Volume 10 (2019) - Issue 1, January
Nature gives numbers of drugs and possibly has all solutions for human diseases. Till date, nature provides a large number of clinically useful drugs. Ulcer and liver diseases are major increasing health problems. Now a day number of drugs are used for the treatment of peptic ulcer and hepatic diseases, but these drugs have various types of side effect such as incidences of relapse, and drug inter...
Background: In research, the analyst gets samples for separation ranging from a simple mixture of two or more synthetic drugs to complex ones obtained from biological, environmental or industrial processes. Chromatography has extensively used in such separations where component separation based upon their affinity towards stationary phase and mobile phase. 90% of the stationary phases available us...
When a high amplitude nanosecond electric field applied to a biological cell it disrupts the equilibrium of the phospholipid bilayer resulting in the permeability of the cell membrane to increase. This results in movement of extracellular material into the cell which otherwise cannot move inside the cell. This phenomenon is known as electroporation. In the initial years of research people concentr...
Psoriasis a kind of skin condition which is said to be a type of autoimmune disease making the epidermal layer of skin to deteriorate and cause severe itching, form plaques, red scaling, papules. It can be due to the genetic predisposition as the affected genes get involved in the control of the immune system. Psoriasis generally doesn’t have a specific site, it occurs anywhere on the body inclu...
The oral route is considered to be the most preferred route for administration of drugs for systemic effect, but the oral route is not suitable to the administration of drug for lower gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, this happened due to their release at upper GI tract (stomach, small intestine), which further minimizes the accessibility of drugs at the lower GI tract. To overcome this difficulty, ...
Hydrotherapy or hydropathy is nothing but external or internal use of any form of water (i.e., water, ice, steam) for health promotion or treatment of various diseases with varying temperatures, pressure, duration, and site of application. It is one of the well known naturopathic treatments used widely in ancient cultures including India, Egypt, China, and other Asian countries. Many studies were ...
VIRTUAL SCREENING OF SAPONIN DERIVATIVES TARGETING ENZYMES ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND CYTOCHROME P450 2E1
Saponin derivatives from Vietnamese ginseng are proven for their efficacies in modulating oxidative stress, but there had been no reports about the interaction between them and two enzymes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). eNOS and CYP2E1 are proposed to be attractive targets for the development of inhibitors against oxidative stress, a contributing factor...
Background: Actinodaphne hookeri Meissn. (Family Lauraceae), known as Pisa, is a moderate evergreen tree, found commonly in Chattisgarh, Western Ghats, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, Sikkim and North-Eastern parts of India. The leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes and urinary disorders. The leaves were also known to possess potent antioxidant activity. Objective: Aim o...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FUNGAL ENDOPHYTIC FRACTIONS OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURM. F.) WALL NEES. LEAVES IN PARACETAMOL AND ETHANOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY
The most widely used drug for analgesic and antipyretic is Paracetamol, but a change in dose at high-level yields to adverse reactions such as the toxic liver. The psychoactive compound present in alcoholic drinks is ethanol. Chronic alcohol consumption and various pathological conditions vary from basic intoxication to life-threatening pathological states. Endophytes are the microorganisms presen...
Quality by Design (QbD) refers to the achievement of certain predictable quality with a predetermined and desired specification. The current studies details QbD enable development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic method for estimation of Sofosbuvir. The factor screening studies were performed using 5-factor 8-run 2-level factorial design. Sys...
Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii grows in the west of Iran where local people consume the corm. It belongs to a saffron family (Iridaceae), which has shown several biological activities including cytotoxic and anti-angiogenesis properties. The corm (the nut and the surrounding fibers) and aerial parts of the species have shown anti-angiogenesis properties in HUV-EC-C cells previously; in the p...
EVALUATION OF MOI GUM IN THE FORMULATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS USING LOSARTAN POTASSIUM
Matrix tablets were developed using moi gum for investigating its suitability for the controlled release using losartan potassium as a model drug. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Lactose and dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) were used as channelling agents. In-vitro studies were performed in 0.1N hydrochloric acid for the first two hours and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for the next t...
MATHEMATICALLY DESIGNED BIOPROCESS FOR RELEASE OF VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS WITH PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS FROM WASTES GENERATED FROM SPICES INDUSTRIES
A mathematical model optimizing bio-physico-chemical pre-treatment of steam exploded Piper nigrum, and Syzygium aromaticum lignocellulosic biomass waste was developed. The model was developed using, RSM, involving central composite face-centered design (CCD) with six parameters, three levels and 40 runs, at 95% confidence level. Six parameters optimized were quantity of each enzyme (a) Cellulase (...
