REVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE THERAPY IN HEALTH AND MEDICINEHTML Full Text
REVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE THERAPY IN HEALTH AND MEDICINE
T. M. Kalyankar*, M. S. Attar and G. H. Shinde
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, S. R. T. M. University, Nanded - 431606, Maharashtra, India
The phrase alternative therapy is used to explain a wide range of treatments which, generally, are not available from conventional doctors. It may be diverse for different diseases. The Alternative therapy focuses on the many things from diet to exercise and lifestyle. Many people suffering from disease are looking for the management of diseases with the help of alternative therapies. According to physicians, most of the alternative therapies started with clinical observation or scientific research. These therapies include yoga, aromatherapy, massage, hypnosis, biofeedback, herbal remedies and many others. The main advantage of these therapies is to treat the basic cause of disease and health related problems or to support the conventional therapies. Not only are the variety of alternative therapies measured to be safe and effective, they also deal individuals a wide variety of health therapy that simply do not exist through conventional treatment. This article focuses on different alternative therapies with their benefits in conventional therapies which can promise ultimate answers to treat the diseases.
INTRODUCTION: The phrase alternative therapy is used to explain a wide range of treatments which, generally, are not available from conventional doctors. It may be diverse for different diseases. The Alternative therapy focuses on the many things from diet to exercise and lifestyle. Many people suffering from disease are looking for the management of diseases with the help of alternative therapies. The traditional medicines sometimes do not cure or treat disease without any side effects to the body.
Valid or not, alternative therapies often offer people those answers. In addition, people are becoming much more practical in their health care judgements. Due to the internet there is huge information available on health and alternative therapy to the consumer. On the basis of such information the people decide which course is suitable for him/her to meet their needs.
The natural therapy is an old therapy as compared to western treatment. According to physicians, most alternative therapies started with clinical observation or scientific research. The medicines used are safe and include natural substances.
One primary goal of alternative medicines is to relieve people from depending mostly on modern drug usage and support them manage their life naturally. Now many people move towards the use of alternative therapy for prevention of diseases and solve their day to day health related problem.
These therapies include yoga, aromatherapy, massage, hypnosis, biofeedback, herbal remedies and many others. The alternative therapy having much more advantages today this is known by the health professional.
The main advantage of the alternative therapy is the treatment of the basic cause of disease and health related problems. The treatment of body with nature decreases side effects. Many times widespread use of the conventional drug causes loss of their effectiveness.
Not only are the variety of alternative therapies measured to be safe and effective, they also deal individuals a wide variety of health therapy that simply do not exist through conventional treatment. Supporters of alternative medicine accept that the placebo effect may play an important role in the benefits expected from some alternative treatments. They also state, that this should not reduce the ratio of these therapies. It should necessary to patients tell if they take any alternative therapy medicine, because sometime alternative treatments may interact with traditional medical treatments, and other such potential difference should be explored in the attention of the patient. With the getting higher expenditure of prescription drug and the growing number of information about the hazards and side effects related to prescription drugs, many consumers are now looking for alternatives.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine were the first journal in this field to be indexed in the National Library of Medicine. Alternative medical therapies include Acupressure, Anthroposophy, Ayurveda, Bioelectromagnetic therapy, Biofeedback, Chiropractic, Craniosacral therapy, Creative therapy, Phytotherapy, Homeopathy, Hypnotherapy, Massage, Mind-Body therapy, Psychotherapy, Naturopathy, Spiritual Healing, Tibetan Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Unani and Yoga.
Ayurveda, a medical system and a science of life that was believed to have originated in India 6000 years BC 1. Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners usually prescribe combinations of herbal medicines 2. Phytotherapy is the use of plant materials to prevent and treat ill health or promote wellness. The practice dates to antiquity, yet remains current 3.
Traditional Chinese medicine describes the pathophysiology of the body.
Introduction: Acupressure is the deep massage and pressure on the acupuncture points located in all body parts. The simple strategy is that if the points hurt with stress that point needs in attention. It simulates the organ to open the energy and circulate it 4.
History: The term acupressure is 5000 years old. Great nationalist scientists of China, Mao-testing in fact re-established the beauty of this method of treatment since 1949 AD; however it became prominent all over the world 4. As the years progressed, contiguous cultures like Indian, Japans and Thailand accept acupressure.
Parameter for diagnosis: During a first visit, the practitioner will discuss with you about medical history and behavior a fairly thorough medical intake and exam. During the intake, your acupressureist may check your pulse at the wrist as well as look at your tongue; these are two important diagnostic parameters in acupressure.
Major disease cured: The major diseases cured by this therapy includes Back pain, Headaches and migraine, arthritis, Fibromyalgia treatment, High Blood Pressure, Back Pain, Weight Loss, used to treat motion sickness.
