ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIONHTML Full Text
ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTION
Parveena Devi 1, Pradeep Kumar 2, Nidhi 3 and Isha Dhamija*1
D. M. College of Pharmacy 1, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India
Department of Zoology 2, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences 3 , Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India
ABSTRACT: Population control is a significant issue worldwide especially in developing countries like India. Population breakout has responsible for various deleterious effects on life surviving resources on the earth. Therefore fertility regulation is necessary for the conservation of life supporting resources as well as good reproductive life of both males and females. Various chemical methods of contraception are available today but these methods possess several side effects. Herbal medicinal plants have been used as safe alternatives of the chemical methods. Evaluation of the herbal medicinal plants has been in progress for several decades to identify effective and safe substances for fertility regulation. Several medicinal plant extract were investigated for their antifertility activity both in male and female animal models. This review covered scientific proven information on various medicinal plants used for antifertility activity in both males and females. This review provides information on botanical name along with their common name, antifertility activity, part used and their phytochemicals present in plants.
Herbal Medicinal Plants,
INTRODUCTION: Fertility control is a significant issue of global and national public health concern. Ever increasing human population throughout the world particularly in developing and underdeveloped countries has inevitable effects on the life supporting resources on the earth and also detrimental effects on all aspects of development especially employment, education, housing, health care, sanitation and environment 1, 2. In 2005 G.C., world population is estimated to be 6.5 billion. The number is expected to increase by 2.5 billion over the next 45 year, 6.5 billion to 9 billion in 2050.
The developing countries absorbed 95% of all population growth and only 5% contributed by the developed world 3. Population explosion is one of the serious problems in developing countries like India that would be increased about 9.2 billion by the year 2050. The census of 2005 showed that the growth rate of population in India during the previous 10 years was about 1.5%. Annually, around 18 million people are adding to our total population which leads to an extra burden on the community and finally responsible for poverty and pollution in developing countries 4.
Due to all these detrimental effects, fertility regulation comprising contraception and management of infertility forms an important component of reproductive health for both male and females 5. Several effective approaches for the induction of infertility have been investigated over a long period including hormonal, chemical and immunological approaches 1. The chemical approaches possess various side effects like obesity, cholethiasis, gastric trouble and carcinoma of breast and cervix, asthma and thromboembolism which decrease their popularity and utility among women. The hormonal contraceptives also have carcinogenic effects. Therefore, now a days, plant products catches the attention of many scientists as a primary source of naturally occurring fertility regulating agents because of their little and no side effects 4. Higher use of contraceptives methods is a direct indicator of health, population development and women empowerment 6. Several herbal plants possess different types of antifertility activities both in males and females 7.
Some herbal plants exhibiting potent antifertility activity for males:
- Gossipium herbaceum:
Common name: Levant cotton
Chemical constituents: It contains Gossypol (yellow colour phenolic compound), sugar, gum, tannins and fixed oil1.
- It reduced the level of serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone in dose dependent manner 8.
- It induced the azoospermia or oligospermia by directly acting on the testis 9.
- It was found that it inhibits sperm motility by blocking the cAMP formation in the sperms 10.
- It was acts on the pituitary gonadal axis and decreased the secretory activity of accessory sex glands 11.
- It inhibited T-type Ca2+ currents in mouse spermatogenic cells 12.
Type of extract used: Root bark tincture was showed male conceptive activity.
Animal models: Hamester 13 and rats14, 15 were used for finding the male contraceptive potential of Gossipium herbaceum.
- Carica papaya:
Common name: Papaya
Chemical constituents: It contains papain, chymopapain, pectin, carposide, carpaine, pseudocarpaine, dehydrocarpines, carotenoids, cryptoglavin, cis-violaxanthin and antheraxanthin 7.
- It suppressed cauda epididymal sperm motility and also reduced the sperm count without influencing libido of animals16.
- It induced long term reversible azoospermia 17.
- It also caused sterility in rats due to total suppression of sperm motility 18.
