida effect, mostly through inhibiting thiol-containing amino acids and proteins, interfering with cell metabolism 59.
Interference with Candida Cell wall Integrity: During Candida cell growth and morphogenesis and in the face of extrinsic stresses that generate cell wall stress, cell wall integrity is critical. Several natural compounds have been demonstrated to interfere with the integrity of Candida cell walls 60.
6. Reported Research Works on Plant-Based Antifungal Activity: A glimpse of recent plant-based antifungal activity studies is presented in Table 2. Some of them are highlighted below. Plants Cassia occidentalis and Oxalis corniculata were indexed for skin disease treatment caused by fungi 61. Wrightiatintoriawas indexed as externally use in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis 62. The stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn. was reported as antibacterial and antifungal 63.
TABLE 2: LIST OF INVESTIGATED PLANTS FOR ANTI-CANDIDA ACTIVITY
|S. no.||Name of Plant & Family||Part Used||Chemical Class||Compound||Reference|
|1.||Ajania fruticulosa (Asteraceae)||Fruit||Xantholides||Seven different xantholides||64|
|2.||A.macrophylla (Rubiaceae)||Leaf||Non-glycosidic iridoid||l z- and Ijl-Hydroxydihydrocornin aglycon||65|
|3.||A.panurensis (Lau raceae)||Whole plant||Alkaloid||6,8-didec-(1Z)-enyl-5,7-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1Hindolizinium||66|
|4.||A. vulgaris (Ranunculaceae)||Leaves and stems||Flavonoid||41-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone 6-C-glucoside||67|
|5.||Avena sativam (Poaceae)||Root||Triterpenoid saponin||Avenacin||68|
|6.||Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae)||Leaf||Flavonoid||Luteoli||69|
|7.||C. Japonica (Theaceae)||Leaf||Saponin||Camellidins I and II||65|
|8.||Camptotheca acuminata (Cornaceae)||Leaf||Flavonoid||Trifolin and hyperoside||70|
|9.||Cassia occidentalis (Fabaceae)||Leaf, Seed & Pod||Anthraquinone||Derivative of anthraquinone||71|
|10.||Cassia tora (Leguminoceae)||Seeds||Anthraquinone||Emodin||72|
|11.||Celastrus hypoleucus (Celastraceae)||Root||Triterpenoid||Pristimerin, celastrol||67|
|12.||Detarium microcarpum (Leguminaceae)||Pulp||Diterpene||Clerodane diterpene
|13.||Dolichos lablab (Fabaceae)||Fruits||Protien||Dolichi||74|
|14.||Ecballium elaterium (Cucurbitaceae)||Fruit||Cucurbitacin||Cucurbitacin I||75|
|15.||Eupatorium riparium (Asteraceae)||Roots||Chromene||Methylripariochromene||76|
|16.||Glycosmis cyanocarpa (Rutaceae)||Leaf||Sulfur-containing amide||Sinharine, Methylsinharine||77|
|17.||Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae)||Leaf||Flavonoid||Trifoli||78|
|18.||P. regnellii (Piperaceae)||Leaf||Neolignan||Eupamatenoid-3, Eupamatenoid-5||79|
|19.||Rubia tinctorum (Rubiaceae)||Roots||Anthra-quinone||Alizarin, Aglycone and Emodin||80|
|20.||Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae)||Leaf||Flovonoids||Terpenes||81|
A variety of medicinal belongings have been accredited to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine 82. Numerous anthraquinones have been secluded from the seeds of C. tora. Sennosides have been well recognized for their medicinal significance. C. tora extract has been used as a treatment for a variety of skin diseases, rheumatic disease and as laxatives. C. tora leaves extract has been originated from acquiring major anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity. The seeds of C. tora have been used in Chinese medicine as diuretic agents, antiasthma, aperient, and better visual activity 83, 84. Ajania is a genus of flowering plants from the daisy family. The genus is resident in temperate Asia, primarily in Russia and China. Ajania fruticulosa (Ledeb.) Poljak (Asteraceae), circulated primarily in the northwestern part of China, has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine to treat appendicitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, and skin disease 85, 86. Traditionally used herbals for treatment of Candida in various parts of the world are shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3: TRADITIONALLY USED HERBAL PLANTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CANDIDA INFECTION
|S. no.||Plant / Active constituents||Dosage form||Effect||References|