Medicine use to treat disease:
TABLE 1: ACUPRESSURE POINT AND THEIR BENEFITS
|Name of Acupressure Point||Location of Point||Benefits|
|Sea of vitality||Between the 2nd and 3rdvertebrae||Relieves the back pain.|
|Elegant mansion||Bellow the protrusion of the collarbone||Relieves the asthma, anxiety, depression and stimulates the flow of the oxygen and plasma|
|Sea of energy||Two finger's width away from the belly button.||Reduces abdominal pain, boosts the immune system and reduces fatigue.|
|Bigger rushing||Present at the top of foot, in between the bid toe and 2nd toe||Cure headache, hangovers and eye fatigue.|
|Crooked pond||Upper elbow||Reduces elbow pain, constipation and cures fever.|
About more than thousand pressure points are present in our body that are 6 point present in the spleen, 36 points present in the stomach, 11points found in large intestine and 3 points present in the liver are stimulated.
Side effect: Usually there are no side effects. Acupressure is a very safe method of encouraging the body to promote natural healing and get better function. If it is not done properly, acupressure infrequently causes severe side effects like nerve damage, and muscle injury.
Introduction: Anthroposophy is a human oriented religious philosophy that can reflect as well as speaks to the basic deep religious questions of the humanity, to the basic creative needs. The ward Anthroposophy is composed of the Anthropos means a human being and Sophia means wisdom.
History: The Anthroposophy therapy starts from ending of the 19th century and start of the 20th century. It is developed by Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925). From 2007, state wise branches of the anthroposophical society have developed in fifty countries. In 2007 the Anthroposophical Society is called the main society in European history 5.
Parameter for diagnosis: The preliminary and most significant tool that we possess is the patient's history and physical exam, as prolonged by anthroposophical insight. Cramps can be the manifestation of an overstated activity of the astral body, for example. Certain physiognomic merits can point us to particular organ diagnoses.
Major disease cured: The major diseases cured include Depression, Grover's disease, Gum disease, spraying due to more excitement, Menopausal Weight Loss.
Medicine use to treat disease: The medicine used in the treatment like Gentian Stomach Tonic and Grapefruit Seed Extract, Supplements, Teas, Skincare, Oils and Ointments, Ampoules 6.
Side effect: General reactions from topical application, systemic hypersensitivity including very rare cases of anaphylactic reactions, and aggravation of pre-existing symptoms in susceptible patients.
Introduction: Ayurveda is a word composed of the ayus means life and Veda means knowledge. The Ayurveda sciences help in the restore our body, soul and mind. This is used as alternative therapy during Buddhism 7.
History: Ayurveda is a science of life; prevention and long life are the oldest and most holistic medical system offered on the planet today. It was located in written form more than 5,000 years ago in India, it was said to be a world remedy dealing with together body and spirit. Ayurveda became a second-class alternative used primarily by established spiritual practitioners and the poor 7.
Parameter for diagnosis: In Ayurveda diagnosis of the disease is done by assessing various parameters such as Tongue, Face, Pulse, Nail, Lips, and Eyes. The different methods for diagnosis are Pulse Diagnosis, Tongue Diagnosis, Nail Diagnosis, Lip Diagnosis, and Eye Diagnosis 8.
Major disease cured: By use of the Ayurveda therapy huge number of diseases are cured for example Acne, Loss of Appetite, Acidity, Backache, Common Cold, Asthma, Epilepsy, Dysentery, Immunity Disorder, Kidney Stone, Loss of Memory, Piles, Blood Pressure, Weakness and Fatigue.
Medicine use to treat disease: Ayurvedic treatment was based upon the herbs and other plants.
TABLE 2: SOURCES OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINES
|Type of the medicine||Examples|
|Plant based medicine||Cardamom, Cinnamon, Digitalis|
|Animal based medicine||Milk and bones.|
|Mineral based medicine||Sulfur, Arsenic, Lead and Gold.|
|Vata, Pitta and Kapha balancing food||Grapefruit, Grapes, Kiwi, Lemons, Melon, Oranges, Papaya, White Rice, Wheat, Wheat Bran, Leafy Greens, Leeks, Lettuce, Mushrooms, Okra, Onions,. Sweet, juicy vegetables is aggravating, Fresh Figs, Apples, Avocado, Berries, Dates, Figs, Grapes, Mango, Melons, Pears, Garlic, Ginger, Horseradish, Mint, Mustard Seeds, Nutmeg, Onion, Oregano, Paprika, Parsley, and Peppermint.|
Side effect 9-11: There is common side effect occurred due to the Ayurveda therapy like Nausea, Heartburn, diarrhea, Tooth decay, Headache and Gastrointestinal upset.
Introduction: Bio-electromagnetic Therapy is the use of electromagnetic fields to treat and prevent disease and promote health, longevity and well-being. Electromagnetism is a dominant clinical device, simple to apply yet difficult in its biological property.
History: Magnetism has been used medicinally in China form more than 2,000 years. Our capability to produce and manage electromagnetic fields and to use them to identify and treat has prolonged extremely with the beginning of electricity and electromagnetic. Fifteen years ago, Dr. Andrew Bassett establishes the first FDA approved device by means of pulsed electromagnetic fields. A turning point for the development of the magnetism in 1958 when a California state public health department held hearings which ordered the testing of the Rife frequency devices.
