AUTISM: AN EARLY-ONSET NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERAbstract
Autism is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication, and the repetitive interests or restricted interests and behaviors. Approximately 67 million people are affected by autism around the world. Autism has increased to epidemic proportions, affecting four times as many males and females. The exact etiology of autism remains largely unidentified; however, literature has emerged to propose the genetic, neurological, environmental and immunological contributions play critical roles in the enlargement of autism. Autism is well known as a complex developmental disorder with a seemingly confusing and uncertain pathogenesis. The serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, cytokinin thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of autism. These areas of research have contributed to the development of a number of medications currently in use for interfering symptoms, and may guide the future development of novel agents. This review will cover the understanding on the clinical sign and symptoms, its causes, diagnosis, pathophysiology and neuronal circuits involved in autism.
Ashwani Arya * and Gulshan Sindhwani
Department of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, BPS Women University, South Campus, Bhainswal Kalan, Sonipat, Haryana, India
28 March, 2016
02 August, 2016
08 August, 2016
01 September 2016