BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM DC.: A REVIEWHTML Full Text
BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM DC.: A REVIEW
Manisha 1 and Suresh Kumar*2
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 1, SGT College of Pharmacy, SGT University, Gurugram - 122505, Haryana, India.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2, Punjabi University, Patiala - 147002, Punjab, India.
ABSTRACT: Biophytum sensitivum DC. (Family - Oxalidaceae), commonly known as “Lajjalu” in Northern India, is an annual herb that grows at the foothills of the Himalayas. It is an indigenous medicine, used against “Madhumeha” (Diabetes mellitus) apart from being used as tonic, stimulant, and in the treatment of stomach ache, asthma, insomnia, convulsions, cramps, chest-complaints, inflammations, tumours and chronic skin diseases. It has been scientifically screened for various pharmacological activities such as anti-tumour, antipyretic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antiulcer, radio-protective, larvicidal, antibacterial and antioxidant. Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds as the major constituents. The present work attempts to compile a review on macroscopic characteristics, chemical constituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, formulations and patents listed for this plant. The data has been collected from major databases like Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, PubMed, Scirus, Science Direct, and other online and electronic databases’ which has then been systematically collated for a holistic review about Biophytum sensitivum.
Biophytum sensitivum, Diabetes, Flavonoids, Oxalidaceae
INTRODUCTION: The nature has blessed us with numerous “gifts” in this world. The plants are one of them, which form the basis of life and give us not only food and shelter but also the medicine to alleviate ailments, relieve pain and for longevity. According to W.H.O. about 75-80% of the world population, mainly in the developing countries still use plant based medicines for primary health care.
Many of the currently available drugs were derived directly or indirectly from phytochemicals 1. India has a rich heritage of usage of medicinal plants in the Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani systems. The country has about 15000 medicinal plants that include 7000 plants used in Ayurveda, 700 in Unani, 600 in Siddha, 450 in Homeopathy and 30 in modern medicines 2.
1. Biophytum Genus: Biophytum is a genus of about 50 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants distributed in tropical Asia, Africa, America and Philippines. In India, nine species are found and out of these only three species viz., Biophytum sensitivum DC. (Syn Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch.), B. reinwardtii Edgew. and B. umbraculum Welw. are reported to have ethnomedicinal properties 3. B. sensitivum (Family - Oxalidaceae) commonly known as ‘Nagbeli’ and “Lajjalu”, is an annual herb that grows at the foothills of the Himalayas, around the inner Tarai region (east of Koshi river) in Eastern Nepal 4.
2. Traditional Uses of Biophytum sensitivum: In Ayurveda, it is a tonic, stimulant and used in the treatment of stomach ache, diabetes and asthma. It is also used in insomnia, convulsions, cramps, chest-complaints, inflammations, tumours, chronic skin diseases. Pounded plants are given in insomnia 5. The decoction of the root is given in fever, gonorrhoea and lithiasis. The leaves are diuretic, astringent and antiseptic. Decoction of leaves is used as an expectorant and is given in asthma and phthisis. Paste of the leaf is applied to wounds and cuts to stop bleeding. The powdered seeds are applied to wounds, and (with butter) to abscesses to promote suppuration 6. The crushed whole plant is used in chronic skin troubles. It is eaten to induce sterility in man. It is a folk medicine against “Madhumeha” (Diabetes mellitus), particularly in Eastern Nepal 7, 8. In Siddha system, the grounded leaves are given along with butter milk for diarrhea, grounded seeds are applied over wound and ulcer, the samoolam of this plant is mixed with honey and given for cough and chest congestion, and paste of the leaves is applied over burns and contusions 9. B. sensitivum is one of the plants used against snake envenomation. The whole part of plant is used to counteract the snake venom activity 10. It is one of the auspicious herbs that constitute the group “Dasapushpam”, which comprise ten potential herbs which are culturally and medicinally significant to the people of Kerala in India 11. During the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out to elucidate the chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal applications of B. sensitivum, it has been proved to be revolutionary therapeutic plant to combat life threatening diseases.