Parameter for diagnosis: The diagnosis of the disease from the patient’s examination and history is done.
Major disease cured: The major disease is cured by the application of Bioelectromagnetic therapy as Arthritis, Bronchitis, Diabetes, Elbow Pain, Heart Diseases, Kidney Failure, Psoriasis, Insomnia, Trauma, Wrinkle, and Glaucoma etc.
Medicine use to treat disease: In the treatment of the disease the devises used like Low Intensity Laser and Led Phototherapy, Electroencephalogram, Electro- cardiogram, and Magnetic Resonance Imagine 12-13.
Side effect: Some of the recognized effects of electromagnetic fields take account of accelerated healing, increased ATP, blood clot lysis, disruption in sleep, improved moment of calcium, bone formation and untested UN provén electrical devices may pose some risk. There should be a report of the injuries due to the faulty electrical wiring and misuse of equipment. 12.
Introduction: The biofeedback therapy helpful in the improvement of their health by using signals from their body. Biofeedback is the process of becoming aware of various physiological body functions using instruments that give information on the movement of those same systems, with an objective of being able to use them at will.
History: Neal Miller, John Basmanjian, and Joe Kamiya contribute their philosophical, social and scientific activities for development of biofeedback hence called Father of Biofeedback. The conference resulted in the beginning of the Biofeedback Research Society, which legitimate normally isolated researchers to make contact with and work together with each other, and popularizing the term biofeedback.
Parameter for diagnosis: In the diagnosis of disease by biofeedback therapy various types of devise are used to knowing the heart rate, blood pressure and to measure temperature, muscle tension. The records collected from device helpful in the diagnosis of disease
Major disease cured: It is helpful in the treatment of various diseases includes reduction of nerve damage in certain types of epilepsy, high blood pressure, stress, insomnia and anxiety.
Medicine use to treat disease: The different types of devices are used in the treatment of disease conditions by biofeedback such as Temperature biofeedback, EMG biofeedback, EEG biofeedback, Galvanic Skin Response 14, 15.
Side effect: Biofeedback therapy is considered as safe, having no known negative side effect. The control over certain process is essential.
Introduction: The chiropractic therapy highlight on the relationship between the body structure and body function. The word chiropractic comes from a Greek term means done by hand.
History: D.D Palmer found chiropractic in the 1890s, and his son B.J Palmer help to develop it in the early 20th century.
Chiropractic is a health care professional’s deal with the prevention, analysis and treatment of the disease of the nuroskletal system and the impact of these conditions on the general health 16. A large number of chiropractors want to separate them from the traditional vital concept of innate intelligence 17.
Parameter for diagnosis: The diagnosis of disease in the Chiropractic therapy was done by the Physical examination (Visual Inspection, Examination of Related Area of the body) and history of injury.
Major disease cured: The chiropractic is used for Back Pain and other Pain of Muscle and Bone. However, it also used to treat heart diseases, epilepsy and allergies, stress, accidents, tension and reducing spinal nerves 18, 19.
Medicine use to treat disease: Chiropractic adjustment based on the vertebral subluxation assumption may be offered a placebo effect that is outweighed by a placebo effect 20. A system of treatment stands on the theory that the state of a person's health is strong-minded in general by the state of his or her nervous system. These treatments provided by the chiropractic include the spinal cord manipulation. Some practitioners use radiology for diagnosis and use physiotherapy and diet for spinal manipulation. The chiropractor should be well informed regarding your medical history, including on-going medical situation, current medications, surgical history, and lifestyle factors, in which the other therapy used like massage, homeopathy and vitamin therapy.
Side effect: The side effects of the chiropractic treatments depend upon the type of the treatment employed. However serious side effects are as Stroke, Local Discomfort, and Vertebral Artery Dissection.
Introduction: Craniosacral therapist told that the relationship between the fluid in the head and the sacrum and that the rhythm of the fluid that flows between these regions can be detected like a pulse. They state that their treatment normalizes, balances, and gets rid of obstruction in various systems of the body. They say that with obstruction disconnected, then body function in a normal manner 21.
History: The Craniosacral Therapy was originated by Dr. John Upledger, an osteopath, in the 1970s. It is based on an advance popularized by Dr. William Sutherland, an osteopath in the early 1900's 22-24.
Parameter for diagnosis: In the Upledger method of Craniosacral therapy, a ten-step procedure serves as a general parameter, which includes analyzing the base cranial rhythm, creating a still point in that rhythm at the base of the skull, addressing the pelvic, respiratory and thoracic diaphragms, releasing the hyoid bone in the throat and addressing each one of the cranial bones 7-10.
Major disease cured: Many types of diseases are cured by the craniosacral therapy as migraine, stress related disorders, connective tissue disorders, nervous system disorders and immune disorders 25.