|Rhus coriaria , Punica granatum, Eugenia caryophyllata,
|Extract||These extracts are capable of being clinically useful in candida infections||87|
|Menthalongifolia extracts confirmed the antifungal activity against fluconazole-resistant strains||88|
|3.||Terpenoids, Carvacrol, Cuminaldehyde||Extract||The combined extracts showed safe prevention of biofilm formation in C. albicans||89|
|4.||Elaeocarpus spp||Extract||Elaeocarpus spp. showed more powerful anti-infective agents in C. albicans||90|
|5.||Punica granatum||Extract||Pomegranaterevealed antimicrobial efficacy in Gram-positive bacteria and anti-candida activity||91|
|6.||Anadenanthera colubrina||Extract||Anti-Candida potential was evaluated mixture confirmed to be potential against Candida||93|
|7.||Litcubeba||Extract||Mixture confirmed to be potential against Candida||52|
|8.||Fraxinus angustifolia, Clematis flammula||Extract||Mixture shown efficacy against mucocutaneous infections caused by C. albicans biofilm||92|
|Extract||The mixtue of Zuccagniapunctate and Larreanitida showed remarkable results in C. albicans||93|
|10.||Aster yomena||Extract||A. yomena showed promising activity against C. albicans||94|
|Extract||Hibiscus sabdariffawas found to have potential activity for inhibiting the growth of C. Albicans||95|
|Extract||Studies confirmed the effectiveness of SV extract in reducing the growth of C. albicans||96|
|Extract||Ocimumamericanum showed efficacy against the C. albicans
|14.||Lippia junelliana, Laurus nobilis, Cymbopogon citrates, Menthe piperita, Thymu vulgaris||Essential oils||The essential oils of these mixtures showed to a fungal infection caused by a few Candida species||48|
|15.||Larrea cuneifolia, Larrea divaricata||Extract||The mixture of herbals weight their efficiency for candidiasis treatment||98|
|16.||Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Thymus vulgaris, Caryophillium aromaticus, Allium cepa, Echinophora platyloba||Extract||These extracts of various herbs show effectiveness in controlling Candida albicans||99|
|17.||Azadirachta Indica, Syzygium aromaticum
|Extract||The study's findings indicated that both plant extracts have antibacterial and antifungal action against Candida albicans||100|
|18.||Taraxacum officinale||Extract||The extract of Dandelion has a positive effect on Candida albicans||101|
|19.||Amukkara choornam||Extract||AmukkaraChoornam extracts have the potential to treat C. albicans biofilm-mediated infections as an alternative medication||102|
7. Future Aspects: The effects of the herbals can be synergizing by combining with probiotics, probiotics are well known for their beneficial effect to host when used in adequate amount. Probiotics work by their antifungal property, which is essential for anti-candida activity. Various researchers have already done research work by combining the probiotic stain with herbal drugs, but at present, no marketed formulation is available in probiotic with herbal drugs for the treatment of candida infections. There are many active moieties in herbals that have potent effects that can be used for different research purposes. The potential effects of these herbals in combination with probiotics should be assessed at an in-vivo level for maximum assurance about the plant's effect
CONCLUSION: As concluding remarks, several natural products obtained from plant sources have been tested for anti-Candida activities. These herbal products can target actual cause of the biological activities of Candida, including cell membrane plasticity, the integrity of cell wall, induction of programmed cell death, metabolism of the cell, host cell and respiratory chain adherence, germination, and formation of biofilm. Natural items' anti-Candida activities have been compared to controls, but only a handful have been studied in vivo, and none have ever been used therapeutically as anti-Candida. On the other hand, while some of these ingredients, such as ginger, garlic, probiotics, cinnamon, and peppermint, are available in pharmacies for different medical purposes, they have never been used as antifungals. Because Candida is a serious resistant fungus, there is an urgent need for new anti-Candida drugs; therefore, promoting some of the selected herbal medicines for clinical testing will be advantageous.
