COVID-19 PANDEMIC-A FORTUNATE SCENARIO FOR PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENTISTSHTML Full Text
COVID-19 PANDEMIC-A FORTUNATE SCENARIO FOR PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENTISTS
Swapna * and Y. Padhmanabha Reddy
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, K. R. Palli Cross, Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Covid-2019: The pandemic that shook the entire world. There is no sarcasm if one says there will be a Pre and Post- COVID-19 world. Worldwide, millions of cases have been identified, and heaps have died. So many nations worldwide have issued a lockdown to stop the coronavirus's unfolding, which triggered giant financial fallout. Like each and every incident has two dimensions, Covid-19 possesses both positive and negative aspects. This unfortunate pandemic’s positive aspect has been a fortunate scenario for many sectors, including pharmaceutical scientists all over the world, who are striving their best to discover antibodies that can fight the novel coronavirus. This review article mainly aims to study how this deadly pandemic has become a fortunate scenario for pharmaceutical scientists based on the data gathered (sources: websites, web blogs, reports on the internet study, newspapers, etc.). But there are some positive aspects, such as reducing pollution, reducing traffic accidents, and recognizing the importance of sanitation, hygiene, and social distancing. This pandemic revealed that there is a need to improve healthcare systems and clinical research. The pandemic situation has been a boon to the positive aspects of the pharma industry globally.
Keywords: COVID-19, Positive aspects, Pharmaceutical scientists, pandemic
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 crisis, most commonly known as the Coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing dreadful international health pandemic caused severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) mainly affecting the respiratory system. The active spread of the emerging SARSCoV-2 pathogen and related coronavirus ailment 2019 (COVID-19) have hugely influenced international fitness and the day-to-day lives of heaps of humans internationally. The sickness was first seen in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The crisis was declared an international public health emergency in January 2020 1.
As of 28 July 2021, there were over 196, 006, 221 confirmed cases of COVID all over the world, with more than 4, 193, 322 deaths and about 177, 690, 506 recovered cases 2. With the hope of a vaccine being totally examined for protection and efficacy, there may also be a chance to hastily re-arrange drugs currently developed to prevent SARS CoV-2 infections and enhance effective outcomes for sufferers already contaminated with contaminated COVID-19.
The common announcement that prevention is better than remedy holds across much of medicine. Vaccination in opposition to transmittable diseases, which is accountable for some of the major and most profitable improvements in public fitness, is some of the high-quality measures in this case. While developing a vaccine for COVID-19, there is a need to follow such pandemics that occurred earlier, such as Meningitis, a serious communicable inflammatory disease most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting thousands of people every year with high mortality rates. In which case, the vaccines first developed (polysaccharide and protein conjugate vaccines, respectively, outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines) were found to be less stable and efficient than later WHO focused on developing much more efficient and stable vaccines (Gene manipulations; tailor-made OMV vaccines) 3, 4.
FIG. 1: PIE CHART SHOWING COVID-19 STATISTICS IN THE WORLD AS OF 28 JULY 2021
Meanwhile, whilst scientists are striving hard to develop a vaccine against SARS COV-2, a new variant of COVID-19 has been reported in the UK. The new variant coronavirus case was first reported in Britain in Dec 2020. India and several other countries have suspended flights to and from the UK to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus variant, which is spreading and growing rapidly.
FIG. 2: BAR GRAPH SHOWING COVID-19 STATISTICS IN SOME OF THE COUNTRIES AS OF 28 JULY 2021
The new variant is referred to as VUI (Variant under Investigation). Coronavirus can be stated as the ‘virus in learning’, as scientists all over the world are striving hard to study various strains of the virus for the development of an effective therapeutic regimen for the ongoing virus. From studying the new coronavirus variant, the experts said that the new variant “transmits more easily than other strains 5-7.