BIOACTIVE COMPOUND IN CURCUMA CAESIA (ROXB.) FROM BASTAR AND ITS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS BY HPLC, UV-VISIBLE, FT-IR, NMR, AND ESI-MS
The increasing failures of chemotherapeutics and antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microbes have led to the screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity. Thus, the present endeavour deals with the exploration of antibacterial efficacy of Curcuma caesia (Roxb.) (Family Zingiberaceae) against bacterial cultures procured from IMTECH, Chandigarh as a scr...
DNA BINDING AND CYTOTOXICITY STUDIES OF TERNARY COPPER(II) COMPLEXES CONTAINING HETEROCYCLIC BASES AND THIOUREA
This article describes the Cu(II) complexes including [Cu(phen)(L-val)TU)] 1 & [Cu(bpy)(L-val)TU)] 2 (phen = 1, 10-phenanthroline; bpy = 2,2’-bipyridyl, L-val = L-valine and TU = Thiourea). The complexes were synthesized by ligand substitution method and characterized by various physicochemical techniques. The intense UV band around 270 nm was due to n-π* transition. The binding behaviors o...
PREPARATION OF GASTRO RETENTIVE MUCOADHESIVE BEADS FOR ATORVASTATIN BY USING IONIC GELATION METHOD WITH DIVALENCE AND TRIVALENCE CURING AGENTS AND THEIR CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES
Atorvastatin alginate beads were prepared by ionic gelation method by using different curing agents and studied the different process variable like the effect of alginate concentration, the effect of rpm and curing agents on drug entrapment and to improve the bioavailability of the drug. The beads examined and qualified the all compatible studies. The amount of drug released in acidic medium was f...
IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY BY DESIGN APPROACH TO DEVELOP AND VALIDATE STABILITY INDICATING ASSAY METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SOFOSBUVIR AND LEDIPASVIR IN BULK DRUGS AND TABLET FORMULATION
This study developed a stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous estimation of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir of bulk drug and formulation by using a QbD approach. Literature survey reveals that there were very few analytical methods available for the simultaneous estimation of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir. An attempt was made to develop and validat...
CORRELATION OF VARIATION IN THE PERCENTAGE OF COMPOUNDS RESPONSIBLE FOR MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY IN CITRONELLA OIL OVER TIME WITH MOSQUITO REPELLENT EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL CITRONELLA OIL SAMPLES AND SPRAYS
The control of mosquitoes, which transmit deadly diseases, has become a significant public health concern globally. Protection against mosquito bites is an important part of preventing mosquito-borne diseases. Citronella oil extracted from two types of citronella grass Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Java type) and Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (Ceylon type) possess compounds responsible for mosqui...
A reliable, rapid, simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of strychnine in a polyherbal formulation prepared from Nux Vomica. Krimimudgara rasa, a herbal dosage form containing Strychnos nux vomica, Apium graveolens, Embellia ribes, Butea monosperma in combination. Separation of the strychnin...
SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF NOVEL α-CYANO-N-(4-HYDROXYPHENYL) CINNAMAMIDES FOR ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES: IN-SILICO PREDICTION OF DRUG LIKENESS PROPERTIES
A facile synthetic reaction has been used for the synthesis of novel compounds, substituted α-cyano-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) cinnamamides from α-cyano-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide. Their physical and spectral data characterized all the synthesized compounds. The title compounds were screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity in two different models which include scavenging of DPPH and nitric oxide f...
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT UTILIZATION TO DEVELOP AND VALIDATE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE FOR ESTIMATION OF SERTACONAZOLE NITRATE
A novel method of estimation and validation of Sertaconazole nitrate (SER) by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Ultra-violet detection was developed which had high potential in determining drug concentration with more precision and high accuracy. The process of elution was conducted using Phenomenex C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5.0 μm) using 0.01M monobasic sodium p...
VALIDATION FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF AZTREONAM IN SIMULATED LUNG FLUID BY UV SPECTROSCOPY METHOD
Aztreonam, a synthetic beta-lactam antibiotic is widely used for the treatment of infections in lungs, meninges, bladder, etc. Its potential use in the treatment of pneumonia and cystic fibrosis has been established. Recently FDA has approved Cayston® for inhalation therapy of Aztreonam in lungs infection. Many studies have been reported on the quantitative determination of Aztreonam by UV spectr...
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND LOSARTAN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
Fixed-dose combinations have several advantages comparing with a single drug and separate agents. For simple dosing regimens and their synergistic antihypertensive action, a combination of hydrochlorothiazide and losartan potassium is widely prescribed. In this study, an HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide and losartan in bulk and ph...
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF pH BASED CARBOPOL 934P IN-SITU HYDROGELS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HARMFUL BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
The purpose of the present study describes the preparation of pH based in-situ gel formulations were applied for the harmful bacterial infections by using carbopol 934P and HPMC derivatives. The simple procedure was adopted for preparing these formulations. To eliminate or reduced adverse systemic effects produce from bacterial conjunctivitis, topical route of administration, such as eye drops was...