Funding: This review work was not supported by funding bodies in the public, private, or not-for-profit sectors.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We thank the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University (MRSPTU), Bathinda, India, for providing the necessary infrastructure.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The authors state that they have no financial or other conflicts of interest.
Supplementary Material: Not applicable.
- Kollu NV: Tackling Drug Resistant Pathogenic Fungi through Antimicrobial Nanostructured Surfaces 2020; 1: 1-94.
- Bilovol A, Tkachenko S, Berehova A, Havryliuk O and Manhusheva V: Dermatology. Venereology. Part 3: textbook for 4-year dentistry students (English medium) 2020; 1-53.
- Ciurea CN, Kosovski IB, Mare AD, Toma F, Pintea-Simon IA and Man A: Candida and Candidiasis Opportunism versus Pathogenicity: A Review of the Virulence Traits. Microorganisms 2020; 8: 857.
- Talapko J, Juzbašić M, Matijević T, Pustijanac E, Bekić S and Kotris I: Candida albicans the virulence factors and clinical manifestations of infection. J Fungi 2021; 7: 79.
- d’Enfert C, Kaune AK, Alaban LR, Chakraborty S, Cole N and Delavy M: The impact of the Fungus-Host-Microbiota interplay upon Candida albicans infections: current knowledge and new perspectives. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021; 45: 60.
- Lu SY: Oral Candidosis: Pathophysiology and Best Practice for Diagnosis, Classification and Successful Management. J Fungi 2021; 7: 555.
- Puel A: Human inborn errors of immunity underlying superficial or invasive Candidiasis. Hum Genet 2020; 139: 1011–22.
- Pandey M, Choudhury H, Abdul-Aziz A, Bhattamisra SK, Gorain B and Carine T: Promising drug delivery approaches to treat microbial infections in the vagina: a recent update. Polymers (Basel) 2021; 13: 26.
- Ford CB, Funt JM, Abbey D, Issi L, Guiducci C and Martinez DA: The evolution of drug resistance in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Elife 2015; 4: e00662.
- Jamshidi-Kia F, Lorigooini Z and Amini-Khoei H: Medicinal plants: Past history and future perspective. J herbmed Pharmacol 2018; 7.
- Giordani C, Simonetti G, Natsagdorj D, Choijamts G, Ghirga F and Calcaterra A: Antifungal activity of Mongolian medicinal plant extracts. Nat Prod Res 2020; 34: 449–55.
- Villar CC and Dongari‐Bagtzoglou A: Fungal diseases: oral dysbiosis in susceptible hosts. Periodontol 2000 2021; 87: 166–80.
- d’Enfert C: Hidden killers: persistence of opportunistic fungal pathogens in the human host. Curr Opin Microbiol 2009; 12: 358–64.
- Schulze J and Sonnenborn U: Yeasts in the gut: from commensals to infectious agents. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009; 106: 837.
- Hamad M, Kazandji N, Awadallah S and Allam H: Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of vaginal candidiasis in the UAE. Mycoses 2014; 57: 184–90.
- Elewski BE: Onychomycosis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998; 11: 415–29.
- Mayser P: Fungal Infections. Braun-Falco´ s Dermatology 2020; 1–36.
- Brand A: Hyphal growth in human fungal pathogens and its role in virulence. Int J Microbiol 2012; 2012.
- Ottaviano E, Baron G, Fumagalli L, Leite J, Colombo EA and Artasensi A: Candida albicans Biofilm Inhibition by Two Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry) Urinary Metabolites: 5-(3′, 4′-DihydroxyPhenyl)-γ-Valerolactone and 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid. Microorgani 2021; 9: 1492.
- DiDone L, Oga D and Krysan DJ: A novel assay of biofilm antifungal activity reveals that amphotericin B and caspofungin lyse Candida albicans cells in biofilms. Yeast 2011; 28: 561–8.
- Espinel-Ingroff A: Mechanisms of resistance to antifungal agents: yeasts and filamentous fungi. Rev Iberoam Micol 2008; 25: 101.
