TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA: ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY ASPECTSHTML Full Text
TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA: ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY ASPECTS
Namrta Choudhary*1, M.B. Siddiqui 1, Shazia Azmat 1 and Sayyada Khatoon 2
Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University 1, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute 2, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT: Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, (Guduchi) is an evergreen perennial climber. This deciduous and dioecious plant belongs to the family Menispermaceae. It is a plant of significant medicinal importance in the Indian system and designated as Rasayana. Its efficacy has been also recognized by the modern system of medicine. The whole plant is used medicinally however; the stem is approved for use in medicine. This is due to higher alkaloid content in the stems than in the leaves. This plant has been known to possess immunomodulatory, hypoglycaemic, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycaemic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, diabetes mellitus, hypogycemia and several other properties also. The plant mainly contains alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, diterpenoid lactones, sesquiterpenoid, aliphatic compound and other miscellaneous compound. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnobotanical and traditional uses as well as the various pharmacological, phytochemical and clinical reports on T. cordifolia.
Ethnobotany, Pharmacological activity, Phytochemistry and Rasayana
INTRODUCTION: Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, (Guduchi) is one of the important dioecious plants. In Hindi, the plant is commonly known as Giloe 1which is a Hindu mythological term that refers to the heavenly elixir that has saved celestial beings from old age and kept them eternally young. In Ayurveda, it is designated as Rasayana drug recommended to enhance general body resistance, promote longevity and as antistress and adaptogen 2-3. The fact that it is called “Amrita” signifies its use for revitalization and its importance in Ayurveda. This significant plant is also mentioned in important Pharmacopoeias 4-6.
Distribution: It is indigenous to areas ofIndia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Borneo, Vietnam, Bangladesh, North Africa, West Africa, and South Africa 7-10. It typically grows in deciduous and dry forests at elevations up to 1000ft.
Origin and Habitat: T. cordifolia is a climbing shrub native to lower elevation in tropical areas of the Indian subcontinent and climbs numerous types of trees11.Itprefers wide range of soil, acid to alkaline and it needs moderate level of soil moisture.
The Family: T. cordifolia belongs to the family Menispermaceae 12-14 which consists of about 70 genera and 450 species that are found in tropical lowland regions. They are generally climbing or twining, rarely shrubs. This family is a rich source of alkaloid and terpenes 15.
The Genus: The genus Tinospora Miers (Menispermaceae) has about 32 species distributed in tropical Africa, Madagascar, Asia to Australia and the Paciﬁc Islands 16-18. In India, the genus is represented by four species; two species, T. cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers and T. sinensis (Lour.) Merr., are known to occur in South India and other two T. crispa (L.) Hook.f. & Thomson and T. glabra (Burm.f.) Merr., are reported from Northeast India and the Andaman Islands 19.
The Species: Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers
- Menispermum crispum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 1468. 1763
- Tinospora gibbericaulis Handel-Mazzetti
- Tinospora mastersii Diels
- Tinospora rumphii Boerlage
- Tinospora thorelii Gagnepain.
Vernacular Names: The common names are Gilo (Arabic); Amarlata (Assamese); Gadancha, Guluncha, Giloe (Bengali); K’uan chu Hsing (Chinese); Culancha (French); Tinospora (English); Gado, Galo, Gulo (Gujerati); Giloe, Gulbel, Gurcha (Hindi); Amrytu, Sittamrytu (Malayalam); Ambarvel, Giroli, Gulvel (Marathi), Garjo (Nepali); Gulancha (Oriya); Gulbel (Persian); Gilo (Punjabi, Kashmiri), Amrita, Guduchi, (Sanskrit); Gurjo (Sikkikim); Amridavalli, Niraidarudian (Tamil); Guduchi, Iruluchi (Telugu) and Guruch (Urdu)20-22.
Botanical Description: T. cordifolia is a large extensively spreading glabrous, dioecious perennial deciduous climber, grows on wide range of hedges and trees. It is reported to bear distinct male and female flowers 21-23. Its stem, when fresh, have a green succulent bark covered by a thin brown bark and are studded with warty lenticels when dry, the stem shrinks and the bark separate from the wood. Branches are sending down slender pendulous fleshy roots, terete, striate, with tubercled, pale sometimes shining or glabrous bark.
