EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL COMBINATIONS AND ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST BIOFILM OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANSAbstract
Background: Herbal extracts have been used in dental products for many years owing to their anti-adherence effect on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in the biofilm formation. Dental caries are developed by the colonization of oral bacteria on the surface of teeth and adherence is the first step in the colonization process. Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore the anti-biofilm effect of the various combinations of herbal extracts and essential oils against S. mutans which play a central role in causing dental caries. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula), Psidium guajava (P. guajava), Azadirachta indica (A. indica) and Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) were prepared separately and dried. Various combinations of herbal extracts, as well as essential oils Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Mentha piperita (Peppermint oil), were tested for anti-biofilm potential on the glass surface. The number of adhering bacteria (CFU/ml) was determined by the plate count method. Results: It was found that all extract combinations and essential oils have shown anti-biofilm activity. The 2:2:1:1 of extracts and 2:2 ratio of essential oils has shown less bacterial count compared to all other tested ratios. Furthermore the herbal extract ratio of 2:2:1:1 has shown significant ((P<0.01) anti-biofilm activity when compared to standard chlorhexidine mouthwash. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the active constituents present in the combined extracts could synergize the anti-biofilm activity owing to the reinforcement effect of constituents present in the combined mixture.
S. G. Krishna, K. A. Reddy, M. S. Kumar, G. Ramu, B. U. Rajeswari and M. Kiranmai *
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, St Pauls College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
15 April 2019
29 July 2019
17 August 2019
01 January 2020