CARBONIC ANHYDRASES: NOVEL TARGETS FOR ANTICANCER DRUGSAbstract
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 126.96.36.199), are a superfamily of metalloenzymes in higher vertebrates, including humans. Sixteen distinct isoenzymes of CA are known to exist in mammals and most of these isoenzymes have been extensively investigated in terms of their biochemical properties, tissue distribution, and genetic control. There are cytosolic isozymes (CA I, CA II, CA III, CA VII and CA XIII), membrane bound examples (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII and CA XIV), and mitochondrial (CA VA and CA VB) and secreted (CA VI) isoforms. It was proposed that hCA IX is a multidomain protein consisting of an N-terminal proteoglycan like (PG) domain, a CA catalytic domain, a transmembrane segment (TM), and an intracytoplasmic (IC) portion. Carbonic anhydrase IX and XII inhibitors can prove to be effective in treatment of hypoxic tumours. Moreover the side effects with these drugs will be less than those caused by other anticancer drugs as these enzymes are present constitutively in only a few tissues.
S. Dhande* and M. Gursahani
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector-08, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai, India
09 September, 2014
29 December, 2014
04 February, 2015
01 June, 2015