EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE METABOLITES OF ISOCHRYSIS GALBANA IN PHARMACEUTICAL INTEREST: AN OVERVIEWHTML Full Text
EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE METABOLITES OF ISOCHRYSIS GALBANA IN PHARMACEUTICAL INTEREST: AN OVERVIEW
N. Mishra and N. Mishra*
Centre of Food Technology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad - 211002, Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Microalgae biomass has been recognized to have great potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds with industrial as well as health promoting applications in human, animal and aquatic lives. Microalgae have been gaining attention continuously due to its bioactive compounds. These bioactive compounds are primary and secondary metabolites produced by microalgae in order to adopt adverse environmental conditions. The simple growth requirement, higher mass productivity in short harvesting time making microalgae promising over other natural source of bioactive compounds. Several species of microalgae have undergone various screenings to identify and tap into these valuable resources, among them are the Isochrysis galbana, a brown microalgae belonging the class haptophyta. It is widely used as a feed for marine organism in aquaculture because of its high lipid content. Recently it is found Isochrysis galbana also exhibited the potential of being a source of high-value compounds with distinct biological activities including antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory and hypochloesteromic. These activities have a wide range of applications in various industries that have not been broadly explored and fully exploited. The aim of this review paper is to update previous researches on the biological activity of Isochrysis galbana and to explore it as a pharmaceutical agent.
Microalgae, Isochrysis galbana, Bioactive compounds, Biological activities, Pharmaceutical agent
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, there is a huge interest among consumers and food industry on products that can promote good health, improve the state of wellbeing and decreases the risk of diseases 1, 2. Over the last few decades many microalgae has attracted the interest of researchers due to its high nutritional value and vast variety of novel metabolites that can be used in bioremediation 3, biofuel 4, biofertilizer 5, human food 6, animal feed 6, and pharmaceutical industry 7.
Extensive pharmaceutical and nutraceutical researches have being conducting globally for production of bioactive compounds from microalgae. Among these microalgae, Isochrysis galbana is one of the common marine microalgae used in mariculture to feed for bivalves & larva of fish, crustaceans, and mollusks 8. Initially they have gained notice due to its high content of lipid that can be used in aquaculture and biofuel.
Recently, it has found Isochrysis also have balanced composition of several important bio-molecules, namely polysaccharides, fatty acid, carotenoids, vitamins, sterols which have the potential to improve the nutritional value of human foods, animal feed and have therapeutic potential against several diseases like cardiovascular disease cancer, diabetes, infectious diseases etc. 9, 10.
Nutraceutical and pharmaceutical scientists raised interest in I. galbana due to its simple growth requirement, ability to grow in extreme environmental condition, higher growth rate and productivity 11. Isochrysis are golden brown marine photoautotrophic microalgae belonging to the class haptophyta that use light energy and inorganic nutrients (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.) to develop and synthesize bio-compounds that have high aggregated nutritional and therapeutic values. The biochemical composition of microalgae is depends on growth phase and culture conditions. These are important factors that influence the metabolism of microorganisms, thus directing the synthesis of specific compounds of interest.
Therefore, culture conditions have to be optimized to maximize growth rate and production of valuable metabolites. I. galbana has been used as feed in aquaculture since long time 10, 12. Although, limited studies found that explore its bioactive compounds and proves their therapeutic potential. This review aims to collate information from limited literature available on the great potential of biologically active metabolites of Isochrysis galbana for commercial uses. The aim of study is to review the main bioactive compounds in I. galbana and its therapeutic potential. Here we discuss few bioactive compounds- carotenoids, omega 3 fatty acid, sulfate polysaccharides and update previous researches on the biological activity of Isochrysis galbana to explore it as a pharmaceutical agent.
Valuable Bioactive Compounds: Bioactive compounds are heterogeneous group of essential and non-essential compounds commonly present in small concentrations in plants and food products. It haves the potential to provide health benefits beyond the basic nutritional value of the product 13. Recently microalgae have received attention due to its novel and structurally diverse bioactive compounds. They have unique ability to survive in adverse environmental condition and in order to adapt new environmental surroundings, they biosynthesize and accumulates different primary and secondary bioactive compounds that have potential pharmaceutical and therapeutic values 14. These therapeutically effective compounds usually accumulated in biomass or in some cases released extracellular into the medium 15. Most of the valuable compounds produced by microalgae are secondary metabolites. These metabolites are nothing but organic compounds that do not accumulates or participate directly in growth or development, but appear under stress conditions 16. Isochrysis characterized by fast growth rate, wide temperature and salinity tolerance and absence of toxins 11. They contain many bioactive compounds, such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes and other high-value compounds with pharmaceutical and nutritional importance that can be employed for commercial use 9. This study reviews selected bioactive compounds-carotenoids, omega 3 FA, polysaccharides and its role in cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.
Carotenoids: The main pigments of the Isochrysis galbana are the light harvesting pigments chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, fucoxanthin and have diadinoxanthin in minor concentration 16, 17, 18. Under light stress, diadinoxanthin can be converted into diatoxanthin that have higher ability to quenching of excessive light energy and protect it from light stress 19, 20, 21. Fucoxanthin is a main carotenoid present in Isochrysis galbana exhibits potent antioxidant activities 22, 23. After absorption in human body it is metabolized into fucoxanthinol, amarouciaxanthin A and halocynthiaxanthin 24. Antioxidant activity (AO) of fucoxanthin is greater than other antioxidant compounds like beta carotene, alpha tocopherol and phenolic compounds.
FIG. 1: STRUCTURE OF FUCOXANTHIN
It has reported fucoxanthin has a strong radical scavenging activity as compare to other carotenoids such as zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lutein 25. This attributed to the unique molecular structure of fucoxanthin, which have double allenic bonds at C-7′ position with several conjugated double bond 26 as shown in Fig. 1. A number of studies have examined the metabolism, safety, and bioactivities of fucoxanthin, including its anti-cancer, anti-obesity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti- diabetic, and anti-angiogenic activities 27, 28.
Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid: Based on the position of first double bond in carbon chain, there are two types of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-omega 3 fatty acid (n-3FA) and omega6 fatty acid (n-6FA). Most common type of n-6 FA are Linoleic acid (LA; C18:2), Arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4) and n-3 FA are α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA; C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; C22:6) acids, structure were shown in Fig. 2. Both are essential fatty acids and are not synthesized by human due to the absence of enzyme required placing double bond at n-3 and n-6 position. LCPUFA especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provide significant health benefits and needed to be supplied by diet.
FIG. 2: STRUCTURE OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID
Currently, Marine fatty fish are the key source of n-3 fatty acid (n-3FA) in human 29. However, its undesirable taste, typical smell, cultural constraint, decline resources, increasing risk of contamination and prices, has created the demand for an alternative sources. Microalgae are the primary producer of EPA and DHA that are eventually accumulated to higher animal through food chain 30. Vegetable sources are rich in LA, ALA but poor in EPA and DHA.