- Rossignol T, Lechat P, Cuomo C, Zeng Q and Moszer I: d’Enfert C. Candida DB a multi-genome database for Candida species and related Saccharomycotina. Nucleic Acids Res 2007; 36: 557–61.
- Alberti S and Hyman AA: Biomolecular condensates at the nexus of cellular stress, protein aggregation disease and ageing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021; 22: 196–213.
- Kumamoto CA: Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization. Curr Opin Micro 2011; 14: 386–91.
- Pecora F, Persico F, Argentiero A, Neglia C and Esposito S: The role of micronutrients in support of the immune response against viral infections. Nutrients 2020; 12: 3198.
- Trofa D, Gácser A and Nosanchuk JD: Candida parapsilosis, an emerging fungal pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008; 21: 606–25.
- Kuhn DM, Mukherjee PK, Clark TA, Pujol C, Chandra J and Hajjeh RA: Candida parapsilosis characterization in an outbreak setting. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10: 1074.
- Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Gibbs DL, Newell VA, Nagy E and Dobiasova S: Candida krusei, a multidrug-resistant opportunistic fungal pathogen: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005. J Clin Microbi 2008; 46: 515–21.
- Fiorcari S, Maffei R, Vallerini D, Scarfò L, Barozzi P and Maccaferri M: BTK inhibition impairs the innate response against fungal infection in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Front Immunol 2020; 11: 2158.
- Brandt ME, Harrison LH, Pass M, Sofair AN, Huie S and Li RK: Candida dubliniensis fungemia: the first four cases in North America. Emerg Infect Dis 2000; 6: 46.
- Holzschu DL, Presley HL, Miranda M and Phaff HJ: Identification of Candida lusitaniae as an opportunistic yeast in humans. J Clin Microbiol 1979; 10: 202–5.
- Girmenia C, Pizzarelli G, Cristini F, Barchiesi F, Spreghini E and Scalise G: Candida guilliermondii fungemia in patients with hematologic malignancies. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 2458–64.
- Patel DA, Gillespie B, Sobel JD, Leaman D, Nyirjesy P and Weitz MV: Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in women receiving maintenance antifungal therapy: results of a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 644–53.
- Giray B, Karadağ AE, İpek ÖŞ, Pekel H, Güzel M and Küçük HB: Design and synthesis of novel cylopentapyrazoles bearing 1, 2, 3-thiadiazole moiety as potent antifungal agents. Bioorg Chem 2020; 95: 103509.
- Waghule T, Sankar S, Rapalli VK, Gorantla S, Dubey SK and Chellappan DK: Emerging role of nanocarriers based topical delivery of anti‐fungal agents in combating growing fungal infections. Dermatol Ther 2020; 33: e13905.
- Levenson D, Pfaller MA, Smith MA, Hollis R, Gerarden T and Tucci CB: Candida zeylanoides: another opportunistic yeast. J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29: 1689–92.
- Hazen KC: New and emerging yeast pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev 1995; 8: 462–78.
- Parkinson T, Falconer DJ and Hitchcock CA: Fluconazole resistance due to energy-dependent drug efflux in Candida glabrata. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995; 39: 1696–9.
- Ann Chai LY, Denning DW and Warn P: Candida tropicalis in human disease. Crit Rev Microbiol 2010; 36: 282–98.
- Pappas PG, Lionakis MS, Arendrup MC, Ostrosky-Zeichner L and Kullberg BJ: Invasive candidiasis. Nat Rev Dis Prim 2018; 4: 1–20.
- Fanello S, Bouchara JP, Jousset N, Delbos V and LeFlohic A-M: Nosocomial Candida albicans acquisition in a geriatric unit: epidemiology and evidence for person-to-person transmission. J Hosp Infect 2001; 47: 46–52.
- Deka N, Hassan S, Seghal Kiran G and Selvin J: Insights into the role of vaginal microbiome in women’s health. J Basic Microbiol 2021; 42: 1071-84.
- Desai JV, Mitchell AP and Andes DR: Fungal biofilms, drug resistance, and recurrent infection. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014; 4: 019729.
