IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUMHTML Full Text
IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM
Aparna Debnath 1 and Mohammad Musarraf Hussain*2
Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University 1, Sonapur, Noakhali-3802, Bangladesh
Department of Pharmacy, Jagannath University 2, Dhaka-1100, Bangladesh
ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to observe the cytotoxic activities of methanolic crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum (Family: Lamiaceae). The leaves of Ocimum sanctum was extracted with organic solvent (methanol) and the extracts were fractionated by using solvent-solvent partition. The n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic crude extract of Ocimum sanctum were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent, vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the results of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it was well predicted that n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic crude extracts possess cytotoxic principles (LC50 4.36 mg/mL, LC50 5.37 mg/mL and LC50 10.00 mg/mL respectively) comparison with positive control, vincristine sulphate (LC50 0.563 mg/mL).
Ocimum sanctum, Lamiaceae
Leaves, Methanolic crude extracts
INTRODUCTION: Ocimum sanctum (Local name: Tulsi, Family: Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant which is native throughout the world tropics and widespread as a cultivated plant and an escaped weed. It is an erect, much branched subshrub 30-60 cm tall with hairy stems and simple opposite green leaves that are strongly scented. Leaves have petioles, and are ovate, up to 5 cm long, usually slightly toothed and flowers are purplish in elongate racemes in close whorls 1.
Ocimum sanctum has been used as a potent traditional medicinal agent in the antifungal 2, acetylcholin-esterage and improve cognition condition 3, immuno-modulatory 4, 13, antiplasmodial 5, 25, radioprotective 6, 14, antidiabetic 7, 15, genoprotective 8, hepatoprotective 9, ameliorative 10, larvicidal 18, antioxidant 19, 20, 22, antityrosinase activity 20, reproductive 21, lipid lowering 22, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective 23 and anti-dengue activity 24.
METHODS AND MATERIAL:
Collection and identification of the plant: Plant sample of Ocimum sanctum was collected from Noakhali Science and Technology University campus in January 2010 and selected for cytotoxic activities.
Plant material preparation: The leaves of the plant were collected in fresh condition. It was sun-dried to make it suitable for grinding purpose. The coarse powder was then stored in air-tight container with marking for identification and kept in cool, dark and dry place for future use.
Extraction of plant material: The powdered leaves (700 g) were soaked in methanol (2.8 L) in May, 2010 in a desicator, through occasional shaking and stirring for 25 days. The extract was then filtered through filter-cloth. The filtrate was kept to dry in fresh and clean air to afford a greenish mass of methanolic crude extarct. The methanolic crude extract was fractionate according to Modified Kupchan partitioning method (figure 2) into n-hexane (0.04 g), ethyl acetate (0.6 g) and chloroform (0.06) soluble fractions.
FIGURE 1: SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM
FIGURE 2: SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A MODIFIED KUPCHAN PARTITIONING METHOD
RESULT AND DISCUSSION: The Brine Shrimp test (BST) represents a rapid, inexpensive and simple bioassay for testing cytotoxic and anti-tumor properties of plant extracts 11. Following the procedure of Meyer 12 and Persoone 17, the cytotoxic effects of the methanolic crude extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions) were determined and the LC50 values of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions found to be 4.365 mg/mL 5.370 mg/mL and 10.00 mg/mL respectively (Table 1) compared with positive control, vincristine sulphate (0.563 mg/mL). From the test it was observed that cytotoxic effects exhibited by the methanolic extract (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions). The effects of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform soluble fractions and vincristine sulphate on shrimp nauplii are shown in the table 2 and figure 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively.
TABLE 1: LC50 VALUES OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM
|Methanolic crude extracts (soluble fractions)||LC50 (mg/mL)||Regression equation||R2|
|n-hexane||4.365||y = 15.296x + 7.0786||0.5912|
|Ethyl acetate||5.370||y = 20.326x -4.3527||0.3728|
|Chloroform||10.00||y = 19.522x – 9.3501||0.3295|
|Vincristine sulphate (positive control)||0.563||y = 30.056x + 56.016||0.9168|
TABLE 2: EFFECT OF N-HEXANE, ETHYL ACETATE, CHLOROFORM SOLUBLE FRACTIONS AND VINCRISTINE SULPHATE ON BRINE SHRIMP NAUPLII
|Log C||Mortality(%)||LC50 (mg/mL)||Vincristine sulphate|
|Log C||Mortality (%)||LC50
|n-hexane||Ethyl acetate||Chloroform(CF)||n-hexane||Ethyl acetate||CF|
FIGURE 3: EFFECT OF N-HEXANE SOLUBLE FRACTION ON BRINE SHRIMP NAUPLII
FIGURE 4: EFFECT OF ETHYL ACETATE SOLUBLE FRACTION ON BRINE SHRIMP NAUPLII
FIGURE 5: EFFECT OF CHLOROFORM SOLUBLE FRACTION ON BRINE SHRIMP NAUPLII
FIGURE 6: EFFECT OF VINCRISTINE SULPHATE ON BRINE SHRIMP NAUPLII
CONCLUSION: The present research indicates that the crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum has got intense in-vitro cytotoxic effect and may have potential use in traditional medicine.
