PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF DRAGON FRUIT HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS EXTRACTS AGAINST HUMAN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA CANCER (HEPG-2) CELLSAbstract
To investigate the phytoconstituents and anticancer potential followed by apoptotic studies of H. undatus fruit extracts on HepG-2 cells. Qualitative phytochemical profiling and anti-proliferation activity of Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Hexane, and Methanol extracts of dragon fruit pulp was carried out. Based on the results of anti-proliferation studies, methanol extract was taken further for apoptotic study by treating HepG-2 cells for nuclear staining using DAPI and GC-MS analysis to elucidate the presence of active compounds. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, anthocyanin, quinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, triterpenoids, phenols, acids, and steroids in aqueous fruit extract. Similarly, chloroform fruit extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, triterpenoids, phenols, and coumarins. Likewise, Ethyl acetate fruit extract had carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthocyanin, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, triterpenoids, acids, and steroids. In hexane fruit extract, carbohydrate, saponins, anthocyanin, quinones, phenols, and acids were present. But more phytocompouds such as carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthocyanin, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, triterpenoids, phenols, acids, and steroids were found in methanol fruit extract. A dose-dependent anti-proliferative assay revealed that the IC50 value was 112.43 µg/ml in aqueous extract, 99.13 µg/ml in chloroform extract, 102.68 µg/ml in ethyl acetate extract, 83.96 µg/ml in hexane extract, and 69.09 µg/ml in methanol extract at 24 h incubation. Methanol fruit extract of H. undatus showed intense fragments of a nucleus as signs of apoptosis by DAPI staining. GC-MS results revealed that 43 aromatic compounds are present in methanol extract, which may have polyphenolic compounds. This study in-toto pragmatically shows that methanol extracts of H. undatus have demonstrated promising anticancer properties against human liver cancer (HepG-2) cells.
K. Padmavathy, K. Sivakumari *, S. Karthika, S. Rajesh and K. Ashok
Department of Zoology, Presidency College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
12 May 2020
04 September 2020
15 September 2020
01 May 2021