3. Distribution and Propagation: It is a common weed distributed in wet lands (mostly plains) of tropical Africa, Asia and India, and is found normally in the shade of trees and shrubs, in grasslands, at low and medium altitudes. It is commonly known as by various vernacular names such as Lajjalu (Hindi), Sensitive Plant (English), Mukkutti (Malayalam), Alambusha, Jalapushpa, Panktipatra, Pitapushpa (Sanskrit), Nilaccurunki, Tintanali (Tamil), Jhalai (Bengali), Hara Muni Jalapushp (Kannada), Jharera, Lajwanti (Marathi), Attapatti, Chumi, Jala (Telugu) and Alleluya (French) 12. It is easily propagated through seeds. Seeds are propelled away from the plant by built up tension from when they dry and sown in a mixture of moist peat and sand, after sowing it is covered with a transparent cover to increase humidity. It requires bright indirect sunlight to partial shade, medium humidity and 16 °C to 29 °C temperature, moist soil and water soluble fertilizers during growth season 13.
4. Morphological Description of the Plant: It is an annual herb which looks like a miniature palm, with unbranched, erect, glabrous or hairy stems from 2.5 to 25cm.
4.1. Leaves: Leaves are green in color, peripinnate, 3.7-12.7cm long, crowded into a rosette on the top of the stem; leaflets 6-15 pairs, oblong, very variable in size, 6-12 mm long 5, 13. The remarkable feature of leaflets is their ability to fold together representing an extreme form of “sleep movement” which is exhibited by a lot of members in this family. When applying pressure, tapping or damaging them they fold together in a few seconds. This plant also displays this behavior when the light drops at night. This ability is not restricted to the leaves; the peduncle which carries the flowers has the same ability and also drops at night 14.
4.2. Flowers: Flowers are dimorphic, normally yellow, white or orange with a red / orange streak in the center of each of the 5 petals on long peduncles of various lengths; petals usually twice as long as the sepals, capsules elliptic, shining 13, 15. The flowers are many, and crowded at the apices of the numerous peduncles. The sepals are subulate-lanceolate, striate, and about 7 millimeters long. Interesting feature of flowers of this plant is heterostyly. Heterostyly in B. sensitivum is responsible for 3 flower morphs. The three morphs (tristylous) each have a stable difference in pistil- and stamen length. The fruit is a capsule which is ellipsoid, apiculate, slightly exceeding the sepals. Seeds are ovoid and transversely striate 14.
5. Regeneration of Biophytum sensitivum: B. sensitivum has been studied for the potential of regeneration by callus culture and micro-propagation techniques 16. Microprapagation of leaf and shoot tip explants in MS medium containing 0.05mg l-1 TDZ and 1mg l-1 BAP results in formation of 14 shoots. The in vitro regenerated plants from the callus obtained from shoot tip and leaf explants were hardened, transferred to the field, established well and found normal. It is reported the regeneration of the plant through direct and indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis using MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D or NAA in combination with BAP induced callusing in stem, inflorescence tip and flower bud explants. Eighty percent of the root plantlets and ninety percent of the somatic embryo derived plantlets survived on soil medium 17.
6. Chemical Constituents: The whole plant contains various chemical constituents like phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, saponin, essential oil, polysaccharides and pectin. The main constituent was found to be amentoflavone. Amentoflavone was quantified by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in methanolic extract of roots, stems and leaves and the contents were estimated to be 0.26% in roots, 0.33% in stems, and 0.012% in leaves 18. High-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for estimation of amentoflavone and was validated for precision (intra- and inter-day), repeatability, and accuracy were 0.52-1.36% 19. Various chemical constituents of B. sensitivum have been summarized in Table 1.
