A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON EMERGENCE, TRANSMISSION, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF NIPAH VIRUSAbstract
Currently, COVID-19 pandemic is a major zoonotic disease that has killed millions of people all over the world. Similarly, Nipah virus (NiV), causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) along with febrile encephalitis. NiV belongs to the class of paramyxovirus of the genus Henipavirus is a deadly virus that has caused several outbreaks in recent years. Despite the fact that NiV causes a small number of infections, the severity of the disease results in a higher death rate unlike COVID-19 infection. Many research studies termed bats as a natural host for NiV. Recently two NiV strains were identified i.e. NiV-MY (Malaysian strain) and NiV-BD (Bangladesh strain), is the major cause of epidemic in various geographical areas. Various techniques like ELISA, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain based reaction have been developed for diagnostic purposes. Currently, there is no approved treatment or vaccine available for either people or animals, and treatment is limited to supportive care. In context with current COVID-19 pandemic, health infrastructure in many countries will be incompetent to manage such sudden viral outbreaks. Therefore, in this review we have discussed the outbreak of NiV, mode of transmission, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, and available treatment strategies for NiV infected individuals.
Diptee Gupta *, Sudhir Kumar and Anchal Srivastava
Krishna Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
15 March 2023
25 May 2023
31 May 2023
01 November 2023