FIG. 3: CORONAVIRUS
As a response to the international COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a fundamental emphasis on vaccine development for SARS CoV-2. Herd immunity for COVID-19 is no longer probable to come to our support10. So, developing a remedial vaccine that can supply long-term effectiveness against COVID-19 should be the major objective. However, the capacity to improve a vaccine that is suitable for practical use in a well-timed manner seems to be seen in developing effective vaccines. With developed, applied sciences in vaccine production and development, to design, produce, and administer the vaccine to human subjects in phase I medical trials just 63 days after the viral genome sequence was first reported (Moderna, Cambridge-MA; National Institute of allergy and infectious disease – NIAID), there is nonetheless a long way to go before it 11. Once the vaccine is approved, it ought to then be manufactured on site, although the parallel creation of vaccine manufacturing amenities personalized for each of the top existing vaccines presently underway should speed up this process 12 - 13. In the interim, social distancing has been made obligatory in many territories and by most accounts, has been bit by bit, fairly profitable in slowing the unfolding of COVID-19. Many new and high throughput checks are being implemented for finding out the existence of an energetic septicemia via viral RNA and preceding contamination by way of antibody titer analysis. Hence, whilst a vaccine may additionally be a satisfactory, suitable remedy, modern day suitable-case scenario estimates put the availability of a practical potential vaccine in 12 – 18 months. Even this would be just a two or three fold enhancement in contrast to the unique mumps vaccine, which withholds the document for the smallest time between virus isolation and vaccine improvement (1945-1948). But woefully, that vaccine capitulated solely to short term safety and used to be changed some decades ago by way of extra formidable, abiding vaccine 14 - 18.
FIG. 4: COVID-19 VACCINE
Convalescent plasma therapy may additionally help enhance outcomes in sufferers with extreme COVID-19, but its accessibility may be limited due to the dearth of donor plasma and difficulties in handling the plasma 19, 20. Therefore, there is a need for pharmaceutical scientists to come up with solutions for the associated difficulties so that the time required for vaccine development is reduced. If demonstrated effective, these drugs offer advantages from a rapid response perspective, like known safety data and other related information in dealing with the consequences 21.
This pandemic had a severe impact on various sectors, such as education, culture, sports, and the economy etc. Among those, the pharma sector and related industries is the major. They played a fundamental role in both managing the crisis and in discovering the vaccine for its prevention, throughout the process. Even if the vaccine and drugs against COVID-19 were developed, there are still so many void situations that need to be filled because developing such medicines in such a short period of time is not exempt from being a miracle. The promising role of health peasants in the face of an epidemic is properly cherished by way of the lion’s share. However, we should do a higher undertaking of offering them with secure operating pre-requisites against those who had existed at some stage in the cutting-edge COVID-19 pandemic. These people incommensurately and consistently engage with infected people, which will increase their risk of contracting the malady. They also communicate intimately (and mundanely) with the masses, and so each increases the intrinsic chance of contracting the sickness and unrolling it to others. Additionally, their persistent interactivity with other healthcare people creates the practicable for a dissemination sequence. Last but not least, they also incommensurately have interaction with humans likely to undergo the worst COVID-19 consequences, similarly, immuno-suppressed patients and sufferers with other comorbidities 22.
The point of major interest here is to note that pharmaceutical scientists may not actually be in direct contact with people infected with COVID-19, which does not mean they are at low risk of contracting the disease. Even though they are not in direct contact with humans infected with COVID-19, they deal with the biological samples collected from the infected persons. In order to overcome this, protection provided by PPE (Personal Protection Equipment) kits has been utilized widely. By the usage of pharmaceutical interventions for protection, we might also impede the spread of the sickness and keep healthcare manpower running at full potential when they are vital 23.
Pharma Industry: As prudences around the planet are affected by the affect of COVID-19, agencies are encountering diminution, people are without errands, and the multitudes face the assignment of an absolute turbulence in their way of life24. Nevertheless, pharmaceutical business captivating notoriety in the COVID-19 battle, such as Gilead and Eli Lilly, are perceiving a fantastic increase in the inventory alternate and a substitute flare-up of novelty in the infectious disease landscapes, the need for remedial endorsing for COVID-19 cure takes flies. In addition, vaccines (like COVAXIN and ASTRAZENECA) were developed for treatment against COVID-19, which were approved by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO). Many healthcare systems have undergone and are still experiencing a convulsive change due to COVID-19. The sector’s old business model, where once there was a cut-throat competition to discover, develop and market medicines through the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), is being transformed, where even former rivals, such as vaccine-makers GlaxoSmithKline (LSE: GSK) and Sanofi (Euronext: SAN), are working together to develop a safe and effective corona virus vaccine 25. The Pharmaceutical industry has been one of the major industries in the management of COVID-19. Due to lockdown issues in several parts of various countries, even though there was no transportation or basic facilities, the pharmaceutical industry played a major role in the maintenance of public health during this crisis 26.
Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Scientists: As the lockdowns are taking place everywhere in the world and therefore the domestic level pharmacy gurus are pulling off their frontline roles. This review spotlights the title role of pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists in the COVID-19 pandemic and the fortunate scenario the pandemic has created for them 27. Pharmacists globally are providing services even with such a rampant, encompassing TRIAGE services, seeing sufferers and decreasing the sufferers’ load on medical care services like clinics and general pharmacy practices. While pharmacists’ work online dealing with patients, pharmaceutical scientists play a crucial role in developing drugs against COVID-19 28.