- It was also caused degeneration of germinal epithelium and germ cells, reduction in the number of leydig cells and vacuoles in the tubules 19.
- It altered cauda epididymal microenvironment 20.
- It was also reduced the contractile responses of cauda epididymal tubules and retarded the sperm transport in cauda epididymus 21 and also caused ultrastructural changes in testis and epididymus of rats 22.
Type of extract used: Aqueous, benzene and chloroform extracts of papaya seeds used for reversible antifertility action 7.
Animal models: Male rats were used for investigating the antifertility action of papaya seeds 7.
- Hibiscus rosasinensis:
Common name: Gudhal
Chemical constituents: It contains steroids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids 23.
- It possessed antispermatogenic and antiandrogenic activity 24, 25, 26.
Type of extract used: 50% ethanolic extract, benzene and benzene/ether extract of flowers were showed antifertilty activity 24, 25, 26.
Animal models: Rats 25, Nonscrotal bat 24 and mice 26 were used for demonstrating the above mentioned antifertility activity of Hibiscus rosasinensis.
- Andrographis paniculata:
Common name: Kirayat
Chemical constituents: It contains flavonoids, andrographilode, diterpenoids, phenylpropanoids, oleanolic acid and β-sitosterol 27.
- It caused cessation of spermatogenesis, degeneration in seminiferous tubules and regression of leydig cells. Degeneration had also been seen in accessory sex organs and its fluid content 28.
- It was prevented cytokinesis of the dividing spermatogenic cell lines.
- It also caused decrease in sperm motility and sperm count and also provides abnormalities in sperms 29.
Type of extract used: Dry leaf powder was generally used at the dose of 20 mg powder/day/rat.
Animal models: Rats were used for identifying the antifertility efficacy of Andrographis paniculata.
- Tripterygium wilfordii:
Common name: Thunder god vine
Chemical constituents: It contains Triptolide (diterpene epoxide), Tripchlorolide and glycosides.
It caused degenerative changes in seminiferous tubular epithelium and decrease in plasma testosterone 30.
It was inhibit the Ca2+ channel activity in mouse spermatogenic cells 12.
It also caused severe impairment in cauda epididymal sperm 31, 32.
Type of extract: Crude extract of roots was showed antifertility action.
Animal models: Rats and mice 33 were used.
- Solanum surattense :
Common name: Kateli
Chemical constituents: It contains sterols, alkaloids (solasodine), saponins, flavonoids and glycosides 34.
- It caused disruptive changes in the acrosomal membrane of sperm and arrest spermicidal motility 35.
- It was also cause degenerative changes in seminiferous epithelium and spermatogonic elements 36.
Type of extract used: 50% ethanolic extract of roots 36, alcoholic extract of seeds 37 were utilized.
Animal models: Male rats 36 was used for checking the antifertility potential of Solanum surattense.
- Embelia ribes:
Common name: Laksmana, amalaki
Chemical constituents: It contains alkaloids, quinine, proteins, saponins, triterpenes, coumarins, resins, tannins and Embelin (2, 5-dihydroxy 3-undicyl-1, 4-benzoquinone) 38, 39.
- It was affected the sperm motility, quantity and quality of semen and lowered the hormonal level 40.
- It produced profound morphological and histological changes in testis 38, 41.
Type of extract used: Extract of berries was used as a fertility regulating agent.
Animal models: Male bonnet monkeys 40 were utilized.
- Stephania hernandifolia:
Common name: Aknadi
- It contains alkaloids (hernandin, hernsubanine), proteins and tannins 42.
- It showed deminution of the activities of testicular androgenic key enzymes and plasma testosterone with spermatogenesis 43.
Type of extract used: Aqueous extract of leaf was used.
Animal models: Rats 43 were used for demonstrating the antifertility activity of Stephania hernandifolia.
- Catharanthus roseus:
Common name: Sadabahar
Chemical constituents: It contains tannins, steroids, saponin glycosides, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone glycosides and flavonoids 44.
- It produced pathological changes in the principle and apical cells of caput and nuclear cells of cauda causing impairment of epididymal functions 45.
