ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS FROM PATIENTS WITH DENTAL CARIES: EVALUATING THE ANTI-BACTERIAL EFFICACY OF THE AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PERIODONTITISAbstract
Periodontitis is a common infection occurring among a wide range of population globally. Streptococcus mutans is found to be the predominant pathogen responsible for dental caries. The present study concentrates on isolation and identification of the predominant pathogen from patients suffering from dental caries. The isolates were grown on various selective and differential media. Biochemical tests were performed to identify the pathogen. Further antibiogram assay was done to determine the sensitivity and resistance of the pathogen to several drugs. Aqueous, methanolic, and chloroform extracts of Azadirachta indica were prepared. The anti-bacterial efficacy and MIC of the extracts were evaluated. Samples were collected from 5 patients suffering from dental caries. From the morphological and biochemical observations, all the predominant isolates were found to be Streptococcus mutans. The isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline, Gentamycin, and Methicillin. Resistance was observed for erythromycin, Penicilin, Vancomycin, Rifampicin, and cephalothin. Methanolic extracts (15 mm) showed higher inhibitory zones than the water (13 mm) and chloroform (11 mm). The MIC of the aqueous extract was found to be 7 mg/ml, whereas MIC of the methanol and chloroform extracts was found to be 5 mg/ml and 8 mg/ml. Methanolic extracts had higher anti-bacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Therefore, it is confirmed that Azadirachta indica extracts can be used for the treatment of periodontitis.
Ponmurugan Karuppiah, K. P. Shamna, Muhammad Musthafa Poyil *, Kuppannan Gobianand and P. Sasikumar
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.
25 January 2021
03 May 2021
29 May 2021
01 December 2021