Medicine use to treat disease: Biodynamic Craniosacral therapy is a form of energy medicine that hands on treatment. Craniosacral therapy works at the edge of energy flow and physical structures. It works directly with your body ½s tissues, but can have a positive force on the energy systems that connect the body, mind and emotions.
Side effect: The few side effects are associated with the Craniosacral therapy are as traumatic brain syndrome, the occurrences of adverse effects are 5%. 25.
Introduction: Herbal medicine, or Phytotherapy, is the science of herbal remedies to treat the diseases. Herbal medicine is the oldest and still the generally used system of medicine on the planet today. It is a medicine made totally from plants. It is used in all societies and is familiar in all cultures 26.
History: The term was introduced by the French physician Henri Leclerc (1870-1955). History of the herbal medicine starts from the last 5000 years, it continues today. In 2800 B.C. the first written record of the herbal medicine was found in the 1900 A.D. 27, 28.
Parameter for diagnosis: The different methods for diagnosis are Pulse Diagnosis, Tongue Diagnosis, Nail Diagnosis, Lip Diagnosis and Eye Diagnosis and Health status of the person.
Major disease cured: The various types of diseases are cured by the herbal medicine like menopause, arthritis, eczema, gastritis, depression, back pain and migraine 29.
Medicine use to treat disease: The diseases cured by this therapy includes Sage, Skullcap, Black Cohosh, Chinese Angelica, White Willow, Devil's Claw, Turmeric, Bog Bean, Heartsease, Nettle Leaf, St Johns Wort, Plantain Herb, Turmeric, Liquorice, Meadowsweet, Camomile, Marsh Mellow, Lemon Balm, Skullcap, Vervain, Valerian, Red Clover 30-32.
Side effect: The some side effects occurred which is related to the herbal medicine therapy are skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, depression and insomnia.
Introduction: Homeopathy is a new age medicine. Homeopathy is a Greek word homeo-like and pathos means suffering. The homeopathy based on the principle of the like cure to like in means those substances produces symptoms in a healthy person, can cure the same symptoms in that person33.
History: Homeopathy was coined by the Dr. Samuel Christian Freiedrich in the 1755-1843. The Materia Medica between 1811 and 1821 A.D. now a day’s WHO estimates that about 500 millions of people use homeopathy medicine today 34.
Parameter for diagnosis: Homeopathy remedies or therapy diagnosis depends upon the observation of individual symptoms. The detailed history of the patients is needed for the diagnosis and the physical, mental and emotional state has been also checked 35.
Major disease cured: The mainly this therapy is used in the management of the Stress management, food allergy, asthma, Acne Pimples, Alcoholism, Hair Loss, Amenorrhoea, Anaemia, Angina pectoris Appendicitis, Arteriosclerosis, Arthritis, Asthma, Backache Bronchitis Bulimia, Candida, Carbuncle, Chickenpox, Cholera, Chronic Renal Failure, Abdomen Pain, Diabetes, Diarrhoea, Diphtheria, Drooling, Epilepsy, Epistaxis, Erysipelas and Gonorrhoea.
Medicine use to treat disease: Homeopathy uses much animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic substances in its remedies. Examples include arsenic oxide, sodium chloride or table salt, the venom of the bushmaster snake, Opium, and thyroid hormone therapy, such as, Ignatia, Kali Phos, Bryonia, Arnica, Silicea and a host of others are used to cure diseases in homeopathy.
Side effect: The side effects of the homeopathy include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, cancer, heartburn, dryness of mouth, dryness of the vaginal mucosa.
Introduction: Hypnosis therapy is used to induce person's motivation or to change behavior to determine the nature of the problem of the patients. The word hypnosis is derived from Greek term Hypnos which means sleep. The hypnosis is a most effective tool to communicate our self. The hypnosis is based upon the interpretation of the test result and analysis of the patients 36.
History: The term Hypnosis is widespread by Dr. James Braid from 1880s and after the death of the Dr. James Braid the term hypnotism has been adopted in France in 1841 37. The hypnosis has been tracked back to 3000 B.C. in Egypt where there is asleep temple. Its treatment is associated with the Imhotep.
Parameter for diagnosis: The diagnosis of disease in hypnosis by observing parameters like Drift of outstretched hands, Finger–nose test, Finger dexterity, Binocular visual fields, to confrontation, Eye movements, Facial weakness, papillary responses and Horner’s syndrome, Tendon reflexes and plantar responses, Fundoscopy
Major disease cured: Major disease treated by the hypnosis are diabetes, gout, pain management, certain skin diseases, peptic ulcer, high blood pressure, obesity and healing of wound 38.
Medicine use to treat disease: The hypnosis therapy includes many techniques. The one of the best method in which patients leading in to state of the hypnosis by talking in gentle, describing the image to create the sense of relaxation, suggestion therapy and analysis therapy also used.
Side effect: The side effect of the hypnosis includes insomnia, irritability, fears, dizziness, and feeling of guilt, impaired memory, depression and change in personality etc.
