GLIAL CELLS RESPONSES: IN OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROMEAbstract
Drug addiction represents one of the major medical, social, and economic burdens of human behavior. Opioids are powerful relievers; use of opioids for the treatment of pain has been associated with the potential disadvantages including development of tolerance, dependence. There are seven stages involved in opioid addiction. Identification of glial-mediated mechanism inducing opioid side effects includes cytokine receptor, κ-opioid receptor, NMDA receptor and toll like receptor (TLR). Glial activation through TLR leading to the release of proinflammatory cytokines acting on neurons which is important in the complex syndrome of opioid dependence and withdrawal. Moreover, newer agents targeting these glial cell activation such as AV411, AV33, SLC022 and older agents for other diseases conditions such as minocyclline, pentoxifylline, all show varied but promising profiles for providing significant relief from opioid side effects.
Department of Pharmacology, Rayat and Bahra Institute of Phamacy, Sahauran, Kharar, District Mohali-140 104, Punjab, India
19 February, 2013
23 April, 2013
18 May, 2013
01 June, 2013