TRAUMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELF-REALIZATION OF STUDENTSHTML Full Text
TRAUMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELF-REALIZATION OF STUDENTS
Department of Social and Pedagogical Psychology of Baku State University, Baku, Z. Khalilov- 38, Azerbaijan.
ABSTRACT: The article is dedicated to studying the impact of the cases causing trauma on the self – realization of students. The levels of the self – realization of students who often subject to traumas with different professions and who rarely subject to trauma are distinguished, and the impact of trauma on the level of their emotional tolerance and academic achievements is determined. It is established that there is an important relation between the self – realization of students with the events causing trauma and this relation is more evident at the levels of self – realization. The study shows that the young who are not subjected to a serious trauma have a high self – realization in comparison with others. Though their academic achievement is same, but creativity is higher in the young who are subjected to trauma less and they always think about the individual development. Procedural and content motives dominate in their activity and in reality, expresses itself as doing different work in the direction of self –recognition. In contrary, the young who experienced serious traumas have lower self – realization level and only fill gaps even a number of successes are achieved. Research showed that at the scale of defending time by the scale of self-realization, the students with low indexes, indicators of the adaptation scales like disadaptivity, self-disacceptence, outer control, avoiding problems is relatively higher (p=0.005 in the level is important) in the second group (who have strong trauma) than the first group (who have weak trauma). At the scale of defining time, the students with high indexes, indicators of the adaptation scales like self-acceptance, acceptance of others, emotional comfort, domination is relatively higher (p=0.005 in the level is important) in the first group (who have weak trauma). It was detected that by the scale of self-respect the students with low indexes, disacceptence of others and self-acceptance is relatively higher (p=0,005 in the level is important) in the first group than the second group. By the scale of self-respect, the students with average results, the indicators of scales like self-disacceptance of others ,emotional discomfort, outer control, non-domination, avoiding problems is relatively higher(p=0.05 in the level is important) in the first group than the second group. According to the self-respect scale, the students with high indexes, the indicators of scales like self-acceptance, acceptance of others, domination is relatively higher in the second group than the first group.
Situations Causing Trauma, Students, Self – Realization, Factors Affecting
INTRODUCTİON: The period of social and economic changes is the era of manifestation of new types of risks related to the integrity, stability and self – realization. Modern youth prefers the demand of self –realization and self – recognition activity over anything else.
Regarding this, the development of only professional qualities with students in the educational system is not enough for the adaptation psychological disadaptation, emotional barriers, the degree of severity of the traumas etc. create obstacle for the successful realization of students and prevents the adequate self – determination.
One of the main points that makes the problem be urgent is not studying the issues of the impact of traumatic cases in the world practice on the self – realization of personality, as well as, inadequate approach of educators to their activities in terms of traumas experienced by students.
On the other hand, it is related to non – acceptance of the categories such as “self – realization”, “traumatic situation” etc. which we converted into the subject of the research unanimously. Though there are many studies and researches dedicated to the self – realization problems, still the issues of the impact of social and psychological disadaptation on this phenomenon are not fully cleared depending on ethno – cultural condition. How does social and psychological disadaptation affect the self – realization? How do these mechanisms work in a condition of trauma? In many cases, these questions remain unanswered.
It is known that trauma experienced by the student comprehensively affects the learning activity, his/ her emotional condition, and mainly self – realization depending on the degree of severity and lightness. Long – term trauma becomes a chronic nature and make the personality move away from the active participation and self – realization. In our opinion, the clarification of necessary mechanisms of self – realization in a condition of trauma may create the basis for the organization of psychological correction and increase in the optimality of training process that will be conducted with students.
Avoiding traumatic situations occurring in the life of a human makes it necessary to overcome the difficulties faced with, select behavior strategies important for the adaptation to new condition and use the resources necessary for self – realization (identity resources, internal and external resources etc.). Those events include to traumatic situations which they show themselves as a danger for human life, the dignity and values of himself / herself and relatives. Such situations require extraordinary efforts from the individual to fight with the complications of situations. Such situations act as a stressor and they have the ability to create a psychological trauma 11.
Psychological traumas emerge with the influence of severe situations and the cases that damage the state of mind. In such cases, stress subjects the psychological, physiological and adaptive opportunities of a person to additional loadings that the defense mechanism of the person is violated and traumatic gaps occur.