Neuroprotection is utmost necessary due to the devastating neuronal injuries, including neurodegenerative disorders. N. sativa L. is called the Miracle herb due to its wide usage in traditional systems of medicine, especially Arabic. This plant has been studied for its therapeutic potential and found to possess a wide spectrum of activities, including anticancer and antioxidant properties. The pre...
ANTITUBERCULAR POTENTIAL OF DENDROPHTHOE FALCATE (L.) AND TRIDAX PROCUMBENS (L.) PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST H37Rv STAIN OF MYCOBACTERIA TUBERCULOSIS
The increasing incidence of MDR and XDR tuberculosis worldwide highlight the urgent need to search for newer anti-tuberculosis molecules. This research article presents a phytochemical study and antitubercular potential of methanol: water (MW), ethanol: water (EW) and dichloromethane: methanol (DM) of extracts of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.) and Tridax procumbens (L.) tested against of H37Rv Mycoba...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE, GUAIFENESIN, AND AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE BY RP-HPLC METHOD IN COMMERCIAL ORAL LIQUID DOSAGE FORM
Salbutamol is a bronchodilator, Guaifenesin is an expectorant and Ambroxol is a mucolytic. Combination of these drugs is used in the formulation of cough syrups. In the literature, there is no method reported for the simultaneous estimation of the drugs in oral liquid dosage form. Hence, the present work is aimed to develop reverse phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Salbutamol...
Nanoparticles speak to one of the appealing choices in the compelling treatment of tumor chemo-treatment. In the present work, definition, and improvement of a novel Cetuximab (MTX)- stacked biodegradable nanoparticles utilizing poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was done. Nanoparticles stacked with anticancer operators can effectively build sedate focus in malignancy tissues and furthermore a...
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SUPERPOROUS HYDROGELS AS GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ATENOLOL
Gastro-retentive drug delivery system can retain the drug in the gastric region for several hours which enhances drug release and improves bioavailability. Atenolol, an antihypertensive drug has a short half-life, limited bioavailability, highly unstable at basic pH and is extensively absorbed from the stomach. These features triggered the need for developing the gastro-retentive system. In the pr...
ASSESSMENT OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE WORKERS’ KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES ON UNCOMPLICATED MALARIA MANAGEMENT IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
Overcoming the scourge of malaria infection is possible when healthcare workers have good levels of understanding and attitudes towards the disease, which will influence their treatment practices. This study assessed healthcare workers’ levels of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in uncomplicated malaria treatment at primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Plateau state, Nigeria. The stud...
The objective of the study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Simarouba glauca in STZ induced diabetes in rats for type I diabetic mellitus. The leaves of Simarouba glauca were dried under shade and then powdered, and extracted with 90% methanol by reflux. Preliminary phytochemical studies and acute toxicity studies were also carried out on a methanolic extract of S...
ESTIMATION OF QUERCETIN CONTENT IN THREE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF EUPATORIUM BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY
Three different species of Eupatorium namely E. glandulosum, E. odoratum and E. triplinerve belongs to the family Asteraceae are selected for the analysis of quercetin content. Leaves are extracted with ethanol and water and used for the analysis of quercetin by HPTLC technique using the mobile phase containing toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid: methanol (5.5:4:1:0.5). Determination of quercetin...
This study aims to design resveratrol loaded microemulsion (ME) topical formulation for use in skin cancer. Encapsulation of resveratrol can improve its intrinsic solubility and enhance penetration into the skin for topical use as an alternative to injectables. Preformulation studies by DSC and FTIR confirmed the compatibility of chosen excipients with resveratrol. Resveratrol loaded microemulsion...
Osbeckia L. of Melastomataceae are unique flowering plants showing diversity in their habit and morphological features adapted to their habitats. Limited studies were recorded with the anatomy and morphology of high elevation species. The micromorphology and anatomy of vegetative and reproductive structures of seven species and three varieties of O. aspera, representing diverse habitats such as al...
The objective of this research was to develop a liquisolid (LS) formulation of dl-α tocopherol acetate with improved dissolution properties and evaluate its strength to excipient modifications as well as its stability. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was employed as carrier material and disintegrant respectively for preparing LS compacts. Colloidal silicon dioxi...
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of a methanolic extract of Porphyra vietnamensis in the TNBS model of intestinal inflammation in rats. Methods: The study included (i) Identification and quantification of Porphyra-334 in P. vietnamensis, (ii) investigation of the effect of methanolic extract on DNA cleavage induced by H2O2 UV-photolysis, (iii) 50...
EFFICIENT USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE TO DETOXIFY UPPER REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS TOXICITY THAT MAY LEAD TO INFERTILITY
This study aims at investigating the use of herbal medicine (F. vogelii) as a natural antioxidant to detoxify reproductive toxicity. Twenty-five (25) female Wistar rats used in this research were divided into five groups of five (5) rats per group. Group A served as negative control and received feed and water ad libitum. It also received formal saline. B and C served as the low (100 mg/kg) and hi...