TABLE 1: REPORTS ON ISOLATED PHYTOCONSTITUENTS FROM B. SENSITIVUM
|Plant Part / Extract||Isolated Compounds|
|Aerial parts||Amentoflavone and Cupressoflavone (bioflavone) 20, 21|
|Polysaccharide, BP100 III, which is composed of galacturonic acid and rhamnose 22, 23|
|Luteolin-7-methyl ether, isoorientin and 3-methoxyluteolin 7-O-glucoside (Flavonoids) 20|
|4-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid 21|
|Leaves||Orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, isoorientin 7-O-glucoside, isoorientin 2-O-rhamnoside 24, 25|
|Whole plant / Essential oil||1, 4-dimethoxy benzene, 1, 2-dimethoxy benzene, 2-methoxy-4-methyl phenol, (Z)-linalool oxide, (E)-linalool oxide, linalyl acetate, 1-octen-3-ol and isophorone 26|
Amentoflavone Cupressuflavone Orientin Isoorientin
Isovitexin (-)- epicatechin Luteolin-7-methyl ether
Luteolin-7-o-glucoside 4-caffeoylquinic acid 1, 2-dimethoxy benzene 5-caffeoylquinic acid
1,4-dimethoxy benzene 2-methoxy-4-methyl phenol Isophorone
Linalyl acetate 1-octen-3-ol Linalool oxide
FIG. 1: CHEMICAL STRUCTURES OF IMPORTANT CONSTITUENTS OF BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM
7. Pharmacological Reports: The plant has been screened for a number of pharmacological activities. It has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor, antipyretic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antiulcer, radioprotective, larvicidal and antioxidant activities. Reported pharmacological activities of B. sensitivum have been summarized in Table 2.
TABLE 2: PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM
|Activity||Plant part / Extract /
Fraction / Isolate
|Dose / Animals /
|Mechanism of action /
|Anti-tumour||Leaves / WE||100 and 200 mg/kg for 28 days / Swiss albino mice||Solid tumour by Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma||Decreased the tumor volume and viable cell count there by increasing the life span of DAL 27|
|Whole plant /
|0.1 mg/ml in L929 cell culture and 500 µ/dose/animal / BALB/c mice||Dalton's ascites lymphoma and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells||Inhibit the solid tumor development in mice induced with DAL cells and increase the lifespan of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumors by 93.3%. Also reduced GSH, GGT and NO levels in ascites tumor bearing animals 28|
|Apoptotic Effect||Whole plant / ME||10 µ/mL in B16F-10 melanoma cells||B16F-10 melanoma cells||Inhibit production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, GMCSF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha in B16F-10 cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and peritoneal macrophages and induces apoptosis in B16F-10 melanoma cells 29|
|Amentoflavone (biflavonoid)||10 µ/mL in B16F-10 melanoma cells||B16F-10 melanoma cells||It stimulates apoptosis by regulating bcl-2, Caspase-3 and p53 genes in B16F-10 melanoma cells and regulates nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokine production in B16F-10 cells, TAMs and peritoneal macrophages 30|
|Anti- angiogenic activity||Whole Plant / ME||50 mg/kg in B16-F10 melanoma cell-induced capillary formation in C57BL/6 mice||B16F-10 melanoma cells||Significantly inhibited the tumor directed capillary formation induced by melanoma cells and antiangiogenic activity is exerted through its cytokine modulation activity and inhibitory activity against VEGF mRNA expression 31|
|Leaf / Acetone extract||Fertilized eggs of gallus||Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo||Prevented signaling of angiogenesis from epithelial cells and significantly inhibited development of capillary networks in CAM and has potential anti-angiogenic property 32|
|Whole plant / ME||Swiss albino mice||Cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced toxicity||Significantly increased the total WBC count, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive cells compared to control mice treated with CTX alone.