- It affected spermatogenic cell lines other than spermatogonia 46, 47.
Type of extract used: Extract of leaf 47 was used for carried out male contraception.
Animal models: Male rats 47 were used for investigating the male conception activity of Catharanthus roseus.
- Abrus precatorius:
Common name: Indian liquorice, chirmi
Chemical constituents: It contains glycosides, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids 48.
- In Srilanka, ayurvedic physicians have been claimed that seeds of A. procatorius inhibit conception in humans when taken orally 48.
- It altered the sperm morphology, reduced sperm motility and metabolism 49.
- It reduced testicular weight and sperm count and also causes degeneration in the testis during the later stages of spermatogenesis 50.
Type of extract used: 50% ethanolic extract of seeds was used for antifertility action in males 50.
Animal models: Rats51, 52, rabbits and presbytis monkeys53 were used for finding the above mentioned activities.
- 11. Azadirachta indica:
Common name: Neem
Chemical constituents: It contains flavonoids, saponins, phenols and chymophenols 54.
- It caused disturbances in the structure and functions of testis and spermatozoa 54.
- It also produced histopathological and biochemical changes in the caput and cauda 55.
- It reduced the serum testosterone level 55.
- It produced mass atrophy in spermatogenic elements 56 and arrested the spermatogenesis stage (late XII).
- It caused morphological changes in the head of the sperm and its acrosome due to androgen deficiency 57.
- It was also showing the spermicidal activity 58.
Type of extract: Seed oil 59, Neem oil 60 and ethanolic extract of leaves 61 were established for male infertility.
Animal models: Rats 62, 59, 63, mouse 60, monkeys 64 and humans 64 were used for evaluating the antifertility activity in males.
- Aegle marmelos:
Common name: Bael fruit tree
Chemical constituents: It contains marmin, fagarine, skimmianine, aegelin, lupeol, citral, cineol, citronella, cumin aldehyde, eugenol and marmesinine 65. Marmin and fagarine is especially responsible for male infertility.
- It was significantly reduces the reproductive organs weight and serum testosterone level 66.
- (It also reduced sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity 67, 68, 69.
- It was also responsible for exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium which indicated testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis 6.
Type of extract used: Methanolic extract of aegle marmelos bark, leaves, seeds and fruits were used for male infertility 67, 68, 69, 6.
Animal models: Rats 6 were used as preclinical model for evaluating the antifertility activity in males.
- Apium graveolens:
Common name: Celery
Chemical constituents: It contains essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, coumarins and furocoumarins 70.
Activities: It arrested spermatogenesis as well as decrease sperm count, sperm motility, blood testosterone concentration, weight of testes and seminal vesicles and diameter and viability of seminiferous tubules 70.
Type of extract used: Ethanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds was administered for male infertility 70.
Animal models: Rats 70 were used for evaluating the antifertility activity of Apium graveolens.
Some herbal plants exhibiting antifertility activity in females:
Several medicinal plants associated with antifertility activity in females are exists in India. These plants produce antifertility activity by acting through various mechanisms:
(a) Estrous cycle disruptors
(b) Anti-estrogenic agents
(c) Anti-implantation agents
(d) Abortifacient agents
Estrous cycle disruptors:
- Rivea hypocrateriformis:
Common name: Night glory, vaividang
Chemical constituents: It contains alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds 71.
- After administration of extract, the level of cholesterol increased due to the inhibition of steroidogenesis.
- The myometrium and endometrium thickness and diameter were found to be increased indicating the uterotrophic effect.
- The number of graffian follicles declined and increased in number of atretic follicle indicating antiovulatory effect 72.
Type of extract used: Ethanolic extract of Rivea hycrateriformis at dose level of 200-400 mg/kg/body weight in rats 72 disrupts the estrous cycle.
Animal models: Rats were used to explore the antifertility potential of Rivea hypocrateriformis 72.
- Momordica charantia:
Common name: Bitter melon, karela
Chemical constituents: The principle phytochemicals which causes antifertility are steroids, triterpinoids, reducing sugars, sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins 73.