- Blostein F, Levin-Sparenberg E, Wagner J and Foxman B: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Ann Epidemiol 2017; 27: 575–82.
- Achkar JM and Fries BC: Candida infections of the genitourinary tract. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010; 23: 253–73.
- Campoy S and Adrio JL: Antifungals. Biochem Pharmacol 2017; 133: 86–96.
- Spampinato C and Leonardi D: Candida infections, causes, targets, and resistance mechanisms: traditional and alternative antifungal agents. Biomed Res Int 2013; 2013.
- Cortés JCG, Curto MÁ, Carvalho VSD, Pérez P and Ribas JC: The fungal cell wall as a target for the development of new antifungal therapies. Biotechnol Adv 2019; 37: 107352.
- Bhattacharjee T, Sen S, Chakraborty R, Maurya PK and Chattopadhyay A: Cultivation of medicinal plants: Special reference to important medicinal plants of India. In: Herbal Medicine in India. Springer 2020; 101–15.
- Gow NAR and Yadav B: Microbe Profile: Candida albicans: a shape-changing, opportunistic pathogenic fungus of humans. Microbiology 2017; 163: 1145–7.
- Khan FA, Slain D and Khakoo RA: Candida endophthalmitis: focus on current and future antifungal treatment options. Pharmacother J Hum Pharmacol Drug Ther 2007; 27: 1711–21.
- Pedroso R dos S, Balbino BL, Andrade G, Dias MCPS, Alvarenga TA and Pedroso RCN: In-vitro and in-vivo anti-Candida spp. activity of plant-derived products. Plants 2019; 8: 494.
- Potente G, Bonvicini F, Gentilomi GA and Antognoni F: Anti-Candida Activity of Essential Oils from Lamiaceae Plants from the Mediterranean Area and the Middle East. Antibiotics 2020; 9: 395.
- Carradori S, Chimenti P, Fazzari M, Granese A and Angiolella L: Antimicrobial activity, synergism and inhibition of germ tube formation by Crocus sativus-derived compounds against Candida spp. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2016; 31: 189–93.
- López-Malo A, Alzamora SM, Paris MJ, Lastra-Vargas L, Coronel MB and Gómez PL: Naturally occurring compounds–Plant sources. Antimicrob food 2020; 527–94.
- Atriwal T, Chawla M, Hussain A, Alajmi MF and Abid M: Reactive oxygen mediated apoptosis as a therapeutic approach against opportunistic Candida albicans. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2021; 125: 25–49.
- Cavalcanti YW, Almeida L de FD de and Padilha WWN: Anti-adherent activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on Candida albicans: an SEM analysis. Rev Odonto Ciência 2011; 26: 139–44.
- Serpa R, França EJG, Furlaneto-Maia L, Andrade CGTJ, Diniz A and Furlaneto MC: In-vitro antifungal activity of the flavonoid baicalein against Candida species. J Med Microbiol 2012; 61: 1704–8.
- Singh DK and Singh VK: Pharmacological Effects of Allium sativum(Garlic. Annu Rev Biomed Sci 2008; 10: 6–26.
- Sandini S, Stringaro A, Arancia S, Colone M, Mondello F and Murtas S: The MP65 gene is required for cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Candida albicans. BMC Microbiol 2011; 11: 1–16.
- Thakur S and Sidhu MC: Medicinal plant remedies for dermatological problems. Curr Bot 2017; 8: 23–33.
- Khyade MS and Vaikos NP: Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.-a review on its ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and pharmacological profile. J Coa Life Med 2014; 2: 826–40.
- Velraj M, Sowmya D and Sindhukavi D: Formulation and evaluation of herbal gel from the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata for antimicrobial activity. Drug Invent Today 2019; 11.
- Sampietro DA, Gomez A de los A, Jimenez CM, Lizarraga EF, Ibatayev ZA and Suleimen YM: Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from medicinal plants of Kazakhstan. Nat Prod Res 2017; 31: 1464–7.
- Aqil F, Zahin M, Ahmad I, Owais M, Khan MSA and Bansal SS: Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts and phytocompounds: a review. Combat Fungal Infect 2010; 449–84.