By virtue of communal prophylactic measures recommended by WHO, the ordinary public is teaming up in their relevant nations to ‘flatten the curve’. With a close to ample international lockdown, there looks to be an even higher vulnerability for druggists and pharmaceutical scientists as the foremost point of contact to fulfill the public’s medical care needs. Drug stores round the planet are nearly only a scant few locations that are saved unfurled for benevolence even with stern lockdowns. Community pharmacists are important medical care contributors throughout the disaster; they abide by the Armageddon of communal health by serving as unmediated factors to retrieve their patients. Hospital pharmacists have a critical position throughout the outbreak in infection control and additionally, in affected person supervision and assistance 29.
The Nations most affected by the disaster are fairly cladding underrated medical services and paucity, in addition to the prostration of medical care gurus. The TRIAGE service has been applied as an encouraging technique all throughout the rhythm of a disaster, which accommodates pharmacists with different essential chief health care workers. A purveying of COVID-19 indoctrinated medical care experts prevails to help these amenities within the time of scarcity of medical and nursing personnel and to lengthen the overpassing of the amenities in Australia too. The American Pharmacist Association (APhA) has additionally furnished some recommendations and assets archives for the toughening and the alertness of neighborhood pharmacies as warfare front medical care workers in the international fitness pandemic 30 - 32.
Authenticity of records and management of scarce and deception are essential perturbations at some stage in the international unfolding of the disease. Community pharmacists, nevertheless, perform their role in the direction of communities, consecutive for ordinary resources of medicine, as well as assisting executives in proclaiming data on provisions interconnected to COVID-19 shake out, counting hand cleansing methods to the availability of face masks and directions for their appropriate utilization and discarding. Pharmacists also play an important role in educating the public about serious problems associated with self-medication practice (SMP). USP has furnished instructions for the amalgamating and pharmacists and makers for the formulation of hand sanitizers to deal with the shortages 33 - 34.
The community pharmacy has a special reliable function with proficiency in convenience. Pharmacists are a critical part of healthcare systems, carrying out gorgeous title roles in the untimely pandemics and health crises, with some like Ebola and Zika creating world health collateral perils also. Likewise, by using pitching-in in the avoidance, alertness, discovery, and feedback to COVID-19 pandemic pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists are conveying their responsibility towards public fitness in consideration of this disaster 35-37. In various countries, pharmacies have worked in immediate cooperation with the International humanitarian agencies like the Red Cross and native company employees to extend their reach to the public and to ensure domestic consignment of medicaments 38 - 39. In New Zealand, the pharmacist’s benefit is acknowledged by the executive authorities by supplementary payments for his or her support. Helpline numbers are provided for uplifting mobile consultation and prescription dispositions for domestic components to scale again. The general visits are to be kept away just in the event of presumed and compulsive COVID cases. The pharmacies in Australia are stimulated in such a way that they help faraway dish out prescriptions using prescriptions collected via mail/fax/email or by exploiting electronic transfer of prescriptions (ETP) technology associated with domestic delivery services, especially for the aged and susceptible people 40.
Pharmaceutical scientists around the planet are competing to advance the most advanced, high quality COVID-19 vaccine. Untimely endeavors suggest a word of honor, but an unexpected bounce in the unprecedented corona virus instances in the fall means the quicker a vaccine is successfully developed, the more lives can be rescued and the pharmaceutical scientists portray an essential contribution to this uncovering. Early data from the discoveries of pharmaceutical scientists suggests that their contemporary aspirant vaccine brings about an immune kickback by means of invigorating the organism to fabricate neutralizing antibodies. In the past, this type of antibody was proven to defend at odds with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), another corona virus compared to the virus inflicting COVID-19. Right now, there is a compulsion on the pharmaceutical industry and scientists to hasten vaccine developments and remedies that will not solely enhance clinical ability, but save lives and forestall the virus considerably. There is a remarkable stimulation of therapy and vaccines precisely when we most needed them. Pharmaceutical scientists played a crucial role in this. History is being made in the drug development process, thanks to the chronic endeavors of personnel functioning in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and medicine to produce a vaccine within 12-18 months 41.
Positive Aspects: The lockdown triggered with the aid of COVID-19 has precipitated interferences in all sectors. Pharma sector has been staggered too, but there is anticipation that things will ease and increase will recommence. Many of the professionals said that, this is the most opportune time for the pharmaceutical enterprise and the Indian authorities to put in force the katoch committee hints and enforce many of the advised incentives to position India as the international pharmaceutical hub. The pharmaceutical scientists also have the opportunity to showcase their skills. The pharmaceutical scientists also have the governments’ support in innovation and R & D 42.