In the metabolic pathway of ALA, it converted into EPA & DHA however; this conversion of ALA into EPA and DHA in human is very low due to the deficiency of desaturase enzymes. Therefore, there is need to direct intake of EPA & DHA rich dietary sources. Unlike human, in microalgae, n-3 and n-6 FA series are interconvertable as shown in Fig. 3.
FIG. 3: BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY FOR THE POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID IN MICROALGAE
EL- elongase enzyme DES- desaturase enzyme LA-Linoleic acid, ALA-alpha linolenic acid, SDA- stearidonic acid, GLA- gamma linolenic acid, DGLA- dihomo-γ linolenic acid, ETA- eicosatetraenoic acid, AA-Arachidonic acid, EPA- eicosapentaenoic acid, DHA- docosapentaenoic acid, DHA- docosahexaenoic acid.
Isochrysis galbana is a marine microalga contain significant amount of LCPUFA in particular EPA and DHA. Although composition of lipid within cell differ with various culture conditions such as light intensity, culture medium composition, temperature. It has been acknowledged that n-3 FA particularly EPA & DHA play important role in many metabolic activities and have high therapeutic importance against cardiovascular disease (CVD), inflammatory disease, neuro-degenerative disease, cancer. There is currently a large demand for microalgae in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry due to their sustainable productivity.
TABLE 1: COMPARISION OF FATTY ACID COMPOSITION (% OF TOTAL FATTY ACID) OF I. GALBANA WITH COMMON VEGETABLE OILS 31, 32
|Fatty acid||I galbana||Sunflower||Safflower||Sesame||Rice Bran||Rapeseed|
Table 1 illustrated comparison of fatty acid composition of I. galbana to the conventional vegetable oils and depicts that it could be possible dietary source of n-3FA in infant formula, animal feeds and human nutrition 30.
Polysaccharide: Polysaccharide (PS) is polymeric carbohydrate structures that are formed of monosaccharide via different glycosidic bond. The carbohydrate content of Isochrysis represents around 13% of dry matter. Mono-sugar compositions of Isochrysis consist of 2.07% fucose, 2.50% rhamnose, 2.72% arabinose, 8.49% xylose, 15.7% mannose, 32.73% galactose and 35.79% glucose. Sun first isolated intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides from Isochrysis galbana. Fig. 4 elicited it is a highly branched chain of β-type hetero polysaccharide with (1→3) (1→6) glucan 33. Glucan contains linear chain of (1 → 6)-linked β glucopyranose (GLc) consist backbone of the structure. Every residue is substituted at position 3 by Glc, which in turn may be substituted at C-6 by a single Glc or by rather short (up to tetrasaccharide) oligosaccharide chains. 34. Polysaccharides have a wide array of biological activity like anticoagulant, immune-modulatory. These biological activities of polysaccharide depends on the ratio of 1 → 3 and 1 → 6 linkage (degree of branching) and chain length. Sun isolated three polysaccharides, IPSI-A, IPSI-B and IPSII from the Isochrysis galbana and demonstrated to have antioxidant activity 35. They have wide range of biological activities and potential health benefits, making them interesting compounds for the application in therapeutics, and pharmaceuticals industry. It also has free radical scavenging ability and may reduce risk of chronic diseases like CVD, arthritis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases. 37, 38, 39.
FIG. 4: HIGHLY BRANCHED STRUCTURE OF THE β-GLUCAN FROM I. GALBANA 34
Biological Activity of Isochrysis galbana:
Cardioprotective Activity: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide 40. CVD is a group of diseases that affect the heart, blood vessels and blood circulation include atherosclerosis, CHD, stroke, heart failure, thrombosis and peripheral arterial disease. Cardio protective activity of I. galbana is attributed to its antioxidant, anticoagulant and cholesterol lowering properties. It scavenges free radical, thereby prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which carry cholesterol into the blood stream, significant potential to cause atherosclerosis 41. Nuno conducted an experiment on diabetic rat and found daily consumption of 50gm Isochrysis galbana for 8 weeks lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride accredited to its polysaccharide content 42. Mechanisms involved in lowering cholesterol are not yet completely understood however; Oakenful proposed that it lowers serum cholesterol by increasing bile excretion and interfering with micelle formation and lipid absorption 43.
It may also possess anticoagulant property, although there are only few studies on anticoagulant properties of microalgae 44. The most recognized mechanism is that PS inhibits clot formation due to its heparin like activity. Pereira suggested the anti-coagulated properties of sulfated polysaccharides depends on its sulfated content particularly distribution/position of sulfate groups and configuration of polymer chain rather than amount of sulfur residue 45. Isochrysis galbana has been acknowledged due to its high n-3 LCPUFA. Its regular consumption may reduce the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and cardiac arrest 46. n-3 has anti-arrhythmatic activity based on the ability of EPA to incorporate into myocardial cell membranes 47. Incorporation of EPA in the cell membrane potentially alters the eicosanoids production and ion channel function. It increases membrane fluidity in cardiac cells, thereby preventing atrial 48, 49. Previous studies have demonstrated that EPA rich diet inhibits platelet aggregation, reduces blood viscosity, fibrinogen concentration, and increases plasmogen activator thus prevents CVD. However, further studies needed to explore the role of Isochrysis galbana in thrombosis, arrhythmia and other cardiac event.
Antitumor Activity: Cancer is a disease where cell continue to grow and divide. Multiple mechanism involve in cancer prevention includes, inhibition of excess cell growth, enhanced apoptosis, suppression of neoplastic transformation and antiangiogenicity. Free radical and progressive oxidative damage induces formation of cancer cell lines. Isochrysis have significant amount of antioxidant compound such as carotenoids (fucoxanthin), phenolic compounds, and α tocopherol. Beneficial effect of fucoxanthin in prevention of cancer is well established 50, 51. Several study had reported valuable effects of fucoxanthin in prevention of different type of carcinomas includes prostate and lung 52, colon cancer 53, lung cancer 54, 55, urinary cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer T cell leukemia 56. Antitumor effect of fucoxanthin have been mediated through different mechanism includes apoptosis, arrest cell cycle, anti proliferation, anti angiogenesis 57. Rodrigues and colleagues also found fucoxanthin was one of the strongest carotenoids only suppressed by astaxanthin for scavenging HOCl 58.