Also reduced CTX induced intestinal damage and level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, and increased the levels of cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-2 and GM-CSF 33
|Anti-metastatic effects||Whole plant / ME||Lung tissue of C57BL/6 mice||B16F-10 melanoma cells||Exhibited antimetastatic effects through the inhibition of invasion and motility by regulating the expression of MMPs, prolyl hydoxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23 gene, ERK-1, ERK-2, STAT-1, and proinflammatory cytokines 34|
|Amentoflavone / (biflavonoid)
|50 mg/kg for 10 days/ lung tissue of C57BL/6 mice||B16F-10 melanoma cells||Inhibited tumor metastasis through a regulatory mechanism involving MMP-2, MMP-9, prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl oxidase, VEGF, ERK-1, ERK-2, STAT-1, NM23 and Icytokines in lung tissues 35|
|Immuno-modulatory Effect in cancer||Whole plant / ME||0.1 mg/ml in L929 cell culture and 500 µ/dose/animal/ BALB/c mice||Dalton's lymphoma ascites and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells||Increased the total WBC count and bone marrow cell count and also enhanced the differentiation of stem cells by increasing the presence of γ-esterase-positive bone marrow cells and have stimulatory effect on the humoral arm of the immune system and production of immune cells by increasing weight of spleen and thymus 36|
|Whole plant / ME||BALB/c mice||Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells||Significantly enhanced the proliferation of splenocytes, thymocytes, bone marrow cells and natural killer cell activity 34|
|Antioxidant Activity||Whole plant / ME||BALB/c mice||In vitro Models (Lipid peroxidation scavenge superoxide radicals and NO) and in vivo Model||Inhibited lipid peroxidation and scavenge superoxide radicals; and in vivo inhibited Phorbol-12-myristrate-13-acetate-induced superoxide radical generation in macrophages and significant increase in catalase activity, Glutathione-S-transferase, GSH, Glutathione reductase and decrease in glutathione peroxidase 37|
|Whole plant / ME||25 to 900 μg/ml||In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity||Maximum percentage inhibition about 43.96 at concentration of 110.46 µg/ml and the reducing capabilities were found to be in dose dependent manner 38|
|Whole plant / PE, CE, ME and WE||-||In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity , Phosphomolybdenum assay||Significant of maximum free radical scavenging activity was exerted by acetone and methanol extracts 39|
|Antidiabetic Activity||Leaves / ME||Rabbit||Alloxan induced diabetes||Significant hypoglycaemic effect (possibly due to pancreatic beta-cell stimulating action) 40|
|Leaves / ME||Rabbit||Non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetes||Insulinotropic effect may be mediated through stimulating the synthesis/release of insulin from the beta cells of Langerhans 41|
|Leaves / WE||200 mg/kg bo for 28 days
Adult male wistar rats
|Normal and STZ NAD induced diabetic||Significant antidiabetic activity 42|
|Whole plant / ME and WE||200 mg/kg bo
albino wistar rats
|Alloxan induced diabetes||Significant hypoglycaemic activity 43|
|Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity||Leaves / PE, CE, ME and acetone extract||B. subtilis, S. aureus, Strep. pneumonia, K. pneumoniae, Salm. typhi, P. vulgaris, and E. coli||Agar well diffusion
|Methanol and acetone extracts showed significant antibacterial
|Whole plant / PE, CE, ME and WE||E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. viridians.||Disc diffusion method||Significant activity against UTI pathogens 45|
|Leaves / Acetone extract||A. fumigatus, A. niger, C. neoformans||Disc diffusion method||Significant antifungal activity 46|
|Antihyperten-sive and Calcium antagonistic activity||Whole plant / Hydroalcoholic extract||1 mg /ml /kg bo/
|Isolated wistar rat tissue (aorta rings)||Non-competitively antagonized calcium chloride and high-K+-induced aorta contractions in
a concentration-dependent manner, have significant hypotensive effect which may result from inhibition of calcium influx via both voltage-and receptor-operated calcium channels 47
|Anti-inflammatory activity||Aerial parts / ME and WE||Wistar rats||Carrageenin induced rat paw oedema||Water extract showed significant activity 48|
|Whole plant / ME||100 and 200 mg/kg / Wistar rats||Carrageenin-induced, histamine-induced and dextran-induced paw oedema||Significant anti-inflammatory activity 49|
|Amentoflavone / Roots||10 and 50 mM of amentoflavone||In vitro||IC50 value -12.4 mM and selective inhibitor of cycloxygenase (COX)-1 catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis 50|
|Radio-protective Effect||Whole plant / ME||50 mg/kg b.wt
Swiss albino Mice
