RECENT BREAKTHROUGHS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF MICROBIAL PROTEASES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS: A REVIEWAbstract
Enzymes are biocatalysts that accelerate biotic reactions positively or negatively. Proteases are small types of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds. These proteases can be produced by microbes (fungi, bacteria, and viruses), plants, and animals. The catalytic site is only visible from the outside and is broadly dispersed on the surfaces of different cell types. Based on the position of the cleavage site in the putative substrate, these peptidases can be classified as endopeptidases or exopeptidases. These peptidases are used in a variety of industries, including laundry detergents, leather and fabric processing, food processing, baking, flesh tenderization, food additives, artificial sweetener synthesis, feed, cheese making and the dairy industry, soy sauce production, brewing and cereal processing, photography, environmental bioremediation, medical and pharmaceutical industries, plant pathology, nitrogen production, and so on. Proteases are classified based on physiological roles. Extracellular proteases breakdown down large proteins into smaller parts on the other hand, intracellular proteases helps in the regulation of metabolism.