DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: AN OVERVIEWAbstract
Diabetes mellitus is a merge of assorted disorders commonly arise with happening of hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance due to which there be a lack of insulin production will occur. The two major classes of diabetes mellitus are type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. For the prevention and controlling the increase of glucose, medical science uses a large array of pharmaceutical interventions. The disease occurs due to diabetes is of two types, the one which occurs in the small vessel is the microvascular disease, and the injury which occurs in the large blood vessels of the body is the macrovascular disease. Diabetic retinopathy is the common microvascular complication of diabetes. The diabetic retinopathy and the microvascular complication of diabetes are depending on the duration of diabetes and the severity of the increased production of glucose in the body. Various types of DR have been reported like mild non-proliferative retinopathy, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy, severe non-proliferative retinopathy, and proliferative retinopathy. Some signaling mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes mellitus and the cognitive decline are comparing with the patient having proliferative diabetic retinopathy with the patient having non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or no retinopathy. From this comparison, it was shown that the severity of the diabetic retinopathy is inversely proportional to the severity of cognitive impairment.