A REVIEW ON ANTIASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTSHTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON ANTIASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS
Santosh Kumar Singh * 1, Jay Ram Patel 2, Prashant Kumar Dubey 3 and Sonia Thakur 1
Mittal Institute of Pharmacy 1, Opp. Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, By Pass, Nabibagh, Bhopal - 462038, Madhya Pradesh, India.
RKDF College of Pharmacy 2, NH-12, Hoshangabad Road, Misrod, Bhopal - 462047, Madhya Pradesh, India.
IES College of Pharmacy 3, Bhopal - 462044, Madhya Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Plants have played an important role as various medicinal agents since ages. Medicinal herbs have been used in one form or another, under indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. The knowledge of Indian medicinal plants and their uses in the Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine have led to many scientific investigations and researches throughout the world. Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affects about 155 million people worldwide, and it has been estimated that is further 100 million will be affected by 2025. It has affected 14-15 million people in the United States, including an estimated 4.8 million childhoods. It accounts for about 11 million hospital visits annually and the sixth most frequent reason for visits in the ambulatory setting. It the past decade's research has been focused on scientific evaluation of traditional drugs of plant origin for the treatment of various diseases. Since the time immemorial, various herbs are used as antiasthmatic with efficient therapeutic response. India has about 45,000 plant species, and among them, several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties.
Asthma, Antiasthmatic, Traditional, Medicinal plants
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a disease of the lung's airways. It affects 155 million individuals in the world. Its Prevalence and severity among children have increased significantly in the world over the past 40 years. It varies from 5-30 percent in different population 1, 2. It has affected 14-15 million people in the United States, including an estimated 4.8 million children.
It is the most common chronic disease of childhood. It accounts for about 11 million hospital visits annually and the sixth most frequent reason for visits in the ambulatory setting. About 4, 70,000 patients are hospitalized, and more than 5,000 patients die annually due to asthma 3. Asthma closely correlates with the description of the disease "Tamak Shwasa" recorded thousands of years ago by the sages and eminent scholars of Ayurveda 4.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder affecting a large proportion of population throughout the world 5. The plant is referred to as ‘Jivanti’ in Ayurvedic text and considered to be Rasayana (tonic) drug and is thus used to vitalize, nourish and rejuvenate the body 6. Ethno medicinally the leaves and seeds are used in asthma and cough 7. The major therapeutic claim is its galactagogue action, which has been proved in rats 8 along with the antimicrobial 9, anticarcinogenic 10 and hepatoprotective properties of plant 12, 13 in traditional system of medicine leaves of L. reticulata (Retz) Wight & Arn are mainly used for the treatment of cough, asthma, rheumatism 8, 14.
Many asthma attacks are triggered by allergens, such as dust, mould spores, mites, animal hair or feathers but the onset may equally be caused by cold air, or it may be preceded by an infection such as a cold. Certainly, stress and more specifically, acute anxiety is known to be the immediate trigger for many attacks, and this can sometimes give rise to a vicious circle of asthma - anxiety about asthma - further attacks. Thus a wide range of etiological factors can be involved in this all too common problem 15.
Several different groupings can be applied:
- Extrinsic Asthma: Caused by allergic responses to house dust, animal fur, or various foods. Such causes 10-20% of adult asthma.
- Intrinsic Asthma: Caused by genetics, structural problems, infections, pollutants, and stress - both physiological and psychological. Such causes 30-50% of adult asthma. The symptoms of people with asthma differ greatly in frequency and degree. Some have an occasional episode that is mild and brief; otherwise, they are symptom-free. Others have mild coughing and wheezing much of the time, punctuated by severe exacerbation's of symptoms following exposure to known allergies, viral infections, and exercise or nonspecific irritants. A series of stages have been characterized for describing the severity of an acute asthma attack:
Mild: Mild dyspnoea; diffuse wheezes; adequate air exchange.
Moderate: Respiratory distress at rest; hyperpnea, use of accessory muscles; marked wheezes.
Severe: Marked respiratory distress; cyanosis; use of accessory muscles; marked wheezes or absent breath sounds.
Respiratory Failure: Severe respiratory distress; lethargy; confusion; prominent pulses paradoxus. Use of accessory muscles 16, 17.
Medicinal Plants used in Asthma: Asthma is a global problem. Many synthetic drugs are used to treat acute symptoms of asthma, but they are not completely safe for long term use. Hence, search has been started once again to look back to traditional medicine, which can be used to treat asthma. Some traditional plants with antiasthmatic potential are discussed in Table 1.