Introduction: The term "massage therapy" focuses on many different techniques. In general, therapists press, rub, and otherwise influence the muscles and soft tissues of the body. They most frequently use their hands and fingers, but sometimes use their forearms, elbows, or feet 39.
History: Massage may be the ancient and simplest form of medical care, In Eastern cultures; massage has been practiced continually since ancient times. A Chinese book from 2,700 B.C., During World War I patients suffering from nerve injury or shell shock was treated with massage. Massage therapy is based on Ayurveda, the ancient medicinal system that evolved around 600 BC; massage is part of a set of holistic medicinal practices, contrary to the independent massage system popular in some other systems 27.
Parameter for diagnosis: In the massage therapy diagnosis of disease by using the various testing like Muscle Testing, Isotonic Functional Capacity Testing, Sensory Nerve Conduction Testing, Functional Nerve Testing, Computerized Range of Motion Testing, Computerized Myotome Strength Testing, Surface Electromyography, Spirometry, Electrocardiogram, X-ray, Bone Density Testing, Body Fat Analysis.
Major disease cured: Major diseases treat by the massage therapy is stiffness, relief muscle spasm, improvement of the blood circulation, relieve tension related conditions and increase efficiency of movement 39.
Medicine use to treat disease: Various types of massage equipment are used in massage therapy such as Massage Tables, Massage Chairs, Hot Stone Massage equipment, Foot Rests, Pillows for Body Support and Back Care, Table Extensions Armrests, Backrests, Holsters, Bottles, Lotions and Gels, Reflexology stools, Aromatherapy, Bolsters for the neck, Hot Stone Massage kit, Supplies for Herbal treatment, Cleaners and Sanitizers, Hand Massage tools: Backnobbers, Hand Rollers, Linens and wraps.
Side effect: Most frequently observed side effects are Temporary pain or discomfort, Bruising, Swelling, Sensitivity or allergy to massage oils 40.
Introduction: Mind-body medicine uses the power of opinion and emotion to influence physical health. As Hippocrates once writes, "The natural healing force within each one of us is the maximum force in getting well." This is mind-body medicine in a nutshell 41.
History: Approximately 300 years ago, nearly every system of medicine all over the world treated mind and body. But while the 17th century when the Western world started to see the mind and body as two distinct things. Since the 1960s, mind-body interactions have become a widely researched field. Over the past 20 years, mind-body medicine has provided considerable proof that psychological factors can play a substantive role in the development of coronary artery disease 42.
Parameter for diagnosis: In order to diagnosis of disease by mind-body therapy the huge number of diagnostic tests were done like four tests are as two are determining prakruti and two are determined vikruti. 43
Major disease cured: The disease cured by the mind-body therapy like decrease stress, improve immune system, headache, elimination of pain, rheumatoid arthritis, depression and emotional problem etc.
Medicine use to treat disease: It involves a different technique or therapy such as biofeedback, relaxation technique, nutrition as mind-body medicine and behavioral therapy 44.
Side effect: The side effect includes discomfort, dizziness, chest pain, fear of letting go and loss of control etc 45.
Introduction: Naturopathy is a word made popular in the early 1900’s to describe a system of medicine 46. That highlights natural therapies like herbs, homeopathy, hydrotherapy, nutrition, Diet and manipulation. The term "naturopathy" is imitative of Greek and Latin, and exactly explains as "nature disease 47, 48.
History: Naturopathic medicine grows out of an optional healing system of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but traces its philosophical line to vitalistic school of medicine of The Ancient Greece. The word Naturopathy is coined in 1895 by John Scheel and widespread by Benedict Lust. Dr Benedict Lust is known as the father of modern-day naturopathy as it is he who introduces and stretches the knowledge of naturopathy in the US in 1892. Later in the year 1902 he founded the American School of Naturopathy 49, 50.
Parameter for diagnosis: By the use of various diagnostic tests the diagnosis of the disease is done in the naturopathy includes Live Blood/ Darkfield Microscopy, Electrodermal Screening, heavy metals assessment, Lyme’s Testing, food allergy, saliva hormone testing, blood chemistry analysis.
Major disease cured: The various types of diseases are cured by the Naturapathic medicine includes asthma, constipation, headache, ulcers, depression, heart diseases, obesity, menstrual disorders, hypertension and spondylitices.
Medicine use to treat disease: The medicine used in the treatment like Natural diet and herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, exercise, relaxation, psycho-spiritual counselling, meditation, breathing exercises, acupuncture 51.
Side effect: There are no known side effects 52.
Introduction: Spiritual healing is the deliberate power of the number of people upon number of living systems lacking utilizes identified physical means of involvement. It is usually used in two ways: In the first way with a laying-on of hands - the hands lightly touching to the body, and the second way with meditation, prayer. The two ways are often used at the same time 53.
History: Spiritual healing is practiced in every known culture. England is a world organizer in integrating spiritual healing with usual medicine. British healers formed a healing organization in the mid of 1970s. With Governmental decision, 1,500 hospitals are open to treat healing.