Leaves membranous, 7-9 nerved, 5-10 cm, roundish, cordate or heart shaped (giving name cordifolia to the plant) with a 2.5- 7.0 cm petiole. The flower bloom in summer. Racemes is rather lax, 5.0 cm, elongating and often longer than leaves. The male flowers are small, yellow or green in colour, and occur in clusters in the axils of small subulate bracts. Sepals are 6, 3 outer very small, ovate-oblong, acute, the inner 3 larger, membranous, broadly elliptical, concave, yellow.
Petals are 6, equal, broadly spathulate, each loosely embracing a stamen, claw cuneate, reflexed to apex, pistillode. Female flowers usually solitary, similar to male, but sepals green, margins not reflexed, staminode short, linear. Carpels 1-3, widely separated on the short fleshy gynophores, dorsally convexed, and scarlet. The fruit are the size and shape of a large pea and turn from green to red when ripe in winter and mucilaginous 24.
Nutritive Composition of Tinospora cordifolia: T. cordifolia contains high fibre (15.9%), sufficient protein (4.5%-11.2%), sufficient carbohydrate (61.66%), and low fat (3.1%). Its nutritive value is 292.54 calories per 100 g. It has high potassium (0.845%), high chromium (0.006%), sufficient iron (0.28%) and sufficient calcium (0.131%), important in various regulatory functions 25.
Properties – in Ayurveda: Ayurveda advocates the treatment for the entire body as a single unit. With modern medicine it gives a synergistic activity and antagonises and minimise the toxicity of modern drug. T. cordifolia referred to as Guduchi (plant which protects from diseases, Sanskrit), has been described in ancient textbooks of Ayurveda including Sushrut Samhita and Charak Samhita. Other synonyms used for Guduchi which refer to its various properties and uses, include Chhinnaruha/Chhinnodbhava (for the plant’s capacity to grow from the cut side), Vatsadini (eaten by grazing animals), Pittaghni (bile destroying), Amruta (imparts immortality), Rasayana (capacity to improve quality of rasa, the primordial tissue which in turn strengthens all other tissues), Chakrangi/Chakra-akshana (for its wheel-like appearance), Jwaranashi/ Jwarari (potent antipyretic), Vayastha (prevents ageing), Amrutsambhava (ambrosia), Bhishakpriya (favourite of physicians), Saumya (not harmful) and Tikta (bitter taste).
The stems, leaves, and roots are used in medicine 11, 26-27. In Ayurveda, T. cordifolia is used as “rasayana” which in Sanskrit implies circulation of “rasa”- the nutrient. The ancient Indian physician, Charaka described rasayana as anti aging, increasing the life span, promoting intelligence, improving memory and freedom from diseases, indicating an immunostimulant effect 28 and also used as an antispasmodic and an anti-diarrhoeal agent 29.
Herbalist Sebastian Pole writes that “those growing up neem trees are said to be the best synergy between these two bitter plants enhances guduchi’s efficacy.” It is a traditional belief that Guduchi satva obtained from the Guduchi plant growing on neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is bitterer and more efficacious and is said to incorporate the medicinal values of neem 30.
T. cordifolia has been described in Ayurveda in various dosages form. These include Swaras (juice from the fresh stem: 10–20 mL/day), Kalka (paste of fresh stem: 10 g/day), Churna (powdered dry stem: 1–3 g/day), Kwatha (hot water extract from ground dried stem: 20–30 mL two to three times a day), Fant (hot water infusion: 10–20 mL/day), Arishta (stable processed formulation from a decoction of T. cordifolia containing self-generated alcohol), Satwa (sedimented starchy extract of the stem: 750 mg to 2 g/day) Ghana (solidified aqueous extract: 500 mg to 1 g three to four times a day), along with lipid formulations of T. cordifolia processed in ghee or oil (Guduchi Ghrita: 10–20 g/day) and Guduchi Taila (for external application) 31.Guduchi is recognized in the Indian Pharmacopoeia and also used in several compound formulations as an ingredient for the treatment of general weakness, fever, dyspepsia, dysentery, gonorrhoea, secondary syphilis, urinary diseases, impotency, gout, viral hepatitis, skin diseases, and anaemia 32-34, leprosy, fever, asthma, anorexia, jaundice, gout, skin infections, diabetes, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery 35-42.
