AN UPDATE ON NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES, IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO MODELS FOR TUBERCULOSIS AND TUBERCULOUS MENINGITISAbstract
Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection which is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is next to AIDS and causes morbidity and mortality. These bacteria can stay in the host’s body for decades. In this article we have mentioned about the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis followed by the pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis wherein the bacteria first enter to the lungs which then form into macrophages, these macrophages form into granulomas which get ruptured and enter the brain and then enter the subarachnoid space causing tuberculous meningitis. The current treatment methods available, their dosage forms and penetrance into the CSF is also mentioned. Usually, the first line drugs are used in combination to treat the disease but in the case of resistance second-line drugs are used. The duration of the treatment depends on the severity of the disease. Even though, there are many drugs available to treat the disease the amount of drug entering the brain is minimal due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). So, due to this reason many new technologies like niosomes, liposomes, nanoemulsions, microspheres, etc. are being used. Hence, in this paper, we are explaining about tuberculosis as well as tuberculous meningitis and its possible strategies for overcoming the problems associated with the failure of the treatment.
S. S. N. Upadhyayula and R. Sureshkumar *
JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, (A Constituent College of JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research), Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
23 October 2018
30 January 2019
11 February 2019
01 July 2019