A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON VIRAL ZOONOSIS: EMPHASIZING ON PATHOGENESIS, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, PREVENTION STRATEGIES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVESAbstract
Zoonoses are human diseases caused by animal pathogens or animal diseases that are transmissible to humans. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses, and prions. Zoonotic diseases can be transmitted to humans by infected saliva, aerosols, contaminated urine or feces, and direct contact with the animal or pathogenic microbes. Furthermore, transmission can also occur through animal vectors (e.g., tick bite, and insects like mosquitoes or flea). The zoonotic microbes continue to evolve and adapt with tremendous acceleration and expansion of global trade, human movement, and population. Control of zoonotic diseases and protection of public health are challenging tasks as the world population is increasing proportionately. Newly emerging viruses such as the Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-coronavirus, and the avian influenza virus, H1N1 virus, Nipah virus, Zika Virus, and now Covid-19 are serious threats to public health and have become a global concern. The prevention of these infections depends on improved diagnosis and highly effective therapeutics/ prophylactics. In this review, most important zoonotic infections, along with their specific etiology, transmission (role of wild-life) manifestations and epidemiology and control/preventive measures, are described so as to create awareness of the scientific/public health community.
N. Jain *, P. Saiju and R. Jain
Sagar Institute of Research Technology & Science-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
09 April 2020
07 September 2020
12 September 2020
01 October 2020