The antioxidant activity of algal fucoxanthin is higher than α tocopherol by effectively protecting from oxidative damage 59. Antioxidant potential of Isochrysis galbana have been identified by Natrah et al may contribute in prevention of various type of cancer 32. Usually antioxidant activities of carotenoids were assessed by DPPH, hydroxyl and Nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity. Methanol extract of Isochrysis galbana have 34.18% DPPH radical scavenging properties, 67.35% hydroxyl radical scavenging properties, 37.33% NO scavenging properties 61. Goiris et al., establish antioxidant activity of Isochrysis galbana is due to both carotenoid and phenolic content 62. Although antioxidant activity of phenolic component of microalgae faltering. Li found no antioxidant activity of phenolic compound 63 whereas Jaime et al., 64, Geetha et al., 66 Custódio et al., 66 observed high antioxidant capacity of phenolic compound. This is further supported by Hajimahmoodi 67, Custodio et al., 68 demonstrated the antioxidant activity of microalgae is due to the presence of phenolic compounds.
Antitumor activity of Isochrysis species have been identified in many studies such as acetone extract of I. galbana T-ISO significantly reduced the viability of human hepatic carcinoma Hepatic G2 cell 68. Crude polysaccharide of Isochrysis galbana has immune-stimulating ability by the induction of IL-1 within murine macrophage 69. Sadovskaya et al., confirmed the anti-tumor potential of PS extract of Isochrysis sp. as they inhibit the proliferation of U937 human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cells 34. Sun et al isolated intracellular polysaccharide IPS-I, IPSII, IPSIII from Isochrysis galbana posses significant antioxidant properties 33. Anti oxidative property of PS attributed due to its ability to prevent accumulation and activity of free radical and other reactive species 38, 70.
Thereby, provide protection against oxidative and radical agent. Rocha de Souza 71 and Ye et al., 72 found PS inhibits tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in mice. The exact mechanism of action is not known yet but it is suggested that it blocks the interaction of cancer cells with basement membrane and inhibit the adhesion of tumor cell to various substrate 73. Role of n-3 fatty acids in prevention of cancers has not been fully established. It has found ratio of n3/n6 is a determining factor for the prevention of carcinogenesis 74, 75. High n-6 and low n-3 FA produces inflammatory metabolites which increases proliferation of cells. In vitro studies found high AA induces pancreatic cancer whereas EPA suppresses 76.
Neuro- protective Activity: Marine algae found to be a potent neuro protective agent and could be introduced for the preparation of novel functional ingredients in pharmaceuticals for the treatment and or prevention of neurodegenerative disease 77. Excess production of free radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the fundamental mechanism underlying human neurological disorder 78. Overproduction of free radical leads oxidative stress and causes cellular damage that leads many neurological disorders to brain cells.
It is well stabilized that metal also generate highly toxic free radicals, resulting in oxidative damage responsible for the development of neurological disorders 79. Radical scavenging and metal chelating activity is a valuable approach in treatment neurodegenerative diseases 80, 81, 82. I. galbana have significant radical scavenging ability and have high ability to chelate Fe2+ and Cu2+ 60.
Antioxidant present in Isochrysis like fucoxanthin, tocopherol, and phenolic compound may prevent or reverse the age-related changes in the central nervous system. They exhibit antioxidant activity by scavenging free radical and other reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) & reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and chelating catalytic metals 83. Fucoxanthin is a major carotenoid of Isochrysis galbana (1.85% DW) known for its antioxidant properties and neuroprotective activities 84. Other theory advocated that n-3 FA plays a significant role in proper development of nervous system, cognitive development and memory related learning. It modulates electric signal transduction mechanism by affecting ion channel function and receptor system.
Composition of fatty acid in brain cell membrane increases neuro plasticity of nerve membrane, increases synaptic transmission, regulates production and transmission of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine 85, 86. DHA is the major fatty acid of brain consists of 12-16% of total fatty acid in grey matters. It has been found in clinical trials that learning capacity and visual acuity increases with DHA 87. Several studies documented the positive effect of DHA in neurological disorder 88, 89, 90, 91.
Most possible mechanism is the ability of DHA to incorporate in brain cell membrane and thereby, increase membrane fluidity and ability to bind ligand which initiates transduction process 92, 93, 94. Antalis et al., found in their study that low blood DHA/EPA may lead behavioral disorders including attention-deficit⁄ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 95.
Previous researchers found that high consumption of DHA lowers the incidence of age-related cognitive decline, dementia, risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsy. Role of PS extract of Isochrysis in neurological disorder have not been reported. Although sulfated polysaccharide from the other brown algae exhibit neuroprotective effect by decreasing apoptosis in neuronal cells and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity 96. Recently found PS have appreciable antioxidant capacity involves metals chelating and free radical scavenging properties. This further supports the neuro-protective activity of polysaccharides 97, 98.
Antimicrobial Activity: Antimicrobial potential of microalgae has been recognized a long time ago. Microalgae extracts or their secondary products have inhibitory activity against many pathogens and cultured organism 99, 100, 101, 102. Several compounds includes phenols, fatty acid, volatile halogenated hydrocarbons indoles, terpenes play important role in antimicrobial activity of microalgae. Antimicrobial activity of Isochrysis is attributed to its fatty acid content which vary with its different strain and cultural condition 103. Isochrysis galbana produces and accumulates high content of lipid in stationary phase, when cells are not dividing. They release free fatty acid from lipid through enzymatic activity and discharge in media in late growth phase as a defensive mechanism against pathogenic bacteria, virus and other coexisting algae 101, 104. These fatty acid and their derivates have antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram negative and gram positive bacteria 105. Antibacterial activity of fatty acid may be due to its ability to bring bacterial cell lyses 106, 107, 108.
Duff noticed the ability of Isochrysis galbana to inhibit the growth of human pathogens such as Streptococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis, proteus vulgaris 100. Srinivasakumar & Rajashekhar also found substantial activity of Isochrysis galbana against bacterial pathogens such as E. coli Klebsiella pseudomoniae, Salmonella typii, however, not noticed any inhibitory activity against vibrio strains 110. Recently, Ceres et al., found Isochrysis galbana produces toxic substance that reduce the count of vibrio strains like Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio harvey to the undetectable level within week 111. Beside fatty acid, chlorophyll a derivates such as pheophytin a and chlorophyllide found to have antibacterial activity 112.
Polysaccharides from brown algae (Phaeophyceae) contain some antiviral properties113. It have been found to reduce the growth of enveloped viruses including members of the flavivirus, togavirus, arenavirus, rhabdovirus, orthopoxvirus, herpes virus families and HIV virus too. Endocellular extracts of Isochrysis galbana have growth inhibiting properties against virus rhabdovirus of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHSV) 108. Many microalgae releases toxic secondary metabolites inhibit the growth of either their own species or other coexisting microalgae or both 113. Yingying isolated growth inhibitor C22H38O7 from death phage of Isochrysis galbana has inhibitory effect against the growth of other coexisting microalgae like Dunaliella salina, Platymonas elliptica, Chaetoceros muelleri and Phaeodactylum tricornutum 114.