Ethnobotanical, Folk and Tribal Uses: There are over 400 different tribal and other ethnic groups in India. Each tribal group has its own tradition, folk language, beliefs and knowledge about the use of natural resources as medicines 43. T. cordifolia finds a special mention for its use in tribal or folk medicine in different parts of the country. Almost all the parts of the plant are documented to be useful in ethno botanical surveys conducted by ethno botanists 44-45. In folk and tribal medicine, whole plant, powdered root and stem bark, decoction of root and stem, juice of the root, juice or paste of the leaves, and stem of the T. cordifolia are being used to treat various ailments viz. fever, jaundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, general debility, cough, asthma, leucorhea, skin diseases, fractures, eye disorders, bites of poisonous insects, venomous snake etc. Ethnobotanical uses of T. cordifolia are given in Table 1.
TABLE: 1. ETHNOBOTANICAL USES OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA
|S. No.||Plant part||Ethnobotanical uses|
|1||Leaves||Used in the treatment of gout and ulcer|
|2||Stem||The stem is bitter stomachic, stimulates bile secretion, diuretic, enriches the blood, cures jaundice, useful in skin diseases,The juice is useful in diabetes, vaginal and urethral discharges low fevers and enlarged spleen 21
(Stem as an infusion ) used to drunk as a vermifuge, jaundice, against intestinal worms
(Stem as decoction) used for washing sore eyes and syphilitic sores , antipyretic, antimalarial
Starch (statue) obtained from stem used for chronic diarrhoea and some form of obstinate chronic dysentery, deal with intestinal problems and improve digestion 48
|3||Stem +Root||Combination with other drugs as an antidote to snake bite and scorpion sting 49-51|
|4||Fruit||Dried fruit with ghee or honey used as tonic and treatment of jaundice and rheumatism.|
|5||Bark||Anti-allergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-leprotic 52-54|
|NS||Urinary diseases, syphilis, skin diseases, bronchitis 55|
|NS||Promote longevity and increase body’s resistance 56. Stimulate the immune system 57-59|
Pharmacology: As evident from the ayurvedic and ethnobotanical reports, T. cordifolia has various medicinal uses. In present times, the extracts/fractions (mainly aqueous and alcoholic sometimes methanolic, chloroform, ether, petroleum ether, acetone, successive, bitter or non-bitter and other fractions) even chemical constituents of this drug have been subjected for numerous pharmacological, pre-clinical and clinical investigations. The medicinal traits and biological activities endorsed are presented in Table 2.
TABLE 2: PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA
|Immunomodulatory 57,60-68||Antioxidant 10,69-75||Anti-hyperglycaemic 76-79|
|Anti- diabetic 80-82||Antimalarial 80-82||Anti-inflammatory 43,53,73,83-88|
|Antitumor 53,64,72,89,90-92||Anti-allergic 73, 93||Antineoplastic activity 89,94|
|Antipyretic 53,72 ,80-82||Antiamoebic, Antihelmentic 53, 80-82||Anti hyperlipidimic 95|
|Immunobiological activity 96-99||Antigout, Antiasthmatic 80-82||Antiasthmatic , Antigonorrhoeal 80-82|
|Antigonorrhoeal 80-82||Antiperiodic 80-82||Antiperiodic 80-82|
|Mental disorder 100||Androgenic 101||Radioprotective 102|
|Antifertility effects 103||Anticoagulant 72||Antiemetic and Antiicteric 80-82|
|Antigonorrhoeal 80-82||Antiatherogenic 53,80-82||Diuretic104|
|Anticancer 89,105-107||Learning and memory enhance 108||Anti-depression 109|
|Anti-stress 110-113||Anti-ischemic 114||Anti hyperlipidimic 95|
|Hypolipidaemic 72, 115-116||Antileprotic 43||Antispasmodic 43,117-118|
|Antimicrobial 72||Antiulcer 119-120||Analgesic 53, 80-82|
|Help to dissolve urinary calculi 121||Malaria 122||Obstructive jaundice 123-124|
|Infections 125||Hepatoprotective 64,126||Prevent hepatotoxicity 127-128|
|Phagocytes 129||Hepatic and splenic injury 130,131||Diabetes mellitus 132|
Phytochemistry: A variety of constituents have been isolated from T. cordifolia plant. They belong to different classes such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Three major groups of compounds; protoberberine alkaloids, terpenoids and polysaccharides are considered as putative active constituents of T. cordifolia 46-47. These chemical constituents are listed in Table 3 and their role in various therapeutic actions is listed in Table 4.