The researches dedicated to studying traumatic situations show that life activities and functions of a personality, contradictory with a potential of adaptation and not an unanimous. It is noted in the researches that negative impacts of such situations lead to the dominance of adaptive energy from the self – realization energy and the individual spends his / her energy to be spent to self – realization to the adaptation and the formation as a personality is delayed 2.
Riff explains the lack of trauma with psychological comfort based on the researches of M. Yakhodin and shows that its main indicators are positive self-perception, positive attitude towards others, independence, competency, self – realization etc. The above mentioned criteria of psychological disorder in such case are considered to be the manifestation of optimal and positive functions 7.
R.M. Shaminova founds the main function of psychological comfort in the dynamic balance between the personality and reality. It goes without saying that there is no such psychological condition during trauma and psychological comfort acts as a driving force in the creation of balance between the personality and environment. It should be taken into consideration that one of the main criteria of psychological comfort is a successful social and psychological adaptation 4.
According to I. Cohen, the adaptation is such a process that a person has the ability to meet his/ her demands in a successful and productive manner in the territory where he/ she lives in 13. A successful social and psychological adaptation occurs in the case that the person’s potential and demands create social generality in harmony. An adaptation can be seen as a conclusion and process. In this context, it plays a key role in the self – realization of a personality. In this regard, we will study the impact of the levels of social – psychological adaptation and the degree of severity of trauma on their self – realization by determining them. In fact, actually the results of the researches conducted in this field are as follows: The research conducted by L.V. Miller (2014) showed that the trauma experienced is directly related to an actual condition and it adversely affects on the adaptation skills, as well as, self – realization of the student.
- Increase in the level of self – realization in students is clearly visible in the background of increasing in the correction of traumatic situation and social – psychological adaptation (Purkey, 2005).
- The research conducted showed that instrumental – stylistic type of self - realization in girls and boys prevails which is the indicator of internality. The socio-centric installation of self – realization is clearly visible in boys unlike the girls subjected to trauma. In such case, conservatism manifests itself in boys and internality in girls (Y.B. Obukhova, S.G. Obukhova (2015), Sekhar G.B., 2012).
- Trauma adversely affects the creativity in the students subjected to trauma, delays the development dynamic of self – realization and decreases the optimality of training (Bain and Coloms, 1999).
The objectives of research:
- Determination of the relation between different criteria – sex, the ability of adaptation and the degree of trauma with the self – realization of students;
- Determination of the difference between the level of self - realization of students who experienced a serious trauma and who were subjected to trauma in a less degree.
The assumptions of research:
- The experienced trauma (negative experience) changes the forms of self – realization of students in the process of self – realization, reduces the possibilities of socio – psychological adaptation and decreases the emotional sustainability (main assumption).
- There are positive and important correlations between the self – realization of students who experienced a serious trauma and subjected to a trauma in a les degree.
- Depending on the professional direction of students, there is a positive and significant correlation between social and psychological adaptation and their self – realization.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: The above mentioned research has a nature of recommendation in terms of the objectives of its application and from the point of view of collection rule of information which is implemented by the method of correlation. Correlation researches are called such researches which their main aim is to reveal the relations between variable concepts using the correlation information. The target of correlation coefficient is the determination of the level and direction of relations between some variables in mathematical language. The correlation coefficient is an exact method determining the relations between the concepts that are compared, the degree of their dependence on one – another, as well as, the direction (positive or negative) of these relations.
The correlation coefficient shows how person can use the values in the same size for forecasting their values in other sizes in an effective form. Therefore, we can say that the correlation method is used for two main targets:
a) the identification of relations between variables; b) forecasting the value of the subject compatible with other variables on the basis of given values for other variables.
The research has a quantitative nature of the dependence of trauma experienced with the level of self – realization of students in accordance with its aims and qualitative features in relation to some variable criteria such as socio-psychological adaptation. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative variables are used together in determining information in the research.
The method of collection of information: A number of methods are used in order to collect necessary information:
- SAT test of A. Shostrom was used. This questionnaire consists of 126 questions and 14 scales and an assessment in 3 levels.
- Emotional strength methods.
- The evaluation survey of trauma causing event.
- Socio – psychological adaptation method.
The method of analysis of information: Paying attention to different variables of research in the section of practical analysis, their absolute majority and the percentage of returns, as well as, the average volume of criteria and their deviations were calculated. As the research information has certain intervals in the section of final analysis of information, parameter statistical accounting was used in order to analyze information on the level of self – realization and traumatic events. In this context, Pearson correlation method was used in order to test the assumptions. Regarding the research questions, statistical method (t – test) was used in order to test important differences between average numbers of two independent group in the direction of analysis of the results of research. The results of research are obtained by using SPSS – 17 software.