TABLE 2: IDENTIFIED BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ISOCHRYSIS GALBANA
|Isochrysis galbana in rat||Lowers blood glucose from
132.5mg/dl to 83.8mg/dl
|Isochrysis galbana in rat||Lowers blood lipid from
66mg/dl to 54mg/dl
extract of Isochrysis
|High DPPH, Hydroxyl,
NO scavenging activity
extract of Isochrysis
|High DPPH, Hydroxyl,
NO scavenging activity
extract of Isochrysis
|Inhibit of proliferation of U937 human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell||Potential anti-tumour activity||34|
|Acetone extract of Isochrysis||Lower the viability of human carcinoma
Hep G-2 cells
|Acetone extract of Isochrysis||Increase the ability of chelate Fe2+,
have ability to inhibit AChE
|Axenic Isochrysis culture||Effective to inhibit the growth of vibrio sp.||Antibacterial activity||110|
|Good antibacterial activity against pathogens Klebisella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris,
E. coli, Streptococcus aureus, Streptococcus facelis, Salmonella typhii
|110, 115, 116
|Cell free filtrate of Isochrysis galbana||Inhibit the growth of
many coexisting microalga
Polysaccharides from brown algae (Phaeophyceae) contain some antiviral properties 113. It have been found to reduce the growth of enveloped viruses including members of the flavivirus, togavirus, arenavirus, rhabdovirus, orthopoxvirus, herpes virus families and HIV virus too. Endocellular extracts of Isochrysis galbana have growth inhibiting properties against virus rhabdovirus of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHSV) 108. Many microalgae releases toxic secondary metabolites inhibit the growth of either their own species or other coexisting microalgae or both 113. Yingying isolated growth inhibitor C22H38O7 from death phage of Isochrysis galbana has inhibitory effect against the growth of other coexisting microalgae like Dunaliella salina, Platymonas elliptica, Chaetoceros muelleri and Phaeodactylum tricornutum 114.
Human Nutrition: Microalgae have been used for food for thousands of years 117. However, the commercial cultivation was started in the early 1960’s in Japan with the culture of Chlorella 118, 119, 120. Microalgae for human nutritional requirements are currently being merchandized in different forms such as tablets, capsules, pastilles, liquids and nutritional supplements and are also incorporated into snacks, pastas, candy bars or chewing gum and in beverages 121, 122. I. galbana has been used in aquaculture as animal feeds for century. Recently found it has high nutritional value with wide varieties of biologically active compounds. Nutritional composition of I. galbana studied by different researcher were shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3: NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF I. GALBANA
|40||26.8||14.5||Natrah et al., 32|
|27.1||34.32||10.54||Gorgonio et al., 125|
|39.6||18||23.9||Fradigue et al.,130|
|38-40||8-17||18-24||Batista et al., 131|
|39.6||23.9||18||Guzman and Ascencio 132|
It has good amount of protein, soluble, insoluble carbohydrates and significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid, which varies with growth phase and culture conditions. Under optimum condition, it contains 12% to 50.8% protein, 21.7% to 21.9% lipids, and 7.6% to 14.2% carbohydrates 123, 124. I. galbana attracted the interest due to its high PUFA content.
The most common source of PUFA is fish and fish oil, although accumulated toxins, smell, poor oxidative stability limits its application in food additive. Declined fish resources, generates algal oil demands in market. Isochrysis galbana present the highest output of EPA (4.8% on dry basis) using vertical plate glass reactor 126 and have potential to use as source of n-3 FA in both nutraceuticals and animal feed industries.
Carbohydrate in microalgae is in form of starch, sugar and other polysaccharides. The carbohydrate content of Isochrysis comprises about 13% of dry matter and contains both soluble and insoluble carbohydrates with good digestibility 127. It has been seen that its nutritional composition are comparable to the common vegetable food commodities Table 4 125 and they can be used in the diet of humans and animals as natural foods with health benefits The high protein content and its amino acid pattern makes them non conventional protein source. Table 4 elicited, the most abundant amino acids in isochrysis were glutamic acid and aspartic acid, whereas cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, and histidine were found in lower amounts (0.4% to 3.2%), and other amino acids were found in amounts between 3.2% to 13.5% 128. Thus, their composition gives microalgae interesting qualities, which can be applied in human and animal nutrition. In addition, it contains biologically active compounds and possesses considerable antioxidant properties that could be applied in functional food and pharmaceutical industry 60. However, prior to incorporation in food, drug and commercialization, algal material must be analyzed for the digestibility and presence of toxic compounds to prove their harmlessness. It have been found that its total digestibility is extremely high, which explains why there are no limitations to its use in foods and feeds 127, 129.
In addition several toxicological assessments have not revealed any toxic impacts or abnormalities in experiments with test animals 130. Fradique et al., enhanced the nutritional value particularly EPA and DHA content of traditional pasta by incorporating I. galbana 131. Nuno et al., conducted a study on diabetic rat and found consumption of the microalga I. galbana promotes body weight loss in healthy animals and helped to maintain weight in diabetic animals and it lowers glucose and cholesterol values and raises lactic acid bacteria counts too 42.
TABLE 4: NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF CONVENTIONAL FOOD WITH I. GALBANA 32, 133
|Amino acid (g/100g dry weight)|
CONCLUSION: In conclusion Isochrysis galbana has high nutritional value with considerable amount of biologically active compounds like n-3 fatty acid, fucoxanthin, polysaccharides that have a potential to utilize in various industries includes aquaculture, pharmaceuticals and human nutrition. Initially, they got attention as aquaculture feed, however present review find I. galbana can be alternative source of therapeutic and biological compounds such as essential amino acids, polysaccharides, monounsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and fucoxanthin. They have a potential to incorporate in various traditional food such as bakery, pasta, dairy and confectionary products without much intervention in sensory quality. Thus, it can be use for food enrichment, nutritional supplements, and powered formulation and as tablet and capsule, which will help in reducing all health problems of human beings. Although, vast experimental analysis and well structural clinical trial needed to prove the role of different bioactive compounds of Isochrysis galbana in prevention of human diseases and also constant efforts in research and development in the field of marine research is needed.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are thankful to the Centre of Food Technology, University of Allahabad and UGC-PDF-WM Scheme.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
- Roberfroid M B: An European consensus of scientific concepts of functional foods. Nutrition. 2000; 16: 689-691.
- Menrad K: Market and marketing of functional food in Europe. Journal of Food Engineering. 2003; 56: 181-188.
- Batista AP, Ambrosano L, Graca S, Sousa C, Marques P A and Ribeiro B: Combining urban wastewater treatment with biohydrogen production-An integrated microalgae-based approach. Bioresource Tech. 2015; 184: 230-235.