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR COMBINATION OF AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND LEVOFLOXACIN HEMIHYDRATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB) and Levofloxacin hemihydrate (LVF) in combination were separated using Reverse-Phase - High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method. Mobile phase acetonitrile and 0.05 M potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.0 adjusted with sodium hydroxide solution) (50: 50, v/v) was selected for this chromatographic method. The separation was achieved in Zorba...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is an etiologic agent of the most life-threatening disease AIDS. HIV-1 protease (HIVP) is a key enzyme that performs an essential step in the life cycle of the virus. HIV-1 protease assembled as a dimer in the functional form and involved in cutting “polyprotein" into the proper protein-sized pieces. The two chains assemble to form a long tunnel cover...
Pharmaceutical industry and quality control laboratories needs of robust methods for analysis of drugs used in the treatment of life-threatening diseases such as hepatitis C. Using HPLC technique, a rapid, selective, precise and accurate method was developed and validated for the estimation of % drug release of Sofosbuvir in a pharmaceutical formulation. Stability indicating HPLC method was develo...
ANTI-MICROBIAL AND ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF AEGLE MARMELOS AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS OF THEIR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
In this study, we investigated anti-cancer and antimicrobial activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and their chemical profile characterized by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A. marmelos leaves were extracted with acetone, methanol, ethanol, and chloroform. Presence of phenolic compounds was identified in these extracts by qualitative analysis. All the extracts were subjec...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF BERRY EXTRACTS OF DIOSPYROS KAKI LINN. AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE MODEL
Currently, nutrition and health linkages focused on the emerging strategy of diet based regimen to combat various physiological threats including cardiovascular disorders, oxidative stress, diabetes mellitus, etc. Berry / Fruit part of Diospyros kaki Linn. was extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol consecutively and the obtained extracts were screened for hepatoprotective activity us...
Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases, usually known as cyclooxygenases (cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2), catalyze a key step in the formation of biologically effective prostaglandins. In recent times, a cyclooxygenase-1 variant protein, called cyclooxygenase-3 used to be found and characterized. COX-3 is studied recent along with significant margin for the formation of anti-inflammatory, an...
Ten herbal medicines, Four herb choornam (Trikatu, Hingwashtak, Triphala and sitopladi) and five herbal compounds - Kutajghan Vati, Gandhak Rasayan, Sarivadi Vati, Chanderprabha Vati, Shankh Vati were tested for levels of heavy metals (Lead, copper, cadmium, iron, chromium, manganese, nickel and zinc). Both herbal extracts and herbal formulations showed the presence of heavy metals. Concentrations...
A COMPARATIVE AND CORRELATIVE STUDY BETWEEN BLOOD AND SALIVARY GLUCOSE WITH BLOOD HbA1c IN TYPE 2 DIABETES
Diabetes is a non-communicable disease characterized by increased blood glucose. As regular monitoring of glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic individual’s blood causes psychological stress, development of a non-invasive technique to quantify glucose and HbA1c are essential. This study was carried out to compare and correlate the blood and salivary glucose and blood HbA1c l...
HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF BACOPA MONNIERI (L.) PENNELL IN GLYCOPHYTIC AND HALOPHYTIC CONDITIONS
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell (family Plantaginaceae) is an important therapeutic glycophytic plant used in the treatment of various ailments. It is found to grow even in brackish conditions. While surviving in such conditions, the plant evolves various adaptive mechanisms. The present study investigates the histological and morphological responses of Bacopa monnieri grown hydroponically under glyc...
PRE AND POST FORMULATION COMPATIBILITY STUDY OF DIACEREIN BASED ON ATR-FTIR STUDY FOR THE DESIGN OF TRANSFERSOMAL CARRIERS
The purpose of the study was to determine the compatibility of Diacerein (DCN) with various pharmaceutical excipients used in the formulation of ultra-deformable vesicles by using the thermo-analytical technique, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Assessment of possible incompatibility between the drug and different excipients is an important parameter...
EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS ON THE NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS IN COMPARISON WITH GLIBENCLAMIDE
Objective: To investigate the effects of ethanolic extracts of leaf and fruit of Trichosanthes dioica and leaf of Clitoria ternatea were studied on the altered non-enzymatic antioxidant system such as reduced glutathione (GSH), Vitamin E, C and A in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Methods: Male adult Wistar albino rats divided into eleven groups of six rats each were assigned to non-d...
IN-VITRO LOUSCIDAL AND ACARICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ALKALOID OF CALPURNIA AUREA EXTRACTS AGAINST LINOGNATHUS OVILLUS AND AMBLYOMMA VARIEGATUM
The study was designed to evaluate the louscidal, and acaricidal activities of alkaloids of Calpurnia aurea