This dreadful pandemic has brought so many favorable changes to the health care systems and related systems in such a short notice. Despite of huge competition between government and private institutions, the pandemic brought them together for the betterment of the public, healthcare systems. Database information released from several countries’, pharmaceutical scientists are accessible through the WHO (World Health Organization). Pharmaceutical scientists were given many favorable circumstances to carry out their work. Pharmaceutical scientists have deep scientific expertise received from a long time of trip with similar viruses. The pharma scientists can utilize their skills under such circumstances to the best of their ability 43.
Upcoming legendary pharma scientists from different backgrounds with competitive skills can be encouraged. In the process of developing vaccines while collaborating public and private sectors, an inter sector relationship can be strengthened. Even international relationships can be promoted (Bharath Biotech, INDIA and Thomas Jefferson, US – Collaborated on COVID-19 vaccine). With Intra and Inter country collaborations, there is scope for pharmaceutical scientists to explore their knowledge and skills for the betterment of the nation and its public. There will also be increased net profits of the country’s 44.
CONCLUSION: We should consider this pandemic seriously and be ready with roadmaps necessary to tackle such pandemic situations in future. This crisis showed that, there is need to improve our health care systems and related sectors. Pharma industries are one of such sectors. Pharma industries play a vital position in the production and supply of medicines, surgical and related materials. Pharmaceutical scientists play a crucial role in the management of crisis, development of vaccines, development of treatment methods, carrying out clinical trials etc., from designing of vaccine or medicine to the monitoring of adverse effects or progress of marketing products. Even when many of the industrial sectors are shut down due to this pandemic, pharma industries were given much more priority and opportunities. Hence, pharma related sectors should consider this pandemic as an opportunity to develop the sector and for the overall development of the countries.
As a result of continuous efforts of pharmaceutical scientists all over the world, vaccines such as COVAXIN (Bharath Biotech), COVISHIELD (AstraZeneca), SPUTNIK V (R-Pharm) were developed for treatment against COVID-19, which were approved by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO). Drugs such as REMDESIVIR are also used in the COVID-19 treatment. Besides implementation of several vaccines for COVID-19, the pharmaceutical scientists have to take care of surfacing side effects of these vaccines, which are presently in clinical trials, without compromising on their safety and efficacy. Amidst of all the challenges, the pharmaceutical scientists are striving hard for the development of vaccines against COVID-19 with minimal and/or less serious side effects grasping their opportunity for the overall betterment. COVID-19 pandemic has been a boon for pharmaceutical scientists.
FIG. 5: COVAXIN
As a result of the continuous efforts of pharmaceutical scientists all over the world, vaccines such as COVAXIN (Bharath Biotech), Covishield (Astra Zeneca), and Sputnik V (R-Pharm) were developed for treatment against COVID-19, which was approved by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO).
Drugs such as REMDESIVIR are also used in the COVID-19 treatment. Besides the implementation of several vaccines for COVID-19, pharmaceutical scientists have to take care of surfacing side effects of these vaccines, which are presently in clinical trials, without compromising on their safety and efficacy.
FIG. 6: COVISHIELD
Despite all the challenges, pharmaceutical scientists are striving hard to develop vaccines against COVID-19 with minimal and/or less serious side effects, grasping their opportunity for the overall betterment. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a boon for pharmaceutical scientists.
TABLE 1: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
|COVID-19||Corona virus disease – 2019|
|SARS CoV - 2||Sever acute respiratory disease coronavirus - 2|
|OMV||Outer Membrane Vesicle|
|VUI||Variant under investigation|
|NIAID||National institute of allergy and infectious diseases|
|PPE||Personal protection equipment|
|CDSCO||Central drugs standard control organization|
|IMI||Innovative medicines initiative|
|TRIAGE||Targeting relativity intervals analytics grouping explorer|
|APhA||American Pharmacist association|
|USP||United states pharmacopoeia|
|SMP||Self Medication Practice|
|ETP||Electronic transfer of prescriptions|
|WHO||World health organization|
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Authors are extremely thankful to Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) management, Anantapur for their support.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.
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How to cite this article:
Swapna K and Reddy YP: Covid-19 pandemic-a fortunate scenario for pharmaceutical scientists. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2021; 12(10): 5300-07. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.12(10).5300-07.
All © 2021 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
K. Swapna * and Y. Padhmanabha Reddy
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, K. R. Palli Cross, Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.
16 June 2021
28 July 2021
21 August 2021
01 October 2021