- Cai T, Park SY and Li Y: Nutrient recovery from wastewater streams by microalgae: Status and prospects. Ren and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013; 19: 360-369.
- Song T, Martensson L, Eriksson T, Zheng W. Rasmussen, U: Biodiversity and seasonal variation of the cyano bacterial assemblage in a rice paddy field in Fujian, China. The Federation of European Materials Societies Microbiology Ecology 2005: 54: 131–140.
- Chacon-Lee TL and Gonzalez-Marino GE: Microalgae for “Healthy” Foods - Possibilities and Challenges. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2010; 9: 655-675.
- Torres FA, Passalacqua TG, Velásquez AM, de Souza RA, Colepicolo P and Graminha MA: New drugs with antiprotozoal activity from marine algae: a review. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2014; 24(3): 265-76.
- Pernet F, Tremblay R, Demers E and Roussy M: Variation of lipid class and fatty acid composition of Chaetoceros muelleri and Isochrysis sp. grown in a semi-continuous system. Aquaculture. 2003; 221(1):393-406.
- Plaza M, Herrero M, Cifuentes A and Iba´n˜ez E: Innovative natural functional ingredients from microalgae. Journal of Agr Food Chemistry. 2009; 57: 7159-7170.
- Guedes A., Amaro HM and Malcata FX: Microalgae as sources of high added‐value compounds-a brief review of recent work. Biotech Progress. 2011; 27(3): 597-613.
- Jeffrey SW, Brown MR, and Volkman JK: Haptophyte as feedstocks in mariculture. InC. Green and B.S.C. Leadbeater (eds.), The Haptophyte Algae, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1994; 287-302.
- Roy SS and Pal R: Microalgae in aquaculture: a review with special references to nutritional value and fish dietetics. In Proceedings of the Zoological Society 2015; 68(1): 1-8.
- Gupta E, Purwar S, Sundaram S, Tripathi P and Rai G: Stevioside and Rebaudioside A–Predominant Ent-Kaurene Diterpene Glycosides of Therapeutic Potential–a Review. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2016; 34(4): 281-99.
- Yamaguchi K: Recent advances in microalgal bioscience in Japan, with special reference to utilization of biomass and metabolites: a review. Journal of Applied Phycology. 1997; 8: 487-502.
- Bhagavathy S, Sumathi P, and Jancy Sherene Bell I. Green algae Chlorococcum humicola-a new source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011; 1(1): S1-S7.
- Croteau R, Kutchan TM and Lewis NG: Natural products (secondary metabolites). Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2000;24: 1250-1319.
- Plaza M, Cifuentes A and Ibáñez E: In the search of new functional food ingredients from algae. Trends Food Science Technology. 2008; 19: 31-39.
- Liu CP and Lin LP. Ultrastructural study and lipid formation of Isochrysis sp. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica. 2001; 42: 207-214.
- Jeffrey SW, Wright SW and Rao DS: Algal Cultures, Analogues of Blooms and Applications, 1995, New Hampshire
- Lohr M and Wilhelm C. Algae displaying the diadinoxanthin cycle also possess the violaxanthin cycle. Proceeding of National Academic Sciences USA, 1999; 96: 8784-8789.
- Telfer A, Pascal A and Gall A: Carotenoids, Birkhäuser, Basel. 2008: 4: 265–308.
- Goss R and Jakob T: Regulation and function of xanthophyll cycle dependent photoprotection in algae. Photosynthetic Research. 2010; 106:103-122.
- Sachindra, NM, Sato E, Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Niwano Y, Kohno M and Miyashita K: Radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching activity of marine carotenoid fucoxanthin and its metabolites. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry. 2007; 55: 8516-8522.
- Sangeetha RK, Bhaskar N, Divakar S and Baskaran V: Bioavailability and metabolism of fucoxanthin in rats: structural characterization of metabolites by LC-MS (APCI). Mol. Cellular Biochemistry. 2010; 333: 299-310.
- Nomura T, Kikuchi M, Kubodera A, Kawakami Y: Proton-donative antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 1997; 42: 361-370.
- Yan X, Chuda Y, Suzuki M and Nagata T: Fucoxanthin as the major antioxidant in Hizikiafusiformis, a common edible seaweed. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry. 1999; 63: 605-607.
- Miyashita K, Nishikawa S, Beppu F, Tsukui T, Abe M, and Hosokawa M: The allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, a novel marine netraceutical from brown seaweeds. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture. 2011; 91: 1166-74.
- Peng J, Yuan JP, Wu CF and Wang JH: Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid present in brown seaweeds and diatoms: metabolism and bioactivities relevant to human health. Mar Drugs. 2011; 9: 1806-28.
- Simopoulos AP: The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Biol. Med. 2008; 233: 674-688.
- Guedes AC, Amaro HM, Barbosa CR, Pereira RD, Malcata FX: Fatty Acid Composition of Several Wild Microalgae and Cyanobacteria, with a focus on Eicosapentaenoic, Docosahexaenoic and Linolenic Acids for Eventual Dietary Uses. Food Research International. 2011; 44: 2721-2729.
- Orsavova J, Misurcova L, Ambrozova JV, Vicha R and Mlcek J: Fatty acids composition of vegetable oils and its contribution to dietary energy intake and dependence of cardiovascular mortality on dietary intake of fatty acids. International Jou Mol Sci. 2015; 16(6): 12871-90.
- Patil V, Ka¨llqvist T, Olsen E, Vogt G and Gislerød H R. Fatty acid composition of 12 microalgae for possible use in aquaculture feed. Aqu International. 2007; 15: 1-9.
- Sun Y, Zhou B, Xu S, Li W, and Yan B: Separation and purification of intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides from Isochrysis galbana and their antimicrobial activity. Food Sci. 2012; 33(11): 137-141.
- Sadovskayaa I, Anissa S,, Sami S, Thierry G, Philippe Lencel a, Catherine M. Greenec, Sarah Duinc, Pavel S. Dmitrenok d, Alexander O. Chizhove, Alexander S. Shashkove, and Anatolii I. Usove: Chemical structure and biological activity of a highly branched (1→3,1→6)--d-glucan from Isochrysis galbana. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2014; 111:139-148.
- Sun Y, Wang H, Guo G, Pu Y, and Yan B: The isolation and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana. Carbohydrate polymers. 2014; 113:22-31.
- Raposo MF, de Morais RM, Bernardo de Morais AM: Bioactivity and applications of sulphated polysaccharides from marine microalgae. Mar Drugs. 2013; 11(1): 233-52.
- Herrero M, Jaime L, Martín-Alvarez PJ, Cifuentes A and Ibáñez E: Optimization of the extraction of antioxidants from Dunaliella salina microalga by pressurized liquids. Journal of Agr. Food Chemistry. 2006; 54:5597- 5603.
