SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME METHYL 4-(1H-BENZO[d] IMIDAZOL-2-YL) PHENYL CARBAMODITHIOATE AMINE DERIVATIVESHTML Full Text
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME METHYL 4-(1H-BENZO[d] IMIDAZOL-2-YL) PHENYL CARBAMODITHIOATE AMINE DERIVATIVES
L. P. Singh*1, O. P. Tiwari 2 and Brijyog1
Institute of Pharmacy 1, Harish Chandra P.G. College Varanasi - 221002, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Varanasi College of Pharmacy 2, Varanasi - 221105, Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound which has been an important pharmacophore and privileged structure in medicinal chemistry. Substituted benzimidazoles have considerable interest as compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activity and low toxicity. In the present study, a new series of benzimidazole thiourea derivatives are synthesize and screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The Methyl 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl carbamodithioate amine derived from Methyl 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl carbamodithioate (TD1-TD6) have been synthesized by reacting the thio methyl group with different amines in presence of ethanol. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectra and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibiting activity against four bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria); Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa (Gram negative bacteria) and two fungal strains namely Candida albicans and Asperginous niger. The synthesize compounds were compared with standard agents norfloxacin for antibacterial and fluconazole for antifungal activity using well plate method. Compounds exhibit good activity in bacteria Bacillus subtilis and fungous Candida albicans. Synthetic compounds show moderate to high antibacterial and antifungal activity. Some compounds show appreciable antimicrobial activity.
Synthesis, Heterocyclic, Benzimidazole, Thiourea, Antimicrobial Activity
INTRODUCTION: The chemistry of thioureas and their derivatives has attracted a lot of attention due to their interesting physicochemical properties. The synthetic ease of thioureas, and use of inexpensive chemicals and reagents in synthesis and their wide range of pharmaceutical application has made them potential moiety for designing of new compounds.
The modification that may be done on either nitrogen atoms of thiourea enhances the physical and chemical properties and their biological activities. Benzimidazole derivatives widely used in medicinal chemistry and drug development. Derivatives of benzimidazole have numerous biological activities, such as antibacterial 1 - 4, antifungal 5, analgesic 6, anti-inflammatory 7 antitumor 8 - 13 antiviral 14 - 17, anticonvulsant 18 antidiabetic 19 and antidepressant 20 properties.
Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic systems have a diverse spectrum of pharmacological properties. Different heterocyclic motifs can be incorporated to produce molecules with enhanced biological properties. A review of the literature suggests that there is the scope for the design of additional benzimidazole derivatives with antimicrobial activity, by examining the effect of a number of different functional groups. Thiocarbamide, thiourea derivatives have biological activity such as antibacterial 21, 22 antimicrobial 23 antioxidant 24 anti HIV 25, 26 anti malarial 27 and anticancer 28. The review of benzimidazole and thiourea motivate to synthesize such derivatives.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The identification and purity of the products was checked by TLC with different combination and strength of mobile phases, i.e. hexane: ethyl acetate (2:6) or methanol: chloroform (1:8) using iodine vapour and UV light as detecting agents. Melting points were taken in open capillaries in an electric melting point apparatus and are uncorrected. The 1H NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker Avance II 400 NMR spectrometer with DMSO and CDCl3 as solvents and TMS as internal standard. The chemical shifts were expressed in δ (ppm) values. The IR spectra were recorded on a Bruker alpha FT-IR spectrophotometer. The Mass spectra were recorded in terms of mass to charge ratio (m/z) on Waters LCMS-MS. All the chemicals used were of synthetic grade and were procured from S.D. Fine Chem. Ltd. and Merck, Mumbai, India.
Synthesis of Benzimidazole Thiourea Derivatives:
Synthesis of 4 - (1H-benzo[d] imidazol – 2 - yl) benzenamine: Equimolar quantities of of benzene -1, 2 - diamine (0.002mol, 218 mg) and p-amino benzoic acid (0.002 mol, 274 mg) were mixed with polyphosphoric acid (10 ml) in a FBF and a stirrable paste was prepared and refluxed on dimmer-stat. The reaction mixture was heated slowly to 180 °C. Heating was continued for 4 hours at 180 °C. At the end of the reaction, the resulting solution was cooled to 100 °C and then poured on crushed ice with constant stirring. The product was extracted using ethyl acetate and then washed with dilute solution of 10% sodium bicarbonate, then with brine and citric acid solution. Ethyl acetate portion was concentrated and the residue was decolourized and purified to get the 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzenamine.
Synthesis of (4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2yl) phenyl) carbamodithioic acid: To a solution of 0.15 moles of KOH in ethanol and 0.15 moles of 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzenamine was added 0.15 moles of CS2. The mixture was diluted with ethanol and stirred at room temperature for 12-16 h. the mixture was then neutralized with conc. HCl and the resulting precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and recrystallized form ethanol.