|Gamma irradiation Model (6 Gy/animal)||Reduced the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lipid peroxide (LPO) levels, and enhanced glutathione (GSH) content in liver and intestinal mucosa and radioprotective effect is mediated through immunomodulation as well as sequential induction of IL-1beta, GM-CSF and IFN-gamma 51|
|Hypo-cholesterolemic Effect||Leaves / WE||200 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days/
Male albino mice
|Cholesterol induced hypercholesterolemia||Significant hypocholesterolemic effect by improving all the parameters of lipid profile like VLDL/LDL 52|
|Anti-pyretic effect||Whole plant / ME||Wistar rats/ 100 and 200 mg/kg bo||Yeast-induced pyrexia in rats||Significant antipyretic property and considerably reduces the febrile response in rats 49|
|Whole plant / ME||100 and 200 mg/kg
|Tail flick method and acetic acid induced writhing method||Significant analgesic activity 49|
|Larvicida activity||Leaves / Acetone extract||10, 15 and 25 mg/l||Aedes aegypti mosquito||Effective larvicidal, pupicidal and also interfered with the normal development and emergence of adult mosquitoes 53|
|Whole plant / ME||50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/l||Culex quinquefasciatus||Moderate Larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50=215.34 mg/ml|
|Antifertility Activity||Whole plant / CE, ME and n-butanol extracts||400 mg/kg/||Female wistar albino rats||Methanol extract exhibited maximum (100%) antifertility activity and the activity was reversible on withdrawal of the treatment of the extract 54|
|Hypolipidemic and Antiobesity Activity||Stems / Ethyl acetate and ME||200 and 400mg/Kg bo/
Adult albino rats
|High fat diet induced rats||Both extracts significantly reduced the elevated levels of (TC), (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL- cholesterol, AST and ALT and elevate the decreased level of HDL-cholesterol and possess good hypolipidemic and anti-obesity activity but ethylacetate extract was found to be more active than methanol extract 55|
|Antiepiletic activity||Leaves / ME||50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. / Wistar rats||MES test and PTZ induced seizures||Significantly and dose-dependently reduced the duration of tonic hind limb extension in both experimental models and also delayed the onset of tonic-clonic convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol in mice 56|
|Anti-urolithiatic activity||Whole plant / ME||100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bo for 7 days/
Male wistar albino rats
|Zinc disc implantation induced urolithiasis||Significantly prevent the formation of urinary stones and the possible mechanism underlying this effect is mediated collectively through diuretic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the plant 57|
|Anti-ulcer Activity||Leaves / ME||250mg/kg body weight
Wistar albino rats
|Aspirin induced models||Showed significant anti-ulcer property, and it may be due to the presence of tannins 58|
|Wound Healing property||Aerial parts / ME||1g and 2g for 15 days
Wistar strain albino rats
|Excision wound Model||Significant wound healing activity and showed higher rate of wound contraction, increased level of Hydroxy proline, hexosamine content, super dismutase, ascorbic acid and decreased lipid 59|
PE, CE, ME and WE represents Petroleum ether, Chroloform, Methanol and Water extract.
B. subtilis, S. aureus, Strep.pneumonia, K.pneumoniae, Salm. typhi, P. vulgaris, and E. coli, A. fumigatus, A. niger and C. neoformans represents Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Candida neoformans respectively.
8. Toxicity Studies: Acute toxicity of B. sensitivum extracts was studied in rodents. The aqueous extract of leaves of the plant was studied and found non-toxic at the dose levels of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight by oral route in mice 27. The methanolic extract of the B. sensitivum whole plant is well tolerated up to an oral dose of 4000 mg/kg of body weight as no mortality was observed within a period of 24 h 49. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and ethanol extracts of the plant were found to be greater than 1g/kg when administered by intraperitoneal route to rats 54.
9. Clinical Studies: Biophytum sensitivum is used in the treatment of diabetes in the Ayurvedic system of medicines. Traditionally it is said to have a insulin like compound. The mechanism of action is not well understood but appears to have insulin-tropic properties. Clinical studies have been reported on the formulation containing B. sensitivum 60. DB14201 has been marketed since 2002 under Ayurvedic license issued by Drug Controller of the State of Kerala, under the trade name Diabedrink. It is a combination of 16 herbs used in Ayurveda.