- Li H, Cheng K, Wong C, Fan K, Chen F, and Jiang Y: Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of selected microalgae. Food Chemistry. 2007; 102:771-776.
- Lee SH, Lee JB, Lee KW and Jeon YJ: Antioxidant properties of tidal pool microalgae, Halochlorococcum porphyrae and Oltamannsiellopsis unicellularis from Jeju Island, Korea. 2010; 25: 45-56.
- Roth GA, Johnson C, Abajobir A, Abd-Allah F, Abera SF, Abyu G, Ahmed M, Aksut B, Alam T, Alam K, Alla F: Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2017 May 17.
- Nakamura YK, Read MH, Elias JW: Oxidation of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) and antioxidant status in young and elderly humans. Archives Gerontology Geriatric. 2006; 42 (3): 265-76.
- Nuno K, Villarruel-Lopez A, Puebla-Perez AM, Romero-Velardec E, Puebla-Morad AG, and Ascencio F. Effects of the marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata in diabetic rats. Journal of Functional Foods. 2013; 5: 106-115.
- Oakenfull D: Physicochemical properties of dietary fiber: Overview. Food Science and Technology-New York-Marcel Dekker. 2001; 17:195-206.
- Ginzberg, A, Cohen, M, Sod-Moriah UA, Shany S, Rosenshtrauch A and Arad SM. Chickens fed with biomass of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. have reduced blood cholesterol levels and modified fatty acids composition in egg yolk. Journal of Applied Phycology.2000; 12: 325–330
- Pereira MS, Mulloy B and Mourao PAS: Structure and anticoagulant activity of sulfated fucans. Comparison between the regular, repetitive, and linear fucans from echinoderms with the more heterogeneous and branched polymers from brown algae. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1999; 274: 7656-7667.
- Horrocks LA and Yeo YK. Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Pharmacology Research. 1999; 40: 211-225.
- Gallai V, Sarchielli P, Trequattrini A, Franceschini M, Floridi A, Firenzi C, Alberti A, Di Benedetto D and Stragliotto E: Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 1995; 56:143-153.
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK and Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW: Genetic structure of human populations. Science. 2002; 298:2381-2385.
- Schwalfenberg G: Omega-3 fatty acids: their beneficial role in cardiovascular health. Canadian Family Physician. 2006; 52(6): 734-40.
- Helmersson J, Arnlöv J, Larsson A and Basu S: Low dietary intake of β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status in a Swedish cohort. British Journal of Nutrition. 2009; 101: 1775–1782.
- Kumar SR, Hosokawa M and Miyashita K: Fucoxanthin: A marine carotenoid exerting anti-cancer effects by affecting multiple mechanisms. Marine Drugs 2013; 11: 5130-5147.
- Bhatt DL: Anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants as a possible “third great wave” in cardiovascular secondary prevention. American Jou of Cardiology. 2008; 101: 4-13.
- Hosokawa M, Kudo M, Maeda H, Kohno H, Tanaka T and Miyashita K: Fucoxanthin induces apoptosis and enhances the antiproliferative effect of the PPAR gamma ligand, troglitazone, on colon cancer cells. Biochimica Biophysica Acta. 2004; 1675: 113-119.
- Kotake-Nara E, Asai A and Nagao A: Neoxanthin and fucoxanthin induce apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Letter. 2005; 220:75–84.
- Jaswir I, Noviendri D, Salleh HM, Taher M and Miyashita K: Isolation of fucoxanthin and fatty acids analysis of Padina australis and cytotoxic effect of fucoxanthin on human lung cancer (H1299) cell lines. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011; 10:18855-18862.
- Ishikawa C, Tafuku S, Kadekaru T, Sawada S, Tomita M, Okudaira T, Nakazato T, Toda T, Uchihara JN and Taira N: Anti-adult T-cell leukemia effects of brown algae fucoxanthin and its deacetylated product, fucoxan-thinol. International Jou of Cancer. 2008; 123: 2702-2712.
- Rengarajan T, Rajendran P, Nandakumar N, Balasubramanian MP and Nishigaki I: Cancer preventive efficacy of marine carotenoid fucoxanthin: cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 2013; 5(12): 4978-4989.
- Rodrigues E, Marintti LRB and Mercadante AZ: Scavenging capacity of marine carotenoids against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in a membrane-mimicking system. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10: 1784-1798.
- Heo SJ, Ko SC, Kang SM, Kang HS, Kim JP, Kim SH, Lee KW, Cho MG and Jeon YJ: Cytoprotective effect of fucoxanthin isolated from brown algae Sargassum siliquastrum against H2O2-induced cell damage. European Food Research and Technology. 2008; 228: 145-151.
- Natrah FMI, Yusoff FM, Shariff M, Abas F and Mariana NS: Screening of Malaysian indigenous microalgae for antioxidant properties and nutritional value. Journal of Applied Phycology 2007, 19:711 718
- Saranya C, Hemalatha A, Parthiban C and Anantharaman P: Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties, Total Phenolic and Carotenoid Content of Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chlorella salina and Isochrysis galbana International Journal of current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2014; 3(8): 365-377.
- Goiris K, Muylaert K, Fraeye I, Foubert I, De Brabanter J, and De Cooman L: Antioxidant potential of microalgae in relation to their phenolic and carotenoid content. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2012; 804-6.
- Li H, Cheng K, Wong C, Fan K, Chen F, and Y Jiang: Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of selected microalgae. Food Chemistry. 2007; 102:771-776.
- Jaime L, Mendiola JA, Herrero M, Soler‐Rivas C, Santoyo S, Señorans FJ, Cifuentes A and Ibáñez E: Separation and characterization of antioxidants from Spirulina platensis microalga combining pressurized liquid extraction, TLC, and HPLC‐Journal of Separation Science, 2008; 28(16): 2111-2119.
- Geetha BV, Navasakthi R, Padmini E: Investigation of antioxidant capacity and phytochemical composition of Sun Chlorella - an in vitro Journal of Aquaculture Research Development. 2010; 1:104.
- Custódio L, Escapa AL, Fernandes E, Fajardo A, Aligué R, Alberício F, Neng N, Nogueira JMF and Romano A: Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour extracts. Plant foods for human nut. 2011; 66(1): 78-84.
- Hajimahmoodi M, Faramarzi MA, Mohammadi N, Soltani N, Oveisi MR, and N Nafissi-Varcheh: Evaluation of antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of some strains of microalgae. Jou App Phy. 2010; 22: 43-50.
