CARBON NANOTUBES: THE FUTURE OF CANCER TREATMENTAbstract
Graphite is made up of layers of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, like chicken wire (see fi the term nanotube is normally used to refer to the carbon nanotube, which has received enormous attention from researchers over the last few years and promises, along with close relatives such as the nanohorn, a host of interesting applications. The theoretical minimum diameter of a carbon nanotube is around 0.4 nanometers, which is about as long as two silicon atoms side by side, and nanotubes this size have been made. Average diameters tend to be around the 1.2 nanometer mark, depending on the process used to create them. Carbon nanotubes are extremely thin (their diameter is about 10,000 times smaller than a human hair), hollow cylinders made of carbon atoms. Biological systems are known to be highly transparent to 700- to 1, 100-nm near-infrared (NIR) light. It is shown here that the strong optical absorbance of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in this special spectral window, an intrinsic property of SWNTs, can be used for optical stimulation of nanotubes inside living cells to afford multifunctional nanotube biological transporters. For oligonucleotides transported inside living cells by nanotubes, the oligos can translocate into cell nucleus upon endosomal rupture triggered by NIR laser pulses. Continuous NIR radiation can cause cell death because of excessive local heating of SWNT in vitro. Selective cancer cell destruction can be achieved by functionalization of SWNT with a folate moiety, selective internalization of SWNTs inside cells labeled with folate receptor tumor markers, and NIR-triggered cell death, without harming receptor-free normal cells. Thus, the transporting capabilities of carbon nanotubes combined with suitable functionalization chemistry and their intrinsic optical properties can lead to new classes of novel nanomaterials for drug delivery and chemotherapy
P. Jagadeesh*, K. Sowmya, P. R. Radhika and T. Siva Kumar
Department of Pharmaceutics, Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode-52, tamil nadu, india.
11 October, 2010
13 December, 2010
19 January, 2010