The results of research: As the research information has certain intervals in the section of final analysis of information, parameter statistical accounting was used in order to analyze information on the level of self – realization and traumatic events. In this context, Pearson correlation method was used in order to test the assumptions. Regarding the research questions, statistical method (t – test) was used in order to test important differences between average numbers of two independent group in the direction of analysis of the results of research. The results of research are obtained by using SPSS – 17software. The average age indicators of those who were studied was- 20.375. The research was conducted with two groups.
There were those who experienced certain life traumas in the first group and who were not exposed to a serious trauma in the second group. 68 persons took part in the first group and 72 persons took part in the second group. The analysis of “Assessment survey of the situation causing trauma” shows that indicators are different in both groups. So, general indicator in the 1st group was 7.2 which is not above the standard. General indicator in the second group equals to 8.3 which generally shows the behaviour in the standard.
As it is seen from Table 1, the main difference between I group and II group is the presence of running reactions that show the course of trauma in different a hierarchy. So, this reaction is normally in the 3rd place in those who are not exposed to trauma and in the 2nd place in those who are exposed to trauma. We considered it appropriate to compare T criteria in order to determine how the differences between I group and II group are important from statistical point of view.
TABLE 1: COMPARATIVE INDICATORS OF TRAUMATIC FACTOR IN STUDENTS
|Those who were exposed to mild trauma (I group)||Those who were exposed to serious trauma (II group)|
|Physiological agitation||2||8.5||Running reactions||2||8.3|
|Running reactions||3||7.2||Physiological agitation||3||8.6|
|Integrated indicator||23.4||Integrated indicator||26.7|
As it can be seen from Table 2, a significant dependence has not been determined between I and II groups. There is a dependence, but this is in the level of tendencies (occupation I I p=0.337, RR - Running reactions p=0.337, PA - Physiological agitation p= 0.868, Integrated indicator p =0.339). This fact shows that there are not important differences in the experience of situations causing trauma between two groups. Statistical calculation was conducted in order to determine whether there is a significant relations between the emotional resistance of students experienced the situations causing trauma and the trauma to which they were exposed.
TABLE 2: INDICATORS OF T CRITERIA OF TRAUMATIC FACTOR IN STUDENTS
|Those exposed less to trauma (I group)||Those exposed seriously to trauma (II group)|
|Physiological agitation||0.868||8.5||Running reactions||2||8.3|
|Running reactions||0.337||7.2||Physiological agitation||3||8.6|
|Integrated indicator||0.339||23.4||Integrated indicator||26.7|
As it can be seen from Table 3, according to normal distribution of Smirnov Kolmogorov, there are significant relations in the level of p=0.3 for the I group and p=0.6 for the II group. It can be seen from Table 3 that emotional resistance in the II group, that’s, in student who were seriously exposed to trauma, is higher than the I group (in the level of p=0.03). This fact can only be interpreter with their adaptation to extreme situations.
TABLE 3: THE INDICATORS OF DEPENDENCE BETWEEN THE EMOTIONAL RESISTANCE OF STUDENTS AND TRAUMA EXPERIENCED BY THEM
|Emotional resistance||N||Average indicator||Standard deviation||T-criterion||Difference extremum||Statistical contact||The level of significance|
As it can be seen from Table 4, maladaptive is higher in the I group in comparison with the II group (p=0.050). The students experienced a serious trauma are more maladaptive than the students who have not experienced a trauma. Self – acceptance is higher in the I group (p= 0.02).
TABLE 4: THE INDICATORS OF DEPENDENCE OF SOCIO – PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION ON THE TRAUMA FACTOR
|Scales of socio – psychological adaptation||Trauma factor|
|I group||II group|
(according to Smirnov Kolmogorov)
|The level of significance (bilateral)||N||Statistics Z
(according to Smirnov Kolmogorov)
|The level of significance (bilateral)|
|Non self - acceptance||68||1.237||0.094||75||0.764||0.604|
|Not accepting others||68||0.791||0.560||75||0.680||0.745|
|Non - domination||68||0.911||0.378||75||0.907||0.383|
TABLE 5: T CRITERIA FOR NON-DEPENDENT OPTIONS
|Scales of socio – psychological adaptation||The level of significance for T criteria (significance is bilateral)
|The level of significance for T criteria (significance is bilateral)
|Non self - acceptance||0.070||0.069|
|Not accepting others||0.071||0.074|
It means that the students faced with traumatic situations accept themselves more adequate in comparison with others. Non self – acceptance is higher in the II group in comparison with the first one (p= 0.07).