- Custódio L, Soares F, Pereira H, Barreira L, Vizetto-Duarte C, Rodrigues MJ, Rauter AP, Alberício F and João Varela: Fatty acid composition and biological activities of Isochrysis galbanaT-ISO, Tetraselmis sp. and Scenedesmus sp.: possible application in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2014; 26(1):151-161
- Yu CC, Chen HW, Chen MJ, Chang YC, Chien SC, Kuo YH, Yang FL, Wu SH, Chen J, Yu HH and Chao LK: Chemical composition and bioactivities of the marine alga galbana from Taiwan. Natural product communications, 2010; 5(12):1941-1944.
- Li L-Y, Li L-Q P, Guo C-H: Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Laminaria japonica Journal of Medicinal Plants research. 2010; 4(21): 2194 - 2198.
- Rocha de Souza MC, Marques CT, Dore CMG, Ferreira da Silva FR, Rocha HAO, and Leite EL: Antioxidant activities of sulphated polysaccharides from brown and red seaweeds. Jou of Applied Phycology, 2007; 19: 153-160.
- Ye H, Wang K, Zhou C, Liu J, and Zeng X: Purification, antitumor and antioxidant activities in vitro of polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Sargassum pallidum. Food Chemistry. 2008; 111: 428-432.
- Wijesekara I, Kim SJ, Pangestuti R: Review- Biological activities and potential health benefits of sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2011; 84: 14-21.
- Ge YL, Chen Z, Kang ZB, Cluette-Brown J, Laposata M and Kang JX: Effects of adenoviral transfer of Caenorhabditis elegans n-3 fatty acid desaturase on the lipid profile and growth of human breast cancer cells. Anticancer Research. 2002; 22:537-544.
- Kang ZB, Ge Y, Chen Z, Brown J, Lapasota M, Leaf A, Kang JX: Adenoviral transfer of Caenorhabditis elegans n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes fatty acid composition in mammalian heart cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2001; 98: 4050-4054.
- Funahashi H, Satake M, Hasan S, Sawai H, Newman RA, Reber HA, Hines OJ and Eibl G: Opposing effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on pancreatic cancer growth. Pancreas. 2008; 36: 353-362.
- Pangestuti R and Kim SK: Neuroprotective effects of marine algae. Marine drugs. 2011; 9(5): 803-18.
- Delanty N and Dichter MA: Antioxidant therapy in neurologic disease. Archives Neurology. 2000; 57(9): 1265-70.
- Gaeta A and Hider RC: The crucial role of metal ions in neurodegeneration: the basis for a promising therapeutic strategy. Bri Jou of pharmacology. 2005; 146(8): 1041-59.
- Nunomura A, Castellani RJ and Zhu X: Involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease. Journal of Neuropathology Exp. Neurology. 2006; 65(7): 631-41.
- Onyango IG, Khan SM: Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and stress signaling in Alzheimer’s disease. Current Alzheimer Research. 2006; 3(4):339-49.
- Sinclair AJ, Bayer AJ and Johnston J: Altered plasma antioxidant status in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1998; 13(12): 840-5.
- Büyükokuroğlu ME, Gülçi̇n I and Oktay M: In vitroantioxidant properties of dantrolene sodium. Pharmacological Research. 2001; 44: 491-495.
- Kim SM, Kang, SW, Kwon ON, Chung D and Pan CH: Fucoxanthin as a major carotenoid in Isochrysis aff. galbana: Characterization of extraction for commercial application. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry. 2012; 55(4): 477-483.
- Fenton WS, Dickerson F and Boronow J: A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001; 158: 2071-2074.
- Dubois J, Hertz-Pannier L, Dehaene-Lambertz G, Cointepas Y and Le Bihan D: Assessment of the early organization and maturation of infants’ cerebral white matter fiber bundles: a feasibility study using quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. Neuroimage. 2006; 30(4): 1121-1132.
- Birch EE, Stager DR, Sr, Stager DR, Jr and Berry PM: Risk factors for esotropic amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2007; 48:1108.
- Bromfield EB, Dworetzky S, Hurwitz Z, Eluri L, Lane S, Replansky, and Mostofsky D: A randomized trial of polyunsaturated fatty acids for refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy and Behavior. 2008; 12(1):187-190.
- DeGiorgio CMP, Miller S. Meymandi and Gornbein JA: N-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for epilepsy, cardiac risk factors, and risk of sudep: Clues from a pilot, double-blind, exploratory study. Epilepsy and Behavior, 2008; 13(4): 681-684.
- Garbagnati FG, Cairella A, De Martino, Multari M, Scognamiglio U, Venturiero V and Paolucci S: Is antioxidant and n-3 supplementation able to improve functional status in poststroke patients? Results from the Nutristroke Trial. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 2009; 27(4): 375-383.
- Poppitt SD, Howe CA, Lithander FE, Silvers KM, Lin RB, Croft J, Ratnasabapathy Y, Gibson RA and Anderson CS: Effects of moderate-dose omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk factors and mood after ischemic stroke: A randomized, controlled trial. 2009; 40(11): 3485-3492.
- Stubbs C and Smith A: The modification of mammalian membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in relation to membrane fluidity and function. Biochimica Biophysica Acta. 1984; 779:89-137.
- Wood JN: Essential fatty acids and their metabolites in signal transduction. Biochemical Society Transactions. 1990; 18: 785-786.
- Mitchell DC, Niu SL, Litman BJ: DHA-rich phospholipids optimize G-protein coupled signaling. Journal of Pediatrics. 2003; 143: S80-S86.
- Antalis CJ, Stevens LJ, Campbell M, Pazdro R, Ericson K, Burgess JR: Omega-3 fatty acid status in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukotriens Essential Fatty Acids. 2006; 75: 299-308.
- Pangestuti and Se-Kwon Kim Review Neuro-protective Effects of Marine Algae. Mar Drugs2011. 9(5): 803-818.
- Wang J, Sun BG, Cao YP, Tian YA and Li XH: Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat bran. Food Chemistry. 2008; 106: 804-810.
- Arivuselvan N, Radhiga M, Anantharaman P: In vitro antioxidant and anticoagulant activities of sulphated polysaccharides from brown seaweed (Turbinaria ornata). Asian Journal of Pharma Biological Research. 2011; 1: 232-239.
- Duff DC, Bruce DL, Antia NJ: The antibacterial activity of marine planktonic algae. Canada Journal of Microbiology. 1966; 12:878-884.
- Desbois AP and Smith VJ: Antibacterial free fatty acids: activities, mechanisms of action and biotechnological potential. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 2010; 85(6):1629-42.
- Shin SY, Bajpai VK, Kim HK and Kang SC: Antibacterial activity of bioconvertes eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) against food borne pathogenic bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2007; 113: 233-236.
- Molina-Grima E, Sanchez-Perez JA, Garcia-Camacho F, Fernandez-Sevilla JM and Acien-Fernandez FG: Effect of growth rate on the eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content of Isochrysis galbana in chemostat culture. Applied Microbiology Biotech. 1994; 41: 23-27.