- It exhibited irregular pattern of estrous cyclicity and increases the length of estrous cycle 74.
- The disruption of the estrous cycle was found to be executed by disturbance in ovarian function and estrous cyclicity through interplay of ovarian and extraovarian hormones 74.
- It may be inhibiting the estrogen production or competing for its receptor 75.
Type of extract used: Methanolic extract of Momordica charantia seeds caused disturbances in the estrous cycle 74.
Animal model: Rats 74 were used for evaluating the female antifertility activity of Momordica charantia.
- Aspilia Africana:
Common name: wild sunflower
Chemical constituents: The phytochemicals are saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides 76.
- It caused the alteration in estrous cycle by the prolonged proestrous and a reduced diestrous and estrous phase 77.
- It reduced the number of ova observed in oviduct 77.
- It caused the inflammation of the fallopian tube, degeneration in the ovarian cortex in the stroma cells of the ovary 77.
- It also caused the disruption of the endometrium of the uterus77.
Type of extract used: Extract of Aspilia africana leaves was used for antifertility action 77.
Animal models: Rats 77 were utilised for finding the antifertility activity of Aspilia africana.
- Anethum graveolens
Common name: Dill, sowa
Chemical constituents: It contains tannins, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and reducing sugars 78.
- It increased the duration of diestrous phases and total time of the estrous cycle 79.
Type of extract used: Ethanolic extract of Anethum graveolens was administered as estrous cycle disruptor 79.
Animal models: Rats 79 were used for demonstrating the antifertility activity of Anethum graveolens.
- Cissampelos pareira:
Common name: Abuta, harjeuri
Chemical constituents: Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins and carbohydrates80.
- It altered the estrous cycle pattern and prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrous stage 81.
- It also altered the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin and estradiol 81.
Type of extract used: Extract of Cissampelos pareira leaves were used for antifertility activity 81.
Animal models: Rats 81 were used for checking the antifertility activity of Cissampelos pareira leaves.
- Curcuma longa:
Common name: Haldi
Chemical constituents: Phtochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, aminoacids and alkaloids 82.
- It caused the suppression of ovulation by the inhibition of estrous phase 83.
- It showed anti-estrogenic activity which either block the estrogen receptors or diminishing the estrogen synthesis due to decrease in cholesterol metabolism 83.
Type of extract used: Extract of Curcuma longa was used for the suppression of estrous cycle 83.
Animal models: Rats 83 were used for investigating the female antifertility activity of Curcuma longa.
- Acacia leucophloea
Common name: Reonja
Chemical constituents: It contains tannins, flavonoids, terpenes and alkaloids 84.
- It increased the proestrous phase while estrous and metaestrous phase decreases 85.
- It caused decreases in the weight of ovary 85.
- It increased the cholesterol content 85.
Type of extract used: Alcoholic extract of Acacia leucophloea roots was used for estrous cycle disruptors 85.
Animal models: Rats 85 were used to evaluate the antifertility activity of Acacia leucophloea.
- Butea monosperma:
Common name: Flame of the forest, dhak
Chemical constituents: It contains glucose, glycine, glycoside and an aromatic hydroxyl compound 86.
- It was significantly reduces the weight of the ovaries and increases the level of cholesterol 87.
- It inhibited the activity of G-6-PDH indicating anti-steroidogenic activity 87.
Type of extract used: Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of Butea monosperma roots were used for antifertility action 87.
Animal models: Mice 87 were utilised for finding the antifertility activity of Butea monosperma extract.
- Piper bitle:
Common name: Betel leaf, paan
Chemical constituents: It showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, gums, oils, steroids, glycosides, tannins, phenols, vitamins, organic acids and inorganic constituents 88.
It showed anti-estrogenic activity by decreasing the weight of the ovary 89.
It reduced the circulating level of estrogen, fertility and number of litters 89.
It also caused decline in serum glucose concentration, enzyme activity of acid phosphatise, SGOT and SGPT and increment in the level of cholesterol and ascorbic acid 89.
