THE ANTI-OXIDATIVE AND COGNITIVE PROPERTIES OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE RHIZOME ETHANOL EXTRACT AND ITS DICHLOROMETHANE AND N-HEXANE FRACTIONS AGAINST ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY IN SWISS MICEAbstract
Aluminium neurotoxicity is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, this multifactorial disorder, with neurodegeneration and dementia as hallmarks. Aluminium toxicity is due to imbalances between free radicals and antioxidants formation, leading to oxidative stress. However, protection against aluminium toxicity is yet to be fully realized. Therefore, this study investigated Zingiber officinale (ZO) neuroprotective potential against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss mice. Forty-eight animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) with treatment lasting three weeks: Group 1 (control) received 1 ml/kg of distilled water, while groups 2-8 respectively, received AlCl3 (100 mg/kg), donepezil (2.5 mg/kg), ZO ethanol extract (474 mg/kg, 949 mg/kg and 1,423 mg/kg), ZO dichloromethane extract (949 mg/kg), and ZO n-hexane extract (949 mg/kg). Morris water maze test was performed, and the mice were sacrificed. Brain homogenates were assayed for catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. AlCl3 treatment led to significantly (p<0.05) high escape latency and less latency in the hidden platform quadrant and reduced brain CAT and GPx levels compared with the control. The groups treated with Donepezil and ZO ethanol extract showed no difference (p>0.05) from the control, but with significantly (p<0.05) less escape latency and high brain CAT and GPx compared with the AlCl3 group. The ZO dichloromethane and n-hexane fractions didn’t show consistent actions. Conclusively, ZO ethanol extract improved cognitive activities and had anti-oxidant potentials. The 1,423 mg/kg ethanol extract showed the best results: the dichloromethane and n-hexane fractions didn’t show consistent results.
U. A. Inwang *, K. G. Davies, M. B. Ekong, C. P. Obasi, M. Onyebuenyi and A. R. Nwaji
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Nigeria.
24 June 2022
08 August 2022
01 September 2022
01 March 2023