TABLE: 3. PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA
|Part||Chemical type||Active principle|
|Stem||Alkaloids||Berberine, palmatine D, choline D, tinosporine, Magnoflorine, tetrahydropalmatine, isocolumbin||133-138|
|Glycosides||Furanoid diterpene glycoside||140-141|
|Tinocordifolioside, cordioside, cordifolioside A, cordifolioside B, palmatoside C31, palmatoside F31, cordiofoliside B2, cordifoliside D2, cordifoliside||141,143-144, 146-148|
|Aerial parts||Steroids||b-sitosterol, d-sitosterol, g-sitosterol b-hydroxyecdysone, ecdysterone, makisterone, giloinsterol jateorine, columbin||151-152|
|Whole plant||Diterpenoid lactones||Furanolactone, tinosporon , columbin||153-155|
|Aliphatic compound||Octacosanol, heptacosanol||156|
|Miscellaneous compound||Nonacosan-15-one 3, (a,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-tetrahydrofuran, Tinosponidine, 6 cordifol, 6 Cordifelone, 6 Jatrorrhizine||157-158|
TABLE 4: MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SOME IMPORTANT PHYTOCHEMICALS 159-172
|Phytochemicals||Activity||Mechanism of action|
|Quinones||Antimicrobial||Binds to adhesions, complex with cell wall, inactivate enzymes|
|Flavanoids||Antimicrobial||Complex with cell wall, binds to adhesins Inhibits release of autacoids and prostaglandins,|
|Antidiarrhoeal||Inhibits contractions caused by spasmogens, Stimulates normalization of the deranged water transport across the mucosal cells, Inhibits GI release of acetylcholine|
|Polyphenols andTannins||Antimicrobial||Binds to adhesions, enzyme inhibition, substrate deprivation, complex with cell wall, membrane disruption, metal ion complexation|
|Antidiarrhoeal||Makes intestinal mucosa more resistant and reduces secretion, stimulates normalization of deranged water transport across the mucosal cells and reduction of the intestinal transit, blocks the binding of B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin to GM1, resulting in the suppression of heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea, astringent action|
|Anthelmintic||Increases supply of digestible proteins by animals by forming protein complexes in rumen, interferes with energy generation by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, causes a decrease in G.I. metabolism|
|Coumarins||Antiviral||Interaction with eukaryotic DNA|
|Terpenoids andessential oils||AntimicrobialAntidiarrhoeal||Membrane disruptionInhibits release of autocoids and prostaglandins|
|Alkaloids||Antimicrobial||Intercalates into cell wall and DNA of parasites|
|Antidiarrhoeal||Inhibits release of autocoids and prostaglandins|
|Anthelmintic||Possess anti-oxidating effects, thus reduces nitrate generation which is useful for protein synthesis, suppresses transfer of sucrose from stomach to small intestine, diminishing the support of glucose to the helminthes, acts on CNS causing paralysis|
|Lectins and Polypeptides||Antiviral||Blocks viral fusion or adsorption, forms disulfide bridges|
|Glycosides||Antidiarrhoeal||Inhibits release of autocoids and prostaglandins|
|Saponins||Antidiarrhoeal||Inhibits histamine release in vitro|
|Anticancer||Possesses membrane permeabilizing properties|
|Anthelmintic||Leads to vacuolization and disintegration of teguments|
|Steroids||Antidiarrhoeal||Enhance intestinal absorption of Na+ and water|
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How to cite this article:
Choudhary N, Siddiqui MB, Azmat S and Khatoon S: Tinospora Cordifolia: Ethnobotany, Phytopharmacology and Phytochemistry Aspects. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013; 4(3); 891-899.
Namrta Choudhary*, M.B. Siddiqui , Shazia Azmat and Sayyada Khatoon
Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
25 November, 2012
21 January, 2013
23 February, 2013
01 March, 2013