TABLE 1: LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN ASTHMA 1-122
|S. no.||Plant Name||Plant part used||Mechanism of action|
|1||Abutilon crispum (L.) Medicus.||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|2||Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet.||Seed||Antiasthmatic|
|3||Aerva lanta Linn||Aerial parts||Antiasthmatic|
|4||Acalypha indica||Leaves, roots, stalk, and flowers||Bronchodilator|
|5||Achillea mellifolium||flowers||Bronchodilator, Mast cell stabilizer|
|6||Acorus alamus||Rhizome||Mast cell stabilizer|
|7||Ailanthus excels||Leaves||Antiasthmatic, Antiallergic|
|8||Achyranthes aspera, Allium cepa||Fruit||Mast cell stabilizer|
|9||Ageratum conyzoides L||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|10||Adhatoda vasica Nees||Bulb||Mast cell stabilizer, Lipoxygenase inhibitor, PAF inhibitor, COX inhibitor|
|11||Albizzia lebbeck||Bark||Bronchodilator Mast cell stabilizer|
|12||Asystasia gangetica||Leaves||Bronchodilator Anti-inflammatory|
|15||Allium cepa Linn.||Bulbs/Juice||Mast cell stabilizer,|
|16||Alstonia scholaris R. Br.||Leaves||Bronchodilator|
|17||Aquillaria agallocha Roxb.||Stem||Mast cell stabilizer & Antiallergic|
|19||Aristolochia indica L||Roots||Bronchodilator|
|20||Asclepias curassavica L||Roots||Antiasthmatic|
|22||Atropa belladonna||Seeds||Asthma, Bronchitis, Muscuar Pain|
|23||Azadirachta indica A. Juss||Leaves||Mast cell stabilizer|
|24||Azima tetracantha Lam||Leaves||Mast cell stabilizer|
|25||Bacopa monniera Linn.||Leaves||Mast cell stabilizer|
|26||Balanites roxburghii||Stem bark||Bronchodilator, Mast cell stabilizer|
|27||Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.||Fruits||Bronchodilator|
|28||Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.||Root||Asthma, Bronchitis|
|29||Brassica camperstris Linn.||Seed||Bronchodilator|
|30||Biophytum nervifolium Thw||Leaves||Mast cell stabilizer|
|31||Cassia absus L||Leaves||Bronchodilator|
|32||Casuarina equisetofolia Linn||Bark||Antiasthmatic|
|33||Cedrus deodara||Wood||Mast cell stabilizer|
|35||Curculigo orchioides||Rhizomes||Antihistaminic Anti-inflammatory|
|36||Centipeda minima||Whole plant||Mast cell stabilizer|
|37||Clerodendron phlomidis||Leaves||Antihistaminic, Mast cell stabilizer|
|38||Casuarina equisetifolia Linn||Wood, Bark||Antiasthmatic|
|39||Chlorophytum laxum R. Br.||Tuber||Antiasthmatic|
|40||Cissus quadrangularis L||Stem||Antiasthmatic|
|41||Clematis smilacifolia Wall||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|42||Clerodendrum serratum Linn||Roots||Antiasthmatic|
|43||Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt||Tuber||Antiasthmatic|
|44||Cynodon dactylon||Whole Plant||Antiasthmatic|
|45||Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br.||Latex||Mast cell stabilizer & Anti-inflammatory|
|46||Cassia tora Linn.||Seeds||Mast cell stabilizer|
|47||Clerodendron serratum Linn. Moon.||Stem bark||Bronchodilator, Mast cell stabilizer|
|48||Cuminum cyminum Linn.||Roots||Bronchodilator|
|49||Curcuma longa Linn.||Rhizome||Mast cell stabilizer, Antiallergic & Anti
|50||Cynodon dactylon Pers.||Rhizome||Mast cell stabilizer|
|51||Cassia sophera||Leaves||Bronchodilator, Antihistaminic|
|52||Dendrophthoe falcate L. f.||Bark||Antiasthmatic|
|53||Desmodium gangeticum||Roots||Cough, Asthma, Vomiting|
|54||Dhatura metel Linn.||Whole Plant||Asthma|
|55||Elaeocarpus sphaericus K. Schum||Fruits||Bronchodilator|
|57||Eclipta alba Linn||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|58||Emblica officinalis||Fruits||Asthma, Bronchitis|
|59||Euphorbia hirta||Aerial parts||Antiasthmatic|
|60||Ficus bengalensis Linn||Bark||Antiasthmatic|
|61||Ficus exasperate Yahl||Root||Bronchodilator|
|62||Ficus racemosa Linn.||Latex||Antiasthmatic|
|63||Glycyrrhiza glabra||Roots||Antihistaminic, Antiallergic|
|64||Hemidesmus Indicus R.Br.||Roots||Antiasthmatic|
|65||Inula racemosa Hook. F.||Roots||Mast cell stabilizer & Antiallergic|
|67||Leptadenia Reticulata||Leaves and Roots||Cough and AsthmaS|
|68||Lepidium sativum Linn.||Seeds||Bronchodilator|
|69||Lannea coromandelica Merr||Whole Plant||Antiasthmatic|
|70||Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|71||Mangifera indica Linn.||Seed & Bark||Asthma|
|72||Manilkara hexandra Dubard.||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|73||Mimosa pudica L||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|74||Mentha spicata Linn. Emend. Nethh.||Leaves||Leaves Mast cell stabilizer|
