ISOLATION AND SCREENING OF CYANOBACTERIAL CULTURES FROM BILASPUR DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH: EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF BIO-ACTIVE METABOLITESAbstract
Metabolites from natural sources (microbes, plants, animals) have helped to double the human life span during the 20th century, combated pain and suffering, and revolutionized the practice of medicine. Microbes have provided compounds that have cured or reduced the effect of human diseases for 70 years. Microbial products include antibiotics against bacteria and fungi, antitumor drugs, immunosuppressants, enzyme inhibitors including hypocholesterolemics, anti-parasitic agents, bioherbicides, plant growth regulators, biopesticides and bioinsecticides. Cyanobacteria produce many compounds with activities such as neurotoxic, anti-proliferative, anticancer and anti-infective. These are Gram-negative photoautotrophic prokaryotes carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis. They are known as blue-green bacteria due to their production of C-phycocyanin, a blue green pigment used for photosynthesis. Their products have anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, immunomodulatory and protease-inhibition activities. The present study was performed in order to isolate and screen the cyanobacterial cultures for the metabolites of nutraceutical importance. The results showed the isolation of cyanobacterial cultures viz. Anabena sp and Cylindrospermum sp. The 75% populations of dominant isolates were of Anabena sp while 25% population isolated was of Cylindrospermum sp. The cultures were maintained in aseptic conditions at 25 ± 2 ºC and illumination at 4000 lux with a white continuous light and a regime of 16 h light / 8 h dark. The metabolites were extracted by the liquid broth cultures of above mentioned cyanobacterial cultures using a) ethyl acetate: chloroform (1:1 ratio) and b) pre chilled acetone. The crude extracts were collected and dried and further processed for GC-MS analysis. The results revealed the identification of cluster of fatty acids (C-1 to C-3). The results observed that, in crude extract of Anabena sp., C-3 fatty acid was found in 90% concentration while in crude extract of Cylindrospermum sp., C-2 fatty acid was found in 90% concentration. These fatty acids will be further processed for in-vitro antioxidant activities having nutraceutical significance.