It contains Zizyphus jujube, Terminalia chebula, Mangifera indica, Emblicao-fficinalis, Embelia ribes, Curcuma longa, Aerva lanata, Syzygium cumini, Coscinium fenestratum, Salacia Oblonga, Cyclea peltata, Biophytum sensitivum, Strychnos potatorum, Cyperus rotundus, Vetiveria zizanioides, and Centella asiatica as ingredients. Subject blinded, placebo controlled, randomized clinical studies have been repoted on 30 patients suffering from Type 2 Diabetes in the ages of 29-71 of both gender which were on single oral hypoglycemic agent Glibenclamide, since more than three months but with inadequately controlled blood sugar levels (FBS level >120 mg/dl and/ or PPBS levels >200 mg/dl) on the day of recruitment.
The study period for each subject was 90 days with a follow-up of 15 days thereafter. The entire evaluation was completed in 11 months. It is reported that the herbal formulation DB14201 is safe in T2DM patients when administered along with glibenclamide and improves the effectiveness of glibenclamide in offering better glycemic control. It also provides significant improvement in fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels in comparison to addition of placebo and also significantly reduces HbA1c levels.
10. Formuations of Biophytum sensitivum: Herbal creams and gels were prepared by incorporating the dry methanolic extract of whole plant of B. sensitivum into emulsifying cream and aqueous washable gel base. It was evaluated for in vitro antibacterial efficacy against four different bacterial strains (Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtillis) using the agar well diffusion method. The results showed that B. sensitivum has high potential as antibacterial agent when formulated as cream and gel for topical use 61. An optimized tablet formulation was prepared of B. sensitivum using the dried whole plant methanolic extract.
It was evaluated for their antioxidative properties in vitro based on their total flavonoid content (TFC) against a standard flavonoid, Quercetin and also in vivo for antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats against Glibenclimide, an antidiabetic drug. The drug exhibited antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the formulation 62.
11. Patent Related to Biophytum sensitivum: Herbal formulation comprising of extracts from selected Indian medicinal plants Zizyphus jujube, Terminalia chebula, Mangifera indica, Emblicao-fficinalis, Embelia ribes, Curcuma longa, Aerva lanata, Syzygium cumini, Coscinium fenestratum, Salacia Oblonga, Cyclea peltata, Biophytum sensitivum, Strychnos potatorum, Cyperus rotundus, Vetiveria zizanioides, and Centella asiatica as ingredients used for prevention and treatment of diabetes and associated complications has been patented 63.
CONCLUSION: Traditionally the parts of the plant have been known to possess a wide spectrum of medicinal properties namely antiseptic properties, including positive effects in variety of skin infections and in the treatment of diabetes. Antibacterial, antifungal and antidiabetic activities have been proved by the scientific research work. Biophytum sensitivum is widely prescribed for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic system of Medicine. The whole plant is also used traditionally in the treatment of various ailments.
The plant has been evaluated exhaustively for various pharmacological activities and reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, larvicidal, anti-obesity, anti-hypertensive, antiepileptic, wound healing and antifertility activities.
No systematic work has been carried out to isolate bioactive constituents responsible for afore-mentioned bioactivities. The plant contains phytoconstituents like flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds but till now only nineteen phytoconstituents have been isolated. Amongst these constituents, only flavonoids (amentoflavone) have been suggested to possess most of pharmacological activities. These observations suggest that detailed investigations are needed with a view to isolate bioactive constituents, and to standardize the plant on the basis of isolated bioactive markers. Only one formulation containing B. sensitivum as one of the ingredients has been patented which is used in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications. It has been found to be safe in a toxicity studies.
Clinical studies on 30 type 2 diabetic patients have been conducted to observe antidiabetic potential of the plant showed beneficial effects in diabetic patients. Finally, it is concluded that B. sensitivum is the source of plenty of bioactive constituents which has the potential to be developed as efficacious and safer drugs.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful to Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonipat, for providing necessary facilities during the work.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of Interest.
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How to cite this article:
Manisha and Kumar S: Biophytum sensitivum DC.: A Review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9(1):27-36.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232. 9(1).27-36.
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