AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW ON EFFECTS OF PSYCHOBIOTIC BASED TREATMENTS IN AUTISTIC SPECTRUM OF DISORDER AND APPLICABILITY OF ZEBRAFISH AS A ROBUST MODEL FOR STUDYING ASDAbstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) refer to the group of neuropsychiatric disorders that alter neurodevelopment and mental function and are characterised by an extensive range of symptoms, including hyper-or hyposensitivity, repetitive behaviours, and impairments in social and academic functioning. Untangling the causation of ASD has been complicated, in part because distinct genetic abnormalities can result in both identical and distinctive traits that entirely fall within ASD. ASD can be triggered by hereditary and/or environmental causes. Studies in both experimental and clinical trials have revealed that the gut microbiome is altered in ASD patients. Due to its linkages to nutrition and the reciprocal relationship with the host, these changes affect the composition of the gut microbiota and also the metabolites they create. The gut-brain axis (GBA) mediates how the central nervous system (CNS) associated roles and behaviours are affected by psychobiotics, a unique family of probiotics that enhances not only gastrointestinal (GI) function but also anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Psychobiotic use can enhance GI processes and ASD-related symptoms. New models for studying ASD have been developed during the past few decades, in-vitro also in-vivo. These models hold great promise for validating few of the formerly identified risk factors for the disorder’s onset and for testing novel possible treatments, like the use of psychobiotics to minimise ASD symptoms. The evidence supporting psychobiotics’ impact on ASDs is still limited, nevertheless. Future research on the efficiency and mechanism of psychobiotics as treatments for ASDs will be necessary using more effective models e.g., zebrafish.
Anusha Samanta and Tamalika Chakraborty *
Department of Life Science, Guru Nanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
26 March 2023
01 July 2023
04 July 2023
01 December 2023