It shows that the students who have seen the traumatic condition of their relatives and lost their relatives and homeland do not accept themselves as adequate in comparison with those who are not exposed to this.
In this regard, the acceptance of others is higher in this group (p=0.07). Such a dependence shows itself in not accepting others (p=0.07). The study shows that emotional discomfort is higher in those who are permanently exposed to trauma in comparison with others and a significant relations shows itself (p=0.02). In addition, the statistical analysis of the scale of avoiding problems shows that the tendency to avoiding problems in the II group, that’s, in students who were exposed to trauma is higher and a significant relations is observed (P=0.05). As it can be seen from Table 6, difference between the I and II groups shows itself in the statement of scales. We consider it appropriate to conduct a comparative, descriptive, statistic testing in order to identify that whether this difference is true or false. The values of “scale of time determination” and “scale of identification of needs” are more evident within the mentioned scales. Therefore, let’s compare both of these scales.
TABLE 6: INDICATORS OF THE IMPACT OF TRAUMA ON SELF – REALIZATION
|Scales of self – realization||Trauma factor|
(according to Smirnov Kolmogorov)
|The level of significance (bilateral)||N||Statistics Z
(according to Smirnov Kolmogorov)
|The level of significance (bilateral)|
|Scale of time determination||68||0.976||0.296||75||0.790||0.561|
|Scale of support||68||0.788||0.564||75||1.054||0.217|
|Scale of values||68||1.096||0.181||75||1.025||0.244|
|Scale of strengthening behavior||68||0.758||0.614||75||0.911||0.377|
|Scale of sensitivity||68||1.122||0.161||75||1.174||0.127|
|Scale of suddenness||68||1.418||0.036||75||1.090||0.185|
|Scale of self – esteem||68||0.949||0.329||75||1.138||0.150|
|Self – realization||68||0.739||0.645||75||0.940||0.340|
|Scale of perceptions about human nature||68||0.933||0.349||75||1.498||0.023|
|Scale of the identification of needs||68||0.782||0.573||75||0.821||0.510|
Note: Non – parametric criteria shows itself on the scale of perceptions about human nature and synergy scale
TABLE 7: INDICATORS OF SIGNIFICANCE BETWEEN THE SCALES OF SELF – REALIZATION
|Scale of time determination||Self – respect scale|
As it can be seen, though the values of “the scale of time determination” are in the first place for both groups, the indicators in the I group are higher than the II group (p=0.04). The scale of self – respect is higher in the I group than the II group. However, this significance is not observed with a high dependence (p= 0.1). In this case, it is seen from the tables that the students who are not exposed to traumas have higher indicators on the scale of “time determination” and “self – respect”. As there is incompatibility in the above mentioned both scales, we use Mann — Whitney statistics.
We can come to such a conclusion from the analysis of the indicators of trauma and the scales of self – realization that the significance degree of synergy scale was P=0.009, the significance degree of the scale of perceptions about human nature was p=0.107. The values of the I group students showed that the indicators are higher in relation to the II group in comparison with the scale of synergy and perception about human nature. However, it cannot be said that both of them occupy the top places.
As it can be seen from Table 8, those who were exposed to trauma and experienced less trauma are different from one – another for the levels of self – realization, especially, these differences show themselves on the scales of self – realization.
We used correlation analysis of Spirmen in order to reveal the facts confirming whether self – realization depends on the adaption in two groups which we conducted studied (The reason for not using the Pearson correlation method is abnormal distribution).
TABLE 8: STATISTICAL CRITERIA
|Criteria||Synergy scale||Scale of perceptions on human nature|
|Mann — Whitney U-test||582.500||683.500|
|Statistics of Wilcoxon||1617.500||1718.500|
|Level of significance (bilateral)||0.009||0.107|
TABLE 9: CORRELATION OF SOCIO – PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION WITH THE LEVELS OF SELF – REALIZATION IN THE I AND II GROUPS (R – SPIRMEN)
|The scales of socio – psychological adaptation||Scale of time determination||Scale of
|Scale of strengthening
|Scale of aggression|
|Self - acceptance||0.366*|
|According to Pearson||0.024|
|According to Pearson||0.028|
|According to Pearson||0.027||0.022|
|According to Pearson||0.006|
|According to Pearson||0.012|
|According to Pearson||0.001|
Along with this, we used T – criteria in order to determine the dependence of adaptation opportunities of self - realization levels. It is seen from the Table that significant dependence here shows itself on three scales.