Type of extract used: Ethanolic extract of Piper bitle leaves showing anti-estrogenic activity 89.
Animal models: Rats 89 were used for evaluating the anti-estrogenic activity of Piper bitle .
- Cassia fistula:
Common name: Golden shower, amaltas
Chemical constituents: It showed the presence of anthraquinone glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates 90.
- It showed strong anti-estrogenic activity in presence of a strong estrogen like estradiol valerate and significantly reduces the estrogen induced uterotrophic effect 91.
- It was also prevents pregnancy when extract administered to the mated female rats 91.
Type of extract used: Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula seeds was used for anti-estrogenic activity 91.
Animal models: Rats 91 were used to explore the anti-estrogenic potential of Cassia fistula seeds.
- Ocimum gratissimum:
Common name: Tulsi
Chemical constituents: It contains the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, glycosides, resins, steroids and tannins 92.
- It showed slight anti-estrogenic activity when given along with strong estrogen i.e. estradiol valerate 93.
- It declined the fertility index, number of uterine implants and live foetuses when administered in mated female rats 93.
Type of extract used: Acetone extract of Ocimum gratissimum stem was administered for anti-estrogenic activity 93.
Animal models: Rats 93 are used for finding anti-estrogenic activity of Ocimum gratissium.
- Ficus religiosa
Common name: Pipal
Chemical constituents: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of n-hexadecanoic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid and butyl 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoate 75.
- It dereased the thickness of surface epithelium, diameter of uterine glands, diameter of gland cells and thickness of the layer of myometrium 75.
Type of extract used: An Extract of Ficus religiosa fruit was used for anti-implantation effect 75.
Animal models: Goat 75 was utilised for finding the anti-implantation activity of Ficus religiosa.
- Calotropis procera:
Common name: Sodom apple, aak
Chemical constituents: It contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides 94.
Activities: (i) It possessed strong anti-implantation activity 95.
Type of extract used: Ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera roots was used for anti-implantation effect 95.
Animal models: Rats 95 were used to explore the female anti-fertility potential of Calotropis procera.
- Terminalia belerica:
Common name: Baheda
Chemical constituents: It showed the presence of phytosterols, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins 96.
- It caused loss of implantation due to anti-zygotic, blastocytotoxic or anti-implantation activity of Terminalia belerica 97.
Type of extract used: Ethanolic extract of Terminalia belerica bark was used for anti-implantation activity 98.
Animal models: Rats 98 were used for checking the anti-implantation activity of Terminalia belerica.
- Physalis alkekengi:
Common name: Bladder cherry, kakanaj
Chemical constituents: It contains tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides 99.
- It was act as antagonist of female sexual hormones i.e. estrogen and progesterone which involves in the maintenance of implanted embryo 97.
Type of extract used: Extract of Physalis alkekengi plant was given for inhibition of implantation 97.
Animal models: Rats 97 were used for investigating the anti-implantation activity of Physalis alkekengi.
- Leonotis ocymifolia:
Common name: Sun-Bird flower
Chemical constituents: It contains phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins100.
- It reduced the number of implants significantly 101.
Type of extract used: Ethanolic extract of Leonotis ocymifolia leaves were used 101.
Animal models: Rats 101 were used for finding anti-implantation activity of Leonotis ocymifolia.
- Alianthus excelsa
Common name: Indian tree of heaven
Chemical constituents: It contains quassinoids, glaucarubinone, alianthin, β-sitisterol and malanthin 102, 103, 1-p-deoxy-13-formylalianthiol and alianthin 104, 105, excelsin, 13, 18-dehydroexcelsin, glaucarubin, glaucarbol, 13, 18-dehydro 15-isovalerate and trihydroxy triucal 7-ene 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111.
- It possessed strong anti-implantation activity 112.
- It increased uterine weight when administered with ethinyl estradiol indicating its significant anti-estrogenic activity 112.
Type of extract used: Hydroalcoholic extract of Alianthus excelas stem bark was given for its anti-implantation activity 112.