The major healing organizations joined in a Confederation which standardized a code of conduct in the early 1980s.
Parameter for diagnosis: The diagnosis of disease by observing symptoms and by cheeking pulse and heat symptoms.
Major disease cured: It is used in the physical problem like pain, arthritis, broken bones, depression and stress etc.
Medicine use to treat disease: Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is an easy system of tapping on meridian points to neutralize the negative emotion that is causing energy blocks resulting in illness.53
Introduction: It was a one of the oldest therapy in the practice for more than 5000 years in Tibet. It is a single science that provides the holistic body care. It is generally known as gsowa Rigpa. The gsowa means restore and Rigpa means knowledge.
History: History the Tibetan medical history is an old one from 2500 years 3. The knowledge of the Tibetan medicine from china during the region of Namri Songsten. It is concluded that it is based upon the Indian Buddhism.
Parameter for diagnosis: Tibetan Pulse Diagnosis, visual impression of the patient, color, smell, and bubbles of the urine are examined Visual Observation of nails, faeces, blood and other blood, nails, sputum, faeces, and other common conditions. Special care is paid to the state of the patient's tongue and urine visualization. 51
Major disease cured: The diseases cured by this therapy include anxiety, sleep disorders, heart disorders, digestive disorders, nervous system disorders and circulation problems etc.
Medicine use to treat disease: It includes the medicinal herbs, minerals and metals, animal products, various forms of salts and mushrooms 54.
Side effect: Generally there have no any side effect.
TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE:
Introduction: The traditional Chinese medicine is an ancient system of therapy in china. It describes the pathophysiology of the human body. The application of the treatment based upon the symptoms and diagnosis of disease.
History: The first written records on traditional Chinese medicine are the Hung-DI Nei-Jing .Hung-DI Nei-Jing was the oldest medical textbook in the world, altered opinions date the book back to between 800 BCE and 200 BCE. The first recorded history of the TCM was found from 2,000 years and origin of the TCM therapy for the more than 5,000 years. The TCM gets popularity in from the early mid of the 1950s. In 1979 the National Association for Chinese Medicine were established, and many of the traditional editions were modified and republished.
Parameter for diagnosis: Traditional Chinese medicine incorporates some diagnostic arrangement of separation, such as the five organ strategy, the six confirmation strategy, and the triple warmer strategy and the Eight Diagnostic Parameters for the diagnosis of disease.
Major disease cured: Traditional Chinese medicine treatment method is helping in relieving chronic low back pain, dental pain, migraine headaches, fibromyalgia and symptoms of osteoarthritis. It can assist in the treatment of emotional pain syndromes such as post-traumatic stress disorder, and use in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization can help achieve pregnancy 38, 39.
Medicine use to treat disease: Chinese herbal medicine as the different parts of plants like the seed, Leaves, stems, flowers, and roots were used. Typically, herbs are combined in formulas and given as teas, tinctures, capsule, powders, Herbal formulas, Moxibustion.
Side effect: Drawbacks of the digestive system, impairment in speech, discomfort, inflammation of mucosa, spasm of limbs, Headache, insomnia, anxious, itchiness, side effects of nervous system, low WBC count, thirst, fatigue and dizziness etc.
Introduction: The Unani system of the medicine was introduced in India by Arabs. By this therapy says the human body is composed of the four basic elements like ear, earth, temperature, water. The body fluid is composed of the Phlegm, blood, black and yellow bile.
History: The origin of this therapy by Greece-Hippocrates (460-377 BC) established it as a system of medicine. A number of Greek, Roman, Iranian and Arab scholars enriched this system is the course of time. During the 12thcentury, Arabs introduced Unani medicine in India.
Parameter for diagnosis: The diagnosis of disease in the Unani therapy based upon the Nabz (pulse), Baul (urine), Baraz (stool) etc.
Major disease cured: The major disease cured by Unani therapy includes Common cold, Indigestion, Stomatitis, Arthritis, Hepatitis, Insomnia, Bars (Vitiligo), Nar e Farsi (Eczema), Daa-us Sadaf (Psoriasis), Waja-ul Mafasil (Rheumatoid arthritis) Zeeq-un Nafas (Bronchial asthma)
Medicine use to treat disease: In management of the diseases the some therapies are preferred like Diet therapy, Climatic therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Regimenal therapy.
Side effect: Cardio tonic, Hepatitis, Gastroenteritis &Uteritis
Introduction: The word yoga comes from the Sanskrit. It explains that the union between the mind and body. The yuj means to control. The words Yoga automatically calls to intelligence Sage Patanjali the organizer and father of Yoga.