- Klausmeyer P, Chmurny GN, McCloud TG, Tucker KD and Shoemaker RH: A Novel Antimicrobial Indolizinium Alkaloid from Aniba p anurensis. J Nat Prod 2004; 67: 1732–5.
- Abad MJ, Ansuategui M and Bermejo P: Active antifungal substances from natural sources. Arkivoc 2007; 7: 6–145.
- Bylka W, Szaufer‐Hajdrych M, Matławska I and Goślińska O: Antimicrobial activity of isocytisoside and extracts of Aquilegia vulgaris Lett Appl Microbiol 2004; 39: 93–7.
- Pang Y, Wang D, Fan Z, Chen X, Yu F and Hu X: Blumea balsamifera A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Molecules 2014; 19: 9453–77.
- Wink M, Alfermann AW, Franke R, Wetterauer B, Distl M and Windhövel J: Sustainable bioproduction of phytochemicals by plant in-vitro cultures: anticancer agents. Plant Genet Resour 2005; 3: 90–100.
- Lombardo M, Kiyota S, Kato ETM, Mathor MB, Pinto T de JA and Kaneko TM: Evaluation of in-vitro biological properties of Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. Acta Sci Biol Sci 2015; 37: 9–13.
- Jain S and Patil UK: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Cassia tora Linn.-An Overview. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2010; 1: 430-7.
- Sani A, Agunu A, Danmalam UH and Hajara I: Pharmacognostic Studies of the Stem Bark of Detarium Microcarpum-Guill. and Perr.(Fabaceae). Nat Prod Chem Res 2014; 1: 1-8.
- Al-Snafi AE: The pharmacology and medical importance of Dolichos lablab (Lablab purpureus)-A review. IOSR J Pharm 2017; 7: 22–30.
- Felhi S, Daoud A, Hajlaoui H, Mnafgui K, Gharsallah N and Kadri A: Solvent extraction effects on phytochemical constituents profiles, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and functional group analysis of Ecballium elaterium seeds and peels fruits. Food Sci Technol 2017; 37: 483–92.
- Atkinson N and Brice HE: antibacterial substances produced by flowering plants. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 1955; 33.
- Yasir M, Tripathi MK, Singh P and Shrivastava R: The Genus Glycosmis [Rutaceae]: A Comprehensive Review on its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Perspectives. Nat Prod J 2019; 9: 98–124.
- Gupta G, Kazmi I, Afzal M, Rahman M and Anwar F: Anxiolytic effect of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) in mice. Asian pacific J Trop Dis 2012; 2: S837–40.
- Benevides PJC, Sartorelli P and Kato MJ: Phenylpropanoids and neolignans from Piper regnellii. Phytochemistry 1999; 52: 339–43.
- Kalyoncu F, Cetin B and Saglam H: Antimicrobial activity of common madder (Rubia tinctorum L.). Phyther Res An Int J Devoted to Pharmacol Toxicol Eval Nat Prod Deriv 2006; 20: 490–2.
- Reddy YSR, Venkatesh S, Ravichandran T, Subburaju T and Suresh B: Pharmacognostical studies on Wrightia tinctoria Pharm Biol 1999; 37: 291–5.
- Shadab M and Shamsi S: Original Research Article (Experimental): Design and Development of Unani Emulgel for Vitiligo. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2020; 11: 199–205.
- Krishnan N, Ramanathan S, Sasidharan S, Murugaiyah V and Mansor SM: Antimicrobial activity evaluation of Cassia spectabilis leaf extracts. IJP-International J Pharmacol 2010; 6: 510–4.
- Dubey P and Sett R: Antifungal properties of seeds Cassia tora Hortic Int J 2018; 2: 299–301.
- Meng JC, Hu YF, Chen JH and Tan RX: Antifungal highly oxygenated guaianolides and other constituents from Ajania fruticulosa. Phytochemistry 2001; 58: 1141–5.
- Kulus D: Application of synthetic seeds in propagation, storage, and preservation of Asteraceae plant species. In: Synthetic Seeds. Springer 2019; 155–79.