TABLE 10: INDICATORS OF THE RELATION OF ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES WITH THE LEVELS OF SELF – REALIZATION (ON T CRITERIA)
|Scales of self – realization||Scales of social - psychological adaptation||Groups||Mean||Degree of
significance – Pearson
|Scale of time determination
|Non self – acceptance||II group||98.7826||0.072|
|Internal control||II group||18.8696||0.035|
|Scale of time determination
Self – acceptance
|Not accepting others||II group||34.1667||0.002|
|Emotional comfort||II group||22.8333||0.026|
It is seen from Table 10 that the indicators of adaptation scale such as maladaptive, non self – acceptance, external control, avoiding problems in students with lower levels of results in the scale of time determination is higher in the II group (those experienced serious trauma) than the I group (those experienced less trauma) (it is significant in the level of p=0.05).
The indicators of adaptation scales in students with higher indicators in time determination scale such as self – acceptance, accepting others, emotional comfort and dominance is higher in the I group (those experienced less trauma) than in the II group (those experienced serious trauma) (it is significant in the level of p=0.05). In addition, it was determined that not accepting others and self – acceptance is higher in the students having with lower indicators on self – respect scale in the I group than the II group (it is significant in the level of p=0.05).
The indicators of scales such as non self – acceptance, not accepting others, emotional discomfort, internal control, non – dominance, avoiding problems in students showing the mean result on the scale of self – respect are higher in the I group in comparison with the II group (it is significant in the level of p=0.05).
The indicators of scales such as self – acceptance, accepting others and dominance in students having higher indicators on the scale of self – respect are higher in the II group than the I group (significant in the level of p=0.05).
DİSCUSSİON AND CONSLUSİON: The results of research once more showed that there is a positive and significant relation between the psychological condition or trauma experienced by students with their level of self – realization. This result was approved in the interval of 14% in the degree of correlation p<0/01. The above mentioned result can be found in some previous researched and it is in the same directions with them.
The research conducted by N.A. Avramenko (2015) showed that high creativity was observed in the students studying in different fields and exposed to traumatic situations. In other words, there is a creative position for their lives and activities. They are not afraid of old behavioral stereotypes and new behavior strategies. They have flexibility in the communication which is far away from manipulation. American researchers J. Britz and E. Pappas (2010) note that self – esteem in modern students is in the lower level and such a condition plays the role of barrier in their self – realization, revealing cognitive opportunities, manifestation of effective thinking and behavior. However, the reason for lower level of self – esteem is not studied. The research conducted by us showed that in most cases, the trauma factor lowers the self – realization itself.
The research conducted by J.J. Bauer, D.P McAdams ( 2004), L.A. King (2001), S. Kitayama, H.R. Markus (1999) and others confirm our researches indirectly and this approves the significance of our research. It should be noted that a number of researches were conducted on revealing the relation between the level of self – realization of students and their traumatic condition. Some obtained results confirmed the existence of such relations, their causes, as well as, the correlation between minimum two factors. However, dependence between these two factors is of tendency nature. That’s, there is relation, but it is not important or significant. Regarding this, researches by M. Ali Khan, N. Rehman and S. Javed (2012), E.F. Yashenko (2006), W. Burleson (2005), Korostıleva L.A. (2000), Golubchikova M.Q. (2003), Burkin K.N. (2004) and others on the dependence of the level of self – realization on different factors coincide with our researches and methodological contradiction doesn’t show itself. Generally, the conducted researches once more confirm that though traumatic situations and negative old experiences dominate in students, their self – realization only fills formal gaps and doesn’t enable to grow as personality. As a rule, in case of a positive self – assessment and ready for self – realization, he/she will have an opportunity to easily resolve problems. And this will have an important role in the academic achievement of a student, his/her independent thinking, and owing more creativity in learning process.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The manuscript is an original article which has not been submitted for publication elsewhere. The author reports that: I have no conflict of interest.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Author are grateful to Baku State University, Department of Social and Educational Psychology of Baku State University for providing facilities to carry out research work.
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How to cite this article:
Jabbarov R: Traumatic factors affecting the self-realization of students. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2017; 8(6): 2682-90. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.8(6).2682-90.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Department of Social and Pedagogical Psychology of Baku State University, Baku, Z. Khalilov, Azerbaijan.
10 November, 2016
09 January, 2017
14 January, 2017
01 June, 2017