PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF THE LEAF OF ANTIARIS TOXICARIA (FAMILY: MORACEAE)Abstract
Background: Antiaris toxicaria is a tree in the mulberry and fig family of Moraceae. The leaf is used to remedy various ailments but the preparation depends on individuals. There is a need to set a standard for its preparation that would ensure optimum therapeutic benefits. Medicinal plants are generally reputed as cheaper and safer alternatives to synthetic drugs but these are often adulterated with inferior materials thereby affecting the overall therapeutic advantage. Pharmacognostic studies on such medicinal plants are therefore necessary to set standards for the preparation of herbals. Materials and Methods: Macroscopic and microscopic studies, including anatomical sectioning, chemo-microscopic, fluorescent analysis, and numerical and quantitative leaf microscopy were evaluated according to standard and reported method. Results: The leaf is simple, lanceolate or oblong, alternate, with reticulate venation, acute apex and cuneate base. Types of calcium oxalate crystals found were rosettes and prisms. Stomata are anomocytic with epidermal cells radiating around the stoma. Leaf is isobilateral. It has cellulose, tannins (condensed), calcium carbonate, fats and fatty oils, proteins, lignin, starch. Numerical and quantitative features are within standard range. Conclusion: The diagnostic features established from this research are a useful guide for correct identity and quality assurance in the preparation of A. toxicaria leaf for curative purposes.
C. E. C. Ugwoke *, S. P. G. Anze, A. E. Nweze and C. V. Obisike
Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicines, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
15 November, 2016
30 April, 2017
16 May, 2017
01 June, 2017