- Khodaii Z, Eslami S, Kamalinejad M, Mirzaei A and Natanzi MM: Evaluation of aqueous-extracts from four aromatic plants for their activity against Candida albicans adhesion to human HEp-2 epithelial cells. Gene Reports 2020; 18: 100554.
- Yassin MT, Mostafa AA and Al-Askar AA: Anticandidal and anti-carcinogenic activities of Mentha longifolia (Wild Mint) extracts in-vitro. J King Saud Univ 2020; 32: 2046–52.
- Touil HFZ, Boucherit K, Boucherit-Otmani Z, Kohder G, Madkour M and Soliman SSM: Optimum inhibition of amphotericin-B-Resistant Candida albicans strain in single-and mixed-species biofilms by Candida and non-Candida terpenoids. Biomolecules 2020; 10: 342.
- Ponmurugan P, Parimelazhagan T, Rajendran A, Gurusaravanan P, Sekar T and Suganya M: antibacterial activity of elaeocarpus spp: an in-vitro Int J Pharm Biol Sci Arch 2020; 8.
- Chinsembu KC. Plants and other natural products used in the management of oral infections and improvement of oral health. Acta Trop 2016; 154: 6–18.
- Ourabah A, Atmani-Kilani D, Debbache-Benaida N, Kolesova O, Azib L and Yous F: Anti-Candida albicans biofilm activity of extracts from two selected indigenous Algerian plants: Clematis flammula and Fraxinus angustifolia. J Herb Med 2020; 20: 100319.
- Butassi E, Svetaz LA, Sortino MA, Quiroga AD, Carvalho VSD and Cortés JCG: Approaches to the mechanism of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata-Larrea nitida bi-herbal combination. Phytomedicine 2019; 54: 291–301.
- Lee W, Woo ER and Lee DG: Effect of apigenin isolated from Aster yomena against Candida albicans: apigenin-triggered apoptotic pathway regulated by mitochondrial calcium signaling. J Ethnopharmacol 2019; 231: 19–28.
- Tolulope M: Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. J Med Plants Res 2007; 1: 9–13.
- Prêcheur I, Rolland Y, Hasseine L, Orange F, Morisot A and Landreau A: Solidago virgaurea plant extract targeted against Candida albicans to reduce oral microbial biomass: a double blind randomized trial on healthy adults. Antibiotics 2020; 9: 137.
- Thaweboon S and Thaweboon B: In-vitro antimicrobial activity of Ocimum americanum essential oil against oral microorganisms 2009; 5: 1025-33.
- Espino M, Solari M, los Ángeles Fernández M de, Boiteux J, Gómez MR and Silva MF: NADES-mediated folk plant extracts as novel antifungal agents against Candida albicans. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2019; 167: 15–20.
- Gavanji S and Larki B: Comparative effect of propolis of honey bee and some herbal extracts on Candida albicans. Chin J Integr Med 2017; 23: 201–7.
- Bansal V, Gupta M, Bhaduri T, Shaikh SA, Sayed FR and Bansal V: Assessment of antimicrobial effectiveness of neem and clove extract against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans: an in-vitro Niger Med J J Niger Med Assoc 2019; 60: 285.
- Liang Y, Duan H, Zhang P, Han H, Gao F and Li Y: Extraction and isolation of the active ingredients of dandelion and its antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Mol Med Rep 2020; 21: 229–39.
- Rajamohamed BS and Siddharthan S: Modulatory effects of Amukkara Choornam on Candida albicans biofilm: in-vitro and in-vivo Mol Biol Rep 2019; 46: 2961–9
How to cite this article:
Singh MP, Kumar M, Singh A and Mandal UK: Recent review on herbal approaches to regulate Candida infections. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2022; 13(7): 2621-30. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.13(7). 2621-30.
All © 2022 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Mahesh Prasad Singh, Mohit Kumar, Amandeep Singh and Uttam Kumar Mandal *
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University (MRSPTU), Bathinda, Punjab, India.
20 October 2021
28 December 2021
11 May 2022
01 July 2022