- Zhu CJ, Lee YK and Chao TM: Effects of temperature and growth phase on lipid and biochemical composition of Isochrysis galbana Journal of Applied Phycology. 1997; 9:451–457
- Fábregas J, García D, Fernández AM, Rocha AL, Gómez P, Escribano JM and Otero A, Coll JM: In vitro inhibition of replication of septicemia virus (VHS) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) by extracts from marine microalgae. Antiviral Research. 1999; 44:67–73.
- Srinivasakumar KP and Rajashekhar M: In vitro studies on bactericidal activity and sensitivity pattern of isolated marine microalgae against selective human bacterial pathogens. Ind Jou of Sci Tech. 2009; 2: 16-23.
- Ceres A and Molina-Cárdenas M, del Pilar Sánchez-Saavedra, Marcial L, Lizárraga - Partida. Inhibition of pathogenic Vibrioby the microalgae Isochrysis galbana. 2014; 26(6): 2347-2355.
- Bruce DL, Duff DCB and Antia NJ: The identification of two antibacterial products of the marine planktonic alga galbana. Jou Gen Micro. 1967; 48: 293-298.
- Vo TS and Kim SK: Potential anti-HIV agents from marine resources: an overview. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(12): 2871-2892.
- Hellebust JA. Extracellular products: Algal Physiology and Biochemistry. (Stewart WDP edn), University of California Press, Oxford. 1974; 838-863.
- Yingying S, Changhai W and Jing C: Growth inhibition of eight species of microalgae by growth inhibitor from the culture of Isochrysis galbana and its isolation and identification. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2008; 20: 315-321.
- Kumaran J, Mathan S, and Prakash S: Preliminary studies on antimicrobial activity of selected marine micro algal extracts against human pathogens. International Journal of Medical Sciences (India). 2010; 2(2):159-65.
- Rubavathi S and Ramya M: In vitro Assessment of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Bioactive Compounds from Marine Algae. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016; 5(7): 253-66.
- Jensen GS, Ginsberg DI, and Drapeau MS: Bluegreen algae as an immuno-enhancer and biomodulator. Journal of. American Nutraceutical Association. 2001; 3: 24–30.
- Borowitzka MA: Commercial production of microalgae: ponds, tanks, tubes and fermenters. Journal of Biotechnology. 1999; 70: 313- 321.
- Muller-Feuga A: Microalgues marines. Les enjeux de la recherche. Institut Français de Recherche pour l’ Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzané. 1996
- Iwamoto H: Industrial production of microalgal cell-mass and secondary products - major industrial species -Chlorella, p. 255–263. In Richmond, A. (ed.), Handbook of microalgal culture. Blackwell, Oxford 2004.
- Spolare P, Joannis-Cassan C, Duran E and Isambert A: Commercial Applications of Microalgae. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2006; 101(2): 87-96.
- Gouveia L, Batista AP, Raymundo A and Bandarra NM: Spirulina maxima and Diacronema vlkianum microalgae in vegetable gelled desserts. Nutrition and Food Science. 2008; 38: 492-501.
- Fidalgo JP, Cid A, Torres E, Sukenik A and C. Herrero: Effects of nitrogen source and growth phase on proximate biochemical composition, lipids classes and fatty acid profile of the marine microalga Isochryis galbana. 1998; 166: 105-116.
- Renaud SM, Thinh LV, Lambrinidis G and Parry DL: Effect of temperature on growth, chemical composition and fatty acid composition of tropical Australian microalgae grown in batch cultures. Aquaculture. 2002; 211(1): 195-214.
- da Silva Gorgônio CM, Aranda DA and Couri S: Morphological and chemical aspects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis gracilis Natural Science. 2013; 5(7): 783.
- Zhang CW, Richmond A: Sustainable, high-yielding outdoor mass cultures of Chaetoceros muelleri subsalsum and Isochrysis galbana in vertical plate reactors. Marine Biotechnology. 2003; 5: 302-310.
- Becker W: Microalgae for Aquaculture the Nutritional Value of Microalgae for Aquaculture. In Richmond, A. (eds.) Handbook of Microalgal Culture Biotechnology and Applied Phycology. Oxford 2004; 380-391.
- Brown MR, Jeffrey SW, Volkman JK, Dunstan GA: Nutritional property of microalgae for mariculture. Aquaculture. 1997; 151: 315-331.
- Soletto D, Binaghi L, Lodi A, Carvalho JCM, Converti A: Batch and fedbatch cultivations of Spirulina platensis using ammonium sulphate and urea as nitrogen sources. Aquaculture. 2005; 243: 217-224
- Fradique M, Batista AP, Nunes MC, Gouveia L, Bandarra NM, Raymundo A: Isochrysis galbana and Diacronema vlkianum biomass incorporation in pasta products as PUFA’s source. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2013; 50(1): 312-9.
- Batista AP, Gouveia L, Bandarra Narcisa M, Franco JM and Raymundo A: Comparison of microalgal biomass profiles as novel functional ingredient for food products. Algal Research. 2013; 2: 164-173.
- Guzmán-Murillo MA and Ascencio F: Anti-adhesive activity of sulphated exopolysaccharides of microalgae on attachment of the red sore disease-associated bacteria and Helicobacter pylori to tissue culture cells. Letters in Applied Mic. 2000; 30: 473-478.
- Microalgae nutritional composition retried from http://www.algae4feed.org, 2010, International Journal Molecular Science. 2015; 16(6): 12871-12890.
- Sánchez-Saavedra MP, Licea-Navarro A and Bernáldez-Sarabia J: Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of different species of phytoplankton. Review Biology Marine Oceanography. 2010; 45:531-536.Naviner M, Bergé JP, Durand P and Le Bris H: Antibacterial activity of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum against aquacultural pathogens. Aquaculture. 1999; 174:15–24.
- González-Davis O, Ponce-Rivas E, Sánchez-Saavedra MP, Muñoz-Márquez E and Gerwick W: Bioprospection of microalgae and cyanobacteria as biocontrol agents against campbellii and their use in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannameiculture. Journal of World Aquaculture Society. 2012; 43: 387-399.
- Pesando D: Antibacterial and antifungal activities of marine algae. In: Akatsuka I (ed) Introduction to applied phycology. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, 1999; 3-26.
How to cite this article:
Mishra N. and Mishra N.: Exploring the biologically active metabolites of Isochrysis galbana in pharmaceutical Interest: An Overview. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9(6): 2162-74. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.9(6).2162-74.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
N. Mishra and N. Mishra *
Centre of Food Technology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad - 211002, Uttar Pradesh, India.
12 September, 2017
21 March, 2018
25 March, 2018
01 June, 2018