Synthesis of Methyl 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl carbamodithioate: In a 100 mL round bottom flask, 0.0275 moles of (4-(1H-benzo[d] imidazol-2yl) phenyl)carbamodithioic acid, 0.038 moles of sodium carbonate and 0.042 moles of dimethyl sulfate were placed. The mixture was heated substantially until the temperature reached 75°C and the mixture started to liquefy. Heating was continued for 30 min at this temperature and then the temperature was slowly increased to 85-87°C. At this temperature the mixture started to thicken; 30 mL of water was added and continued heating for another 1.5 h. On completion of the reaction as monitored by TLC, 250 mL of hot water was added to the mixture with stirring. The mixture was allowed to cool and the solid obtained was filtered at pump and washed with water to obtain the product.
Synthesis of amine derivative of Methyl 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl carbamodithioate (TD 1- TD 6): To 0.1 Methyl 4-(1H-benzo[d] imidazol-2-yl)phenyl carbamodithioate was added 0.15 mole of appropriate amine (N-methyl benzamine, p-toiuidine, phenyl methanamine, 4-nitrobenzamine, naphthalene-1-amine, pyridine-2-amine) in ethanol and the mixture was refluxed for 2-3 h with continuous stirring. The product obtained was filtered, washed with ethanol, dried and characterized.
3-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methyl -1-phe nyl thiourea, TD1: Yield: 72%; Melting Point: 249-251°C; IR (KBr, cm-1): 1393.03 (C-N str), 3554.0 (N-H str), 1653 (Aromatic C=N str), 1614.34 (C-C Aromatic) 3107.64 (C-H str), 1288.54 (C=S str); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 3.45 (s, 3H), 4.03 (s, 1H, NH), 4.92 (s, 1H, NH), 6.60 – 6.79 (m, 5H), 7.20 – 7.22 (m, 4H), 7.59 (d, J = 9 Hz, 2H), 7.93 (d, J = 9 Hz, 2H); MS (FAB) m/z : 358.13 (M+), 359.13 (100%); Anal. Calcd (found) C 70.36 (70.41); H 5.06 (5.03); N 15.63 (15.35).
1-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl) - 3 -p-tolylthiourea, TD2: Yield: 78%; Melting Point: 255-258°C; IR (KBr, cm-1): 1428.04 (C-Nstr), 3397 (N-H str), 1676 (Aromatic C=N str), 1610 (C-C Aromatic) 3042 (C-H str), 1267.37 (C=S str); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 2.40 (s, 3H), 4.02 (bs, 2H, 2NH), 4.94 (bs, 1H, NH), 6.37 (d, J = 9 Hz, 2H), 6.69 (d, J = 9 Hz, 2H), 6.99 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.21 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 7.91 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H); MS (FAB) m/z : 358.13(100%) 359.13(22.9%); Anal. Calcd (found) C, 70.36 (70.39); H, 5.06 (5.02); N, 15.63 (15.52).
1-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-3-benzyl thiourea, TD3: Yield: 68%; Melting Point: 261-263°C; IR (KBr, cm-1): 1396.28 (C-Nstr), 3112 (N-H str), 1652 (Aromatic C=N str), 1613.27 (C-C Aromatic) 3045.31 (C-H str), 1287.91 (C=S str); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 2.01 (bs, 1H, NH), 4.01 (bs, 1H, 1NH), 4.73 (s, 2H), 4.92 (bs, 1H, NH), 6.67 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.22 – 7.32 (m, 7H), 7.58 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2H), 7.92 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H). MS (FAB) m/z : 358.13(100%) 359.13(22.92%); Anal. Calcd (found) C, 70.36 (70.45); H, 5.06 (5.05); N, 15.63 (15.26).
1-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl) - 3 - (4-nitrophenyl)thiourea, TD4: Yield: 81 %; Melting Point: 254-257°C; IR (KBr, cm-1): 1392.25 (C-Nstr), 3232.34 (N-H str), 1651.34 (Aromatic C=N str), 1613.94 (C-C Aromatic) 3112.47 (C-H str), 1284.08 (C=S str), 1585.45 (N=O), 855.86 (C-NO2); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 4.02 (bs, 2H, 2NH), 4.92 (bs, 1H, 1NH), 6.62 – 6.72 (m, 4H), 7.24 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 2H), 7.57 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.91 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 8.01 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H). MS (FAB) m/z: 389.09(100%) 390.10(21.9%); Anal. Calcd (found) C, 61.68 (62.01); H, 3.88 (3.93); N, 17.98 (17.85).
1-(4-(1H-benzo[d] imidazol - 2-yl) phenyl) – 3 -(naphthalen-1yl) thiourea, TD5: Yield: 74 %; Melting Point: 268-271°C; IR (KBr, cm-1): 1377.97 (C-Nstr), 3667.83 (N-Hstr), 1687.76 (Aromatic C=Nstr), 1613.80 (C-C Aromatic) 3099.37 (C-Hstr), 1299.77 (C=Sstr); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 4.02 (bs, 2H, 2NH), 4.91 (bs, 1H, 1NH), 6.68 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2H), 6.97 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 7.21 – 7.39 (m, 3H), 7.55 – 7.60 (m, 5H), 7.91 – 8.09 (m, 4H). MS (FAB) m/z: 394.13(100%) 395.13(26.2%); Anal. Calcd (found) C, 73.07 (72.98); H, 4.60 (4.59); N, 14.20 (14.05).
