SMARTPHONE IS IT “BEHAVIOUR ADDICTION OR SUBSTANCE ABUSE DISORDER”: A REVIEW TO FIND CHEMISTRY BEHINDAbstract
Several behavioral addictions have been hypothesized as having similarities to substance abuse addictions. The DSM-4-TR has designated formal diagnostic criteria for several addictive disorders classifying them as impulse control disorders, a separate category from substance use disorder. There have been a lot of behavioral addiction studies like tanning, cosmetic surgery, sexual addiction, etc. Mobile phone addiction, which has more recently evolved into Smartphone addiction or nomophobia. The American Psychiatric Association first categorized a behavior: gambling as a no substance, related addictive disorder, and recommends further research on internet gaming disorder. The aim of this review is to find Smartphone addiction relations with neurotransmitters that could help us understand the possibly addictive effect similar to that produced by conventional drugs and also its potential to be diagnosed as an independent disorder. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are involved in the biochemistry of behavioral addictions; especially dopamine seems to be the most active. Brain activation in Internet gaming addicts occurs in the same brain regions as with drug-associated addiction. Brain imaging studies; suggest that the dopaminergic pathways may be involved in both substance use disorders and pathological gambling. Further, research in this area is obligatory, considering Smartphone addiction mechanisms similar to conventional drug addiction.
B. Sharma, P. Kumar and P. Sharma *
Department of Biochemistry, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
22 February 2020
03 May 2020
26 November 2020
01 January 2021