EVALUATION OF PHARMACOPOEIAL STANDARDS WITH REFERENCE TO AFTIMOON- WHOLE PLANT (CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.)HTML Full Text
EVALUATION OF PHARMACOPOEIAL STANDARDS WITH REFERENCE TO AFTIMOON- WHOLE PLANT (CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.)
Rampratap Meena*, A. K. Meena , S. Mageswari , D. Ramaswamy and S. Ahmed Khan
Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine , Royapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
National Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Research , Patiala, Punjab., India
Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine , Janakpuri, New Delhi, India
The herbal single drug Aftimoon is botanically called as Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (whole plant). In the recent past tremendous attempts are being made to evaluate the scientific standards for Traditional System of Medicine, particularly in Unani System of Medicine. The Physician of Unani System of Medicine has considered this drug as one of the important single drugs and this drug has been used extensively in the preparation of Unani Compound Formulations such as Itrifal-e-Aftimoon, Itrifal-e-Ustukhudus, Itrifal-e-Deedan, Itrifal-e-Ghudadi, Itrifal-e-Mushil, Majoon-e-Ushba and Sufoof-e-Chobchini etc., This drug is therapeutically useful in the treatment of insanity, melancholia, melanous, epilepsy, numpness, paralysis, facial palsy, arthritis, worm infestation, jaundice and in the weakness of liver, stomach and spleen. As per the action the drug is very effective in cathartic to black bile and phlegm, demulcent, resolvent, carminative and antihelmintic. In order to authenticate and to develop its pharmacopoeial standards WHO guidelines were followed provided by CCRUM, New Delhi. For the Evaluation of Pharmacopoeial standards Pharmacognostical and Phyto-chemical parameters were adopted. The Thin Layer Chromatographic studies of petroleum ether (60 - 80°), chloroform and alcohol extract was also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug.
Aftimoon, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., Unani Compound, Itrifal-e-Aftimoon, Melanous, Thin Layer Chromatographic
INTRODUCTION: The herbal single drug Aftimoon (whole plant) is botanically called as Cuscuta reflexa Roxb 1. The plant is parasitic, common throughout in plains and growing abundantly during rainy season on various host plants in India. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is declared a noxious weed in many countries. The single drug Aftimoon is one of the important ingredients in the preparation of various Unani Compound Formulation such as Itrifal-e-Aftimoon, Itrifal-e-Ustukhudus, Itrifal-e-Deedan, Itrifal-e-Ghudadi, Itrifal-e-Mushil, Majoon-e-Ushba and Sufoof-e-Chobchini 2, 3 etc., the standardization of Herbal drugs and their bio-constituents are of paramount importance in justifying their acceptability using modern scientific methods. As the drug Aftimoon (Whole plant) is having many medicinal properties and therapeutic uses such as in the treatment of insanity, melancholia, melanous, epilepsy, numpness, paralysis, facial palsy, arthritis, worm infestation, jaundice and in the weakness of liver, stomach and spleen, it is necessary to maintain its quality and purity in the market place 4.
In order to prevent the adulteration, substitution, wrong identification and authentication and to fix the standards for Aftimoon (Whole plant), the modern Pharmacognostical and Phyto-chemical methods have been adopted 5, 6.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The drug Aftimoon (Whole plant) was procured from various places such as Chennai, Allahabad and New Delhi for the evaluation of Pharmacopoeial standards. The following methods have been used for the evaluation of Pharmacopoeial standards 7.
- Macroscopic study
- Microscopic study
- Powder microscopy
Physico-chemical methods 8, 9:
- Identity, Purity and Strength
- Qualitative test for Inorganic Compound
- Qualitative test for Heavy Metals
- Qualitative test for Organic Compounds
- Quantitative estimation for Organic Compounds
- Determination of pH values
- Thin Layer Chromatography
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Macroscopic: Dry, thread like stem pieces, brown in color; about 8mm in thickness; fruit capsule, small, globose or ovoid; seeds dark brown or black in color, spherical to ellipsoidal, less than 1mm thickness, no characteristic odor and taste.