|75||Momordica dioica Roxb. Ex Wild.||Bulb||Mast cell stabilizer, Antiallergic|
|78||Myrica esculenta Buch-Ham||Stem bark||Mast cell stabilizer, Bronchodilator|
|80||Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.||Stem bark||Mast cell stabilizer, Bronchodilator|
|81||Ocimum sanctum||Leaves||Mast cell stabilizer|
|82||Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|83||Ocimum sanctum||Leaf||Bronchitis, Cough|
|85||Orthosiphon rubicundus Benth||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|86||Oxalis corniculata L||Whole Plant||Antiasthmatic|
|87||Passiflora incarnate||Leaves||Bronchodilator & Histmine|
|89||Phaseolus radiates||Seed||Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis|
|90||Physidis angulata Linn||Leaves||Mast cell stabilizer|
|91||Phymatodes scolopendria||Aerial parts||Bronchodilator|
|92||Piper betel Linn||Leaves||Bronchodilator|
|93||Pinus roxburghii||Whole Plant||Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis|
|94||Piper nigrum Linn.||Fruits||Bronchodilator|
|95||Picorrhiza kurroa||Roots||Mast cell stabilizer, Bronchodilator|
|96||Polygala elongate Willd||Roots||Mast cell stabilizer|
|97||Portulaca quadrifida L||Whole Plant||Mast cell stabilizer|
|98||Premna obtusifolia||Roots||Asthma, Bronchitis|
|99||Punica granatum Linn.||Seed||Asthma, Cough|
|100||Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex||Whole Plant||Bronchodilator|
|101||Rivea hypocratoriformis Choisy.||Leaves||Mast cell stabilizer|
|102||Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult.||Leaves||Antiasthmatic|
|103||Semecarpus ancardium||Fruits||Asthma, Cough|
|104||Solanum nigrum Linn.||Roots||Mast cell stabilizer|
|105||Solanum surattense Burm. f||Whole Plant||Asthma, Bronchospasm|
|106||Spondias pinnata Linn.f||Seeds||Antiasthmatic|
|107||Solanum xXanhocarpum||Roots||Mast cell stabilizer|
|108||Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.||Flowers||Mast cell stabilizer|
|109||Striga orobanchioides Benth||Whole Plant||Mast cell stabilizer, Antihistamine|
|110||Swertia Chirata||Leaves||Bronchial asthma|
|111||Tamarindus indica||Leaves||Bronchodilator, Antihistaminic, Anti-inflammatory|
|112||Taxus baccata Linn.||Leaf||Asthma, Bronchitis|
|113||Tephrosia purpuria||Aerial parts||Mast cell stabilizer, Bronchodilator|
|114||Terminalia belerica||Leaf galls||Asthma|
|115||Terminalia chebula Retz.||Fruits||Mast cell stabilizer & Antiallergic|
|116||Tinospora cardifolia Wild Mier ex Hook f.||Stem||Mast cell stabilizer|
|118||Tylophora asthmatica (L.f.) Wight & Arn.||Leaves||Mast cell stabilizer & Anti inflammatory|
|119||Vitex negundo L.||Leaves||Bronchodilator, Antiallergic & Mast cell stabilizer|
|120||Zanthoxylem rhetsa (Roxb.) DC||Fruit||Antiasthmatic|
|121||Zingiber capitatum Roxb||Rhizomes||Antiasthmatic|
|122||Zingiber officinale Thw||Rhizomes||Antiasthmatic|
CONCLUSION: All the traditional medicinal plants discussed in the review have exhibited significant clinical and pharmacological activity. Some medicinal plants alternatives employed in these traditions are proven to provide symptomatic relief and assist in the inhibition of disease development as well asthma caused by dust, mites, pollen, exercise or even by air, which produce mucus, saline, pain on breathing or unusual breathing. It is diagnosed by some synthetic and remedies like cough drops, and Glycyrrhiza glabra, etc. the review revealed that too many of medicinal plants used by traditionally as an antiasthmatic agent are reported to have scientific evidence.
All the natural products discussed in this review exhibit antiasthmatic activities.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are very cordially grateful to my parents and my esteemed, respected guide Dr. Jay ram Patel, RKDF College of pharmacy, for his supervision advice and guidance for providing encouragement and facilities for compiling this work.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Singh SK, Patel JR, Dubey PK and Thakur S: A review on antiasthmatic activity of traditional medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2014; 5(10): 4109-16. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5(10).4109-16.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
S. K. Singh *, J. R. Patel, P. K. Dubey and S. Thakur
Mittal Institute of Pharmacy, Opp. Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Nabibagh, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
23 March 2014
11 June 2014
01 July 2014
01 October 2014