Animal models: Rats 112 were used for evaluating the anti-implantation activity of Alianthus excelsa.
- Atrabotrys odoratissimus:
Common name: Nag champa
Chemical constituents: It contains hydroxy-9-methoxypeterocarpan, nonacosanoic acid 2’, 3’-dihydroxypropyl ester, pentacosanoic acid 2’, 3’-dihydroxypropyl ester and docosanoic 113.
It possessed strong anti-implantation activity and also produced the disturbances in the duration of the various stages of estrous cycle 114.
It reduced the number of implantation sites114.
Type of extract used: Benzene, ethanol and water extract of Atrabotrys odoratissimus leaves were used for causing infertility in females via anti-implantation activity 114.
Animal models: Rats 114 were used for evaluating the anti-implantation activity of Atrabotrys odoratissimus.
- Coriandrum sativum:
Common name: Dhania
Chemical constituents: It showed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids115.
Activities: (i) It caused significant decrease in progesterone level of serum on day-5 of progesterone indicating abortifacient activity116.
Type of extract used: Aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seeds was used as abortifacient agent.
Animal model: Rats 116 were used to evaluate the abortifacient activity of Coriandrum sativum.
- Melia azedarach:
Common name: Chinaberry
Chemical constituents: It contains alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenols, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids 117.
- It caused loss of implantation 118.
- It was also significantly reduces myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelium cell height 118.
Type of extract used: Extract of Melia azedarach seeds were used as abortifacient118.
Animal models: Rats 118 were used for finding the abortifacient potential of Melia azedarach.
- Trianthema portulacastrum:
Common name: Horse purslane
Chemical constituents: Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids 119, 120.
- It possessed significant abortifacient activity 120.
- It also produced significant increases in uterine weight, diameter of the uterus and thickness of endometrium which indicates its mild anti-estrogenic activity 120.
Type of extract used: Extract of Trianthema portulacastrum was used for abortifacient activity 120.
Animal models: Rats 120 were utilised for finding the abortifacient activity of Trianthema portulacastrum.
- Balantis roxburghii:
Common name: Desert date
Chemical constituents: It contains alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, gum and mucilage 121, 122.
It showed significant abortifacient activity 121.
It was also significantly increases the uterine weight diameter of uterus, thickness of endometrium and height of endometrial epithelium 121.
Type of extract used: Ethanolic extract of Balanties roxburghii fruits was given for abortion 121.
Animal models: Rats 121 were used for evaluating the abortifacient activity of Balanties roxburghii.
- Cannabis sativa
Common name: Hemp, bhang
Chemical constituents: It showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and reducing sugars123, 124.
- It was possessed strong abortifacient activity. It produced significant decrease in ovarian and uterine weight whereas non-significant increase in body weight 123.
- It also caused slight increment in serum progesterone level and decrement in serum estrogen level 123.
- The level of LH and FSH was found to be significantly reduced after administration of extract 123.
Type of extract used: Alcoholic extract of Cannabis sativa leaves was used for abortifacient effect 123.
Animal models: Rats 122 were used for finding abortifacient potential of Cannabis sativa.
CONCLUSION: This review summarized scientific proven literature about phytochemical constituents, antifertility activities and type of extract used of various herbal medicinal plants for both males and females which being traditionally used. The present review also covered animal models used to explore the antifertility activity of the above mentioned plants. These herbal medicinal plants act as antifertility agents via various mechanisms in both males and females. Future research is also required to make preparation of these herbal plants in scientific manner to make them safe and effective.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The authors are sincerely thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments in improvising the review article.
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How to cite this article:
Devi P, Kumar P, Nidhi and Dhamija I: Antifertility Activity of Medicinal Plants on Male and Female Reproduction. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015; 6(3): 988-01.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6 (3).988-01.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Parveena Devi , Pradeep Kumar , Nidhi and Isha Dhamija*
P. D. M. College of Pharmacy , Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India
21 July, 2014
11 October, 2014
16 November, 2014
01 March, 2015