HECKEL AND KAWAKITA ANALYSES OF GRANULES OF THE CRUDE LEAVES EXTRACT OF VERNONIA GALAMENSIS PREPARED USING GELATIN AS BINDERAbstract
The powdered leaf of Vernonia galamensis (Asteraceae) is a herbal drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine in northern Nigeria. The crude aqueous extract of the leaves is deliquescent and usually stored in airtight desiccators. Efforts to use common diluents such as lactose, starch, and magnesium carbonate for tablet formulation of the extract produced tablets with defects such as “sticking” and “picking”. The purpose of this study was to use the Heckel and Kawakita equations to investigate the compressibility of the granules of the deliquescent crude extract of Vernonia galamensis prepared using gelatin a universally accepted pharmaceutical binder and selected efflorescent pharmaceutical diluents namely; Aerosil® 200, Avicel® PH 103 and calcium phosphate. The Kawakita model provided an excellent fit having higher R2 values than the Heckel model. The very low PK values of the Kawakita (indicating good fluidity) for all the different formulations made it preferable in explaining the compressibility of granules of the extract. The ranking for good compressibility based on the diluent type using gelatin as binder was as follows; calcium phosphate > aerosil® 200 > Avicel® PH 103.
M. Autamashih*, A. B. Isah, T. S. Allagh and M. A. Ibrahim
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
27 April, 2011
25 September, 2011
29 September, 2011
01 October, 2011