Stem: T. S. of stem shows circular or slightly wavy outline; epidermis consisting of single layer of oblong thin walled parenchymatous cells; cortex consisting of wide region of parenchymatous cells; vascular system reduced to a central core of a few collateral, 4 or 5 bundles, around a central small pith region; phloem occurs in prominent patches on the outer part of each xylem strand
Fruit: T. S. of fruit shows an outer layer consisting of tangentially, narrowly oblong thin walled parenchyma cells with periclinal division at certain places; inner layer consisting of broad, barrel shaped cells with their inner tangential and radial walls very thick (‘U’ shaped).
Seeds: T. S. of seed triangular or rectangular; epidermis single layer consisting of thick walled radially elongated cells filled with aleurone grains; a thick echinate cuticle present; palisade consisting of single layer of broad, compact thin walled parenchyma cells; few layers of collapsed cells adhering to inner layer of palisade cells at certain places; endosperm present consisting of few layers of thin walled parenchyma cells filled with starch grains; embryo minute embedded in a mass of crushed or shrunken cotyledons.
FIG. 1: MACROSCOPIC OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB. WHOLE PLANT
FIG. 2: MICROSCOPIC OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB. WHOLE PLANT
Powder analysis: Brown, polygonal and oblong cells present, epidermal cells in surface view, vessels with spiral and annular thickening upto 110µ, fibers with simple and bordered pits of length upto 1100µ and breadth upto 30µ.
Phyto-chemical methods: The drug contains important chemical constituents such as dulcitol, luteolin, quercetin and a glycoside luteolin. Phyto-chemical data were carried out such as Identity, Purity and Strength; Qualitative test for Inorganic Compounds; Qualitative test for Organic Compounds; Quantitative estimation for Organic Compounds, Qualitative test for Heavy Metals; Determination of pH values and Thin Layer Chromatographic studies and the results are shown in Table 1-7.
TABLE 1: IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH PARAMETERS ANALYSIS
|Identity, Purity and Strength Parameters Analysis||Source|
|Acid insoluble ash||0.71%||0.24%||0.21%|
|Water soluble ash||3.61%||3.25%||3.71%|
TABLE 2: QUALITATIVE TEST FOR INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
|Qualitative test for Inorganic Compounds|
TABLE 3: QUALITATIVE TEST FOR HEAVY METALS
|Qualitative test for Heavy Metals|
TABLE 4: QUALITATIVE TEST FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
|Qualitative test for Organic Compounds|
TABLE 5: QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
|Name of the compound||Source|
TABLE 6: DETERMINATION OF pH VALUES
|Determination of pH values||Source|
|1% Aqueous solution||6.30||6.20||6.40|
|10% Aqueous solution||5.70||5.80||5.60|
TABLE 7: THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY
|Extracts||Solvent Systems||Rf values|
|254 nm||366 nm||Iodine vapour|
|Petroleum ether (60 - 80°)||Benzene: ethyl acetate
9 : 1
|Extracts||Solvent Systems||254 nm||366 nm||VS reagent|
|Chloroform||Toluene : ethyl acetate
5 : 1.5
0.28 Bluish green
0.12 Bluish green
|0.66 Sky blue
0.50 Sky blue
0.33 Sky blue
0.19 Sky blue
|Alcohol||Toluene : ethyl acetate
5 : 1.5
|-||0.65 Sky blue
0.37 Sky blue
CONCLUSION: The drug Aftimoon (Whole plant) is therapeutically useful in the weakness of the liver, stomach and spleen, this drug is also used for insanity, melancholia, epilepsy, numbness, paralysis, facial palsy, arthritis, worm infestation and jaundice. Using Pharmacognostical and Phyto-chemical methods other single drugs can also be standardized in order to authenticate and fix the standards for raw drugs.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We are very grateful to the Director, Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi for the encouragement and providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work.
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Rampratap Meena*, A. K. Meena, S. Mageswari, D. Ramaswamy and S. Ahmed Khan
Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Royapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
21 August, 2010
13 October, 2010
20 October, 2010
01 November, 2010