NUTRITION STATUS AND MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF HYPERTENSION AMONG ADULTS IN TIGRAY, NORTH ETHIOPIA; A CASE CONTROL STUDYAbstract
Introduction: – The nutritionalstatusand health outcome of older persons in low-income countries including Ethiopia is inadequately documented. Logistical difficulties and the absence of simple, easy-to-handle assessment instruments and data-collection problems in this environment are evident. As a result, nutritional data for older adults are inadequate. The scanty, mainly hospital-based, data that are available are not comprehensive, and they fail to incorporate essential indicators of nutritional status. Objectives: – the aim of this study was to assess the nutrition status and major risk factors of hypertension among adults In Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: – A case control study design was used to assess the nutritional status and major risk factors of hypertension among adults in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study was conducted from Dec, 2010 to October, 2011. The study populations were both adult men and women (age >=40) residing in Tigray region. The study was conducted in three randomly selected hospitals. Sample size was calculated using Epi info statcalc, a structured questionnaire was used. The data was handled confidentially, and entered in to Epi info 2002 and exported to SPSS version 19 statistical program for analysis. Descriptive statistics and Binary logistic regression was run to test association. 95% confidence interval, p-value and OR was calculated and interpreted accordingly. Ethical clearance was obtained from CHS, Mekelle University. Result: – A total of 220 (110 cases and 110 controls) respondents (104 males and 116 females) had been enrolled in this study; the mean age of the respondents was 60.3 (SD 8.8), the mean body mass index (BMI) was 23, 49% 0f them were with no formal schooling and 77.3% were married and the life style and behavior of the respondents were also evaluated and 91% of them were non smokers, 39% had ever consumed alcoholic drinks such as beer, wine, etc. Furthermore, advanced statistical analysis was calculated to test whether there exist association between the socio-demographic variables and the presence of hypertension in the adults, and being a female was 0.14 times less likely to have hypertension, and being in the age range of 61-80 were 1.73 times likely to develop hypertension as compared with those between the age range of 40-60 with the OR of 0.14 (0.05, 0.35) and 1.73 (1.02, 2.95) respectively. Whether life style and behavior of the respondents have association with hypertension was calculated and it was observed that, those who do not take alcoholic beverages were 0.28 times less likely to have hypertension than those who take alcohol with OR of 0.28 (0.10, 0.74). Conclusion and recommendation: – The risk factors of hypertension and the nutritional status of adults in Tigray is an area for concern, as it constitutes a silent epidemic that is not matched with comparable level of awareness among policy makers or intervention by the health system. Considering the fact that there is only a limited pool of information on the burden of non communicable disease or their risk factors of adults in Tigray, an important input of this study would be to raise awareness about the problem among the population and policy makers so as to bring chronic diseases in general, and hypertension in particular, into the health research and policy agenda. Programs for the prevention and control of hypertension and their risk factors should be designed and implemented as a matter of urgency.
Alemayehu Bayray* and Haftu Berhe
Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Department of Nursing, Mekelle University, Ethiopia
19 July, 2012
01 September, 2012
30 October, 2012