TARGET BASED PHARMACOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR DRUG DEVELOPMENT AGAINST NOVEL CORONA VIRUS (COVID-19)Abstract
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has covered almost 185 countries worldwide, causing infection to 32, 50,000 people and the death of approximately 2, 30,000 people to date. World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared it a pandemic that seems to be unstoppable as no vaccine or drug is available as of now to kill the virus. Several research labs are trying to develop a vaccine against the virus as soon as possible. Several drugs, like a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have been shown to be beneficial in COVID-19 infected patients. In-silico experiments suggest that methylcobalamin and valproic acid can reduce virus titer and thereby reducing the severity of the infection. BCG vaccine may provide immunity against the infection of coronavirus. As there is a strong correlation between the immune system of the infected person and the virulence of coronavirus, any therapy which could help in boosting the immune system shall be of prime importance. Hence, the efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy has been tried in COVID-19 infection, thinking that the antibodies from convalescent plasma might suppress viremia. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors have been shown to be the entry point in human cells for COVID-19. RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the virus could be a potent target for inhibitor drug design and discovery against COVID-19. Recently, non-classical actions of vitamin D have been recognized. It affects upon cell proliferation and differentiation as well as immunologic functions resulting in an ability to maintain tolerance and to promote protective immunity. Zinc has been shown to affect multiple aspects of the immune system. Zinc has a significant role in the normal development and function of cells mediating innate immunity, neutrophils, and natural killer (NK) cells. The deficiency of zinc affects macrophages, phagocytosis, cytokine production, and intracellular killing. As there is a strong correlation between the immune system of the infected person and the virulence of coronavirus, any therapy which could help in boosting the immune system shall be of prime importance.
Q. Hoda *, A. Fatma, S. Pahwa and C. Gupta
Department of Pharmacy, Lloyd Institute of Management and Technology, Knowledge Park-II, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
03 May 2020
12 October 2020
19 October 2020
01 November 2020