1-(4-(1H-benzo[d] imidazol - 2 - yl) phenyl) - 3-(pyridin-2-yl)thiourea, TD6: Yield: 69 %; Melting Point: 256-259°C; IR (KBr, cm-1): 1349.64 (C-Nstr), 3230.63 (N-H str), 1648.30 (Aromatic C=N str), 1519.35 (C-C Aromatic) 3108.54 (C-H str), 1264.15 (C=S str); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 4.02 (bs, 2H, 2NH), 4.92 (bs, 1H, 1NH), 6.61 - 6.69 (m, 3H), 7.20 - 7.34 (m, 3H), 7.52 - 7.58 (m, 3H), 7.90 - 8.06 (m, 3H). MS (FAB) m/z : 345.10 (100%), 346.10(20.7%); Anal. Calcd (found) C, 66.07 (66.0); H, 4.38 (4.35); N, 20.27 (19.96).
TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF THE SYNTHESIZED COMPOUNDS
|Compound||Structure||Molecular Formulae||Molecular Mass||% Yield|
|1-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl) thiourea, TD6||C19H15N5S||345.00||69|
Screening for Antimicrobial Activity: The well diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compound using standard procedure 29. The microbial cultures used in the study were obtained in lyophilized form. With the help aseptic techniques the lyophilized cultures are inoculated in sterile nutrient and potato dextrose broth than incubated for 24 hours at 37 oC. After incubation the growth is observed in the form of turbidity. These broth cultures were further inoculated on to the agar plates with loop full of microbes and further incubated for next 24 hours at 37 oC to obtain the pure culture and stored as stocks that are to be used in further research work. There were 3 concentration used which are 25 and 12.5, 6.25 μg/ml for each synthesized compound in antimicrobial studies.
The placing of wells with the antibiotics on the surfaces of agar immediately after inoculation with the organism tested. Undiluted over night broth cultures should never be used as an inoculums. The plates were incubated at 37 oC for 24 hr. and then examined for clear zones of inhibition around the wells impregnated with particular concentration of drug. The zone of inhibition for bacterial and fungal are represented in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 respectively. The antimicrobial screening results are presented in Table 2 and 3.
TABLE 2: ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS ON BACILLUS SUBTILIS
|S.no.||Compounds||Zone of inhibition in mm Mean for Bacillus subtilis at different concentration (μg/ml)|
|25 μg/ml||12.5 μg/ml||6.25 μg/ml|
FIG. 1: PHOTO PLATES OF ANTIBACTERIAL STUDY OF SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS ON BACILLUS SUBTILIS
TABLE 3: ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS ON CANDIDA ALBICANS
|S.no.||Compounds||Zone of inhibition in mm Mean for Candida albicans at different concentration (μg/ml)|
|25 μg/ml||12.5 μg/ml||6.25 μg/ml|
FIG. 2: PHOTO PLATES OF ANTIFUNGAL STUDY OF SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS ON CANDIDA ALBICANCE
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION : In the present study, a new series of Methyl 4-(1H-benzo [d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl carbamodithioate amine derived from methyl Methyl 4-(1H-benzo[d] imidazol-2-yl) phenyl carbamodithioate (TD1-TD6) have been synthesized by reacting the thio methyl group with different amines in presence of ethanol. The starting material 4-(1H-benzo[d] imidazol-2-yl) benzenamine was synthesized by condensation of benzene -1, 2-diamine and p-amino benzoic acid, catalyzed by polyphosphoric acid. The structural assessment of the compounds was made on the basis of spectral data.
The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibiting activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi viz., Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans; were compared with known antibiotics ciprofloxacin and fluconazole zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. Compounds exhibit moderate to high antibacterial and antifungal activity. Compounds TD3 and TD4 exhibit highest antibacterial activity other are moderate antibacterial activity. The compounds TD1, TD2, TD4 and TD6 having antifungal activity among them TD1 and TD4 shows highest antifungal activity.
CONCLUSION: The biological evaluation of synthesized compounds of benzimidazole thiourea derivatives show moderate to high degree of antimicrobial as well as antifungal activity, but no one is better than standard drug norfloxacin and fluconazole. The synthesized compounds 1-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl) - 3 - benzylthiourea and 1-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl) thiourea shows highest antibacterial activity. 3-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methyl -1-phenylthiourea and 1-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl) thiourea shows highest antifungal activity. These studies provide researchers to synthesize more derivatives and evaluate biological activity including antimicrobial activity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are thankful to Sagar Institute of Research and Technology - Pharmacy, Panjab University, Chandigarh and Central Analytical Facility, MFP-PARC, Bhopal for providing data.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: No conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Singh LP, Tiwari OP and Brijyog: Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some methyl 4-(1h-benzo[d] imidazol-2-yl) phenyl carbamodithioate amine derivatives. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9(3): 1194-00.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.9(3).1194-00.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
L. P. Singh*, O. P. Tiwari and Brijyog
Institute of Pharmacy, Harish Chandra P.G. College Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
31 May, 2017
15 August, 2017
17 August, 2017
01 March, 2018