History: Yoga is the ancient practice it came from India dated over 5000 years ago. In the late 1800s to 1900s, yoga masters begin to journey to the West, attract concentration. The beginning of the 1893 Parliament of Religions in Chicago, when Swami Vivekananda wowed the attendees with the lecture on yoga and the universality of the world’s belief. In the 1920s and 30s, Hatha Yoga was powerfully promoted in India with the work of T. Krishnamacharya, Swami Sivananda and other yogis practicing Hatha Yoga. New schools of Yoga were introduced in the context of Hindu revivalism near the end of the 19th century. Hatha Yoga was advocated by a number of late 19th to early 20th century gurus in India, including Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya in south India, Swami Sivananda in the north, Sri Yogendra in Bombay, and Swami Kuvalyananda in Lonavala 55.
Major disease cured: Eczema and Psoriasis 56, Diabetes, Allergies, anemia, Appendicitis, Arteriosclerosis, Arthritis, Backache, Bronchitis, Caner, Cataract, Cirrhosis, Constipation, Dandruff, Defective, Vision, Depression, Diabetes, Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Eczema, Epilepsy, Falling Of Hair, Fatigue.
Medicine use to treat disease
Medicine is not alternative for the treatment it means exposing to the god 57. In Sahaja Yoga, Puja is one of the means of expressing our self to the particular god 58. In some pujas, Nirmala Srivastava allowed herself to be worshiped as the Adi Shakti 52. This may include ghee, milk, sugar, honey, yoghurt, and water being poured on NirmalaSrivastava's feet, Tantra, Dhyana, Asana.
Side effect: The common side effect includes nerve damage, ear problem, spondylitices, clotting of blood, increase or decrease blood pressure and blood vessel blockage 43, 59, 60.
CONCLUSION: The overall review provides the success of the alternative therapy in health and medicine due to the recent increase in the interest and growth of complementary and alternative medicine can be attributed to many reasons including technological, economic, cultural and social trends. The alternative therapy is a good option in the treatment of diseases. These therapies are an alternative option when given to the conventional drugs gives glimpse of the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
The wide varieties of alternative therapy are in use which is helpful in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the diseases. Alternative therapies have fewer side effects.
- Devinsky O, Schachter S, Pacia S: Complementary and alternative therapies for epilepsy. Demos Medical Publishing; 2005.
- Sunday J. Ameh, Obiageli O. Obodozie, Uford S. Inyang, Mujitaba S. Abubakar and Magaji Garba: Current Phytotherapy - A perspective on the science and regulation of herbal medicine. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2010; 2:072-081.
- Peter M Wolsko, David M Eisenberg, Roger B Davis, and Russell S Phillips,: Use of mind-body medical therapies. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2004; 1:43-50.
- http://acupressure.com. (Accessed in June 2012)
- Tom Grote, "Kosmische Wirkkräfte", German Radio interview 8 August 2007.
- http://www.anthromed.org/Article.aspx?artpk=180 (Accessed in June 2012)
- Vickers A Zollman C: ABC of complementary medicine: homeopathy. British Medical Journal 1999; 319:1115–1118.
- http://www.livestrong.com/article/511664. (Accessed in June 2012)
- http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/ayurveda000348.htm#ixzz1x5Xmm6Wahttp://www.holistic-online.com/ayurveda/ayv_home.html. (Accessed in June 2012)
- Khalsa K P: The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy 2007; 7:129-149.
- Rosch and Markov: Bioelectromagnetic Medicine. Marcel Dekker; New York; 2004.
- Lescarboura A C. Our Abrams verdict: The electronic reactions of Abrams and electronic medicine in general found utterly worthless. Scientific American 1924; 131:158–159.
- Cullum N, Nelson E A, Flemming K, Sheldon T: Systematic reviews of wound care management: beds; compression; laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, electrotherapy and electromagnetic therapy. Health Technology Assessment 2001; 9:1–221.
- Moss D Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: a historical and biographical sourcebook. Greenwood Press, 1999.
- World Health Organization WHO guidelines on basic training and safety in chiropractic 2005.
- Abenhaim L, Bergeron A M: Twenty years of randomized clinical trials of manipulative therapy for back pain: a review. Clinical & Investigative Medicine 1992; 15:527-535.
- intelihealth.com (Accessed in December 2010).
- Hrobjartsson A, Gotzsche P: Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344:1594-1602.
- Upledger JE: Craniosacral therapy. Physical therapy 1995; 4:328–330.
- Kaptchuk TJ, Eisenberg DM: Chiropractic: origins, controversies, and contributions. Archives of Internal Medicine 1998; 20:2215–2224.
- Upledger JE: The relationship of craniosacral examination findings in grade school children with developmental problems. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 1978; 10:760–776.
- Upledger, J E, Karni Z: Mechano-electric patterns during craniosacral osteopathic diagnosis and treatment. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 1979; 11:782–791.
- Greenman PE, Partland JM: Cranial findings and pathogenesis from craniosacral manipulation in patients with traumatic brain syndrome. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 1995; 3:182-188.
- hartlandorientalmed.com. (Accessed in June 2012)
- Barnes P M, Powell-Griner E, Fann K, Nahin R L: Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults. United States. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics 2004; 343:1–20.
