PHYTOACTIVE AS CHELATORS OF IRON WITH THE POTENTIAL TO MITIGATE ITS SIDE EFFECTS AND ENHANCE IRON ABSORPTIONAbstract
Iron deficiency anaemia afflicts a large proportion of the human population, compromising productivity and quality of life. Iron supplements are widely prescribed for treating anaemia. However, poor compliance due to side effects, particularly gastrointestinal side effects, remain a hurdle in alleviating the problem, leading to unabated high prevalence. Thus, a fresh look at novel approaches to supplementation is essential. Iron toxicity is attributed to the Fenton Reaction and generation of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress. Several studies suggest that the FR and ROS caused by excess iron, results in chronic inflammation, leading to metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders. Iron chelates have been developed as treatment modalities to reduce free radical generation, reduce GI side effects, and enhance absorption. Classical Fe chelators, developed to counteract iron overload/ toxicity, cannot be used in IDA, due to severe side effects. In Ayurveda, iron formulations are prepared using phytomolecules that chelate iron and/or reduce OS. These phytomolecules are metabolized by the gut microbiota, which plays an important role in oxidative stress, release of inflammatory cytokines and GI side effects. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions of bio-active phytomolecules of Ayurvedic plants highlight their potential for reducing possible oxidant damage and side effects associated with iron supplementation. The present communication summarises the role of reactive oxygen species, potential of oxidant damage in causing side effects and microbial dysbiosis due to iron. Management of ‘Pandu’ an anaemia – like condition described in Ayurveda and use of selected medicinal phytoactives are reviewed.
Shobha A. Udipi *, Jayashree Joshi, Gurmeet Singh, Sujata Sawarkar, Aashish Phadke, Arati Prabhu, Neerja Rastogi and Ashok B. Vaidya
Hon Director Integrative Nutrition and Ayurceuticals, Kasturba Health Society-Medical Research Centre, Vile Parle(W), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
08 December 2021
17 January 2022
28 April 2022
01 August 2022