- Abdul Gani, Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh: Chemical Constituents and Uses, 1st edition, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 1998.
- Balakumar S, Rajan S, Thirunalasundari T, Jeeva S, AbdulAntifungal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) on clinically isolated dermatophytic fungi, Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011, 4(8), 654-7.
- Giridharan VV, Thandavarayan RA, Mani V, Ashok Dundapa T, Watanabe K, Konishi T, Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia, J Med Food. 2011, 14(9), 912-9.
- Govinda HV, Asdaq SM., Immunomodulatory Potential of Methanol Extract of Aegle marmelos in Animals, Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011,73(2), 235-40.
- Inbaneson SJ, Sundaram R, Suganthi P, In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of traditional medicinal plant Ocimum species against Plasmodium falciparum, Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012, 5(2):103-6.
- Joseph LJ, Bhartiya US, Raut YS, Hawaldar RW, Nayak Y, Pawar YP, Jambhekar NA, Rajan MG, Radioprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum and amifostine on the salivary gland of rats after therapeutic radioiodine exposure, Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2011, 26(6), 737-43.
- Khan V, Najmi AK, Akhtar M, Aqil M, Mujeeb M, Pillai KK., A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential, 2012,4(1), 27-42.
- Khanna A, Shukla P, Tabassum S, Role of Ocimum sanctum as a Genoprotective Agent on Chlorpyrifos-Induced Genotoxicity, Toxicol Int. 2011, 18(1), 9-13.
- Lahon K, Das S, Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats, Pharmacognosy Res. 2011, 3(1), 13-8.
- Mahaprabhu R, Bhandarkar AG, Jangir BL, Rahangadale SP, Kurkure NV, Ameliorative effect of Ocimum sanctum on meloxicam induced toxicity in wistar rats, Toxicol Int. 2011,18(2), 130-6.
- McLughilin JL, Rogers LL. 1998. The use of Biologicalassays to evaluate botanicals. Drug Information J. 32:513-524.
- Meyer, B. N, Ferringni, N, R., Puam, J, E., Lacobsen, L, B., Nichols, D.E. and McLaughlin, J. L.; Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active constituents, Planta Medica. 1982, 45, 31-32.
- Mondal S, Varma S, Bamola VD, Naik SN, Mirdha BR, Padhi MM, Mehta N, Mahapatra SC, Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers, J Ethnopharmacology, 2011, 136(3), 452-6.
- Monga J, Sharma M, Tailor N, Ganesh N, Antimelanoma and radioprotective activity of alcoholic aqueous extract of different species of Ocimum in C(57)BL mice, Pharm Biol.2011,49(4), 428-36.
- Muralikrishnan G, Pillai SK, Shakeel F, Protective effects of Ocimum sanctum on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats, Nat Prod Res. 2012, 26(5), 474-8.
- Patil R, Patil R, Ahirwar B, Ahirwar D, Isolation and characterization of anti-diabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) from Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part, Asian Pac J Trop Med.2011, 4(4), 278-82.
- Persoone G. 1980. Proceeding of the InternationalSymposium on brine shrimp, Artemia salina, Vol. 1-3,Universa Press, Witteren, Belgium.
- Rajamma AJ, Dubey S, Sateesha SB, Tiwari SN, Ghosh SK, Comparative larvicidal activity of different species of Ocimum against Culex quinquefasciatus, Nat Prod Res. 2011 , 25(20), 1916-22.
- Ramesh B, Satakopan VN, Antioxidant Activities of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ocimum sanctum Against Cadmium Induced Toxicity in Rats, Indian J Clin Biochem. 2010, 25(3), 307-10.
- Saeio K, Chaiyana W, Okonogi S, Antityrosinase and antioxidant activities of essential oils of edible Thai plants, Drug Discov Ther. 2011, 5(3):144-9.
- Sethi J, Yadav M, Sood S, Dahiya K, Singh V, Effect of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits, Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010, 1(4), 208-10.
- Suanarunsawat T, Ayutthaya WD, Songsak T, Thirawarapan S, Poungshompoo S, Lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities of aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet, Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2011, 96, 20-25.
- Suanarunsawat T, Boonnak T, Na Ayutthaya WD, Thirawarapan S, Anti-hyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil in rats fed a high fat diet, J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.2010, 21(4), 387-400.
- Tang LI, Ling AP, Koh RY, Chye SM, Voon KG, Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants, BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012, 12:3.
- Venkatesalu V, Gopalan N, Pillai CR, Singh V, Chandrasekaran M, Senthilkumar A, Chandramouli N, In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum, Parasitol Research, 2012, Jan 31.
How to cite this article:
Debnath A and Hussain MM: In vitro cytotoxic effect of Methanolic crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013; 4(3); 1159-1163.
Aparna Debnath and Mohammad Musarraf Hussain*
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100, Bangladesh
21 November, 2012
21 February, 2013
28 February, 2013
01 March, 2013