26. Greenfield SM, Green AT, Teare JP, Jenkins AP, Punchard NA, Ainley CC, Thompson RP: A randomized controlled study of evening primrose oil and fish oil in ulcerative colitis. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1993; 2:159-166.
- Kaptchuk TJ, Eisenberg DM: Chiropractic: origins, controversies, and contributions. Archives of Internal Medicine 1998; 20: 2215–24.
- Melanie Johns Cupp: Herbal Remedies: Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions. American Family Physician 1999; 5:1239-1244
- Chrubasik S, Zimpfer C, Schutt U, Ziegler R: Effectiveness of harpagophytum procumbens in treatment of acute low back pain. Phytomedicine. 1996; 1:1-10.
- Scaglione F, Lund B: Efficacy in the treatment of the common cold of a preparation containing an echinacea extract. International Journal of Immunotherapy 1995; 4:163-166,
- Ernst E: A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2002; 6: 577–582.
- John E Smith: A Brief History of Herbal Medicine. Inspired Times 2010; 4:15.
- Rudolf Fritz Weiss: Herbal Medicine. Beaconfield Publisher Ltd
- Weitsenhoffer A, Behavior therapeutic techniques and hypnotherapeutic methods. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1972; 15:71-82.
- Monica Myklebust, Joanne: Policy for Therapeutic Massage in an Academic Health Center. The Journal Of Alternative And Complementary Medicine 2007; 4:471-475
- Karela Werner: Yoga and Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publication 2004.
- Vickers, Zollman Z: Hypnosis and relaxation therapies. British Medical Journal 1999; 7221:1346–1349.
39. Astin JA, Shapiro SL, Eisenberg DM, Forys KL: Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2003; 16:131–47.
- Rutledge JC, Hyson DA, Garduno D: Lifestyle modification program in management of patients with coronary artery disease: the clinical experience in a tertiary care hospital. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 1999; 4:226-234.
- tibetanmedicine-edu.org. (Accessed in June 2012)
- Edward F Tarabilda: Ayurveda Revolutionized. Lotus Press Wisconsin; First Edition, 1997.
- Leah Hectman Clinical Naturopathic Medicine. Elsevier; Revised Edition, 2012.
- Kirstin Borgerson: Evidence-Based Alternative Medicine?. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 2005; 5:502-515
- Sarris J, and Wardle J: Clinical naturopathy: an evidence-based guide to practice. Elsevier; 2010.
- Michaela Amering, Margit Schmolke: Recovery in Mental Health: Reshaping scientific and clinical responsibilities. John Wiley & Sons. First Edition, 2009.
- Gangadharan, N. the state of ayurveda in the eighteenth & nineteenth centuries. Indian Journal of History of Science 1982; 1:154-163.
- Philip Stevens: What is Meditation? Journal of Yoga - Ontogenetic and Therapeutic Investigation 2010; 01:16-18.
- Smith Michael J., and Alan C. Logan: Naturopathy. The Medical clinics of North America 2002; 1:173.
- Yasgur, J.: Fundamentals of complementary and alternative medicine. Edited by Marc S. Micozzi. Vol. 1. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1996.
- Devinsky, Orrin, Steven C. Schachter, and Steven V. Pacia. Alternative Therapies for Epilepsy. Demos Medical Publishing, 2012.
- Field Tiffany: Massage therapy. The Medical clinics of North America 2002; 1: 163.
- McGregor, Katherine J., and Edmund R. Peay. The choice of alternative therapy for health care: testing some propositions." Social Science & Medicine 1996; 1: 1317-1327.
- Baskaran M, Raman K, Ramani KK, Roy J, Vijaya L, Badrinath SS: Intraocular pressure changes and ocular biometry during Sirsasana (headstand posture) in yoga practitioners. Ophthalmology 2006; 8:1327-1332.
- Raja Chandrasekhar: Can Yoga Cure Diabetes? Health Administrator 2009; 1: 40-41.
- Coney, Judith. Sahaja Yoga. Routledge Curzon Vol. 1; 1999.
- Sharma, V. K., et al. "Effect of Sahaj Yoga on neuro-cognitive functions in patients suffering from major depression." Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2006 4:375.
- .Bertschinger DR, Mendrinos E, Dosso A: Yoga can be dangerous-glaucomatous visual field defect worsening due to postural yoga. Br J Ophthalmol 2007; 10:1413-1414.
- Corrigan G E: Fatal air embolism after Yoga breathing exercises. Journal of the American Medical Association 1969; 10: 1923.
- Ernst, Edzard. The prevalence of complementary/alternative medicine in cancer.Cancer 2000: 777-782.
How to cite this article:
Kalyankar TM, Attar MS and Shinde GH: Review on Alternative Therapy in Health and Medicine. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 3(11); 4173-4183.
T. M. Kalyankar*, M. S. Attar and G. H. Shinde
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, S. R. T. M. University, Nanded - 431606, Maharashtra, India
17 July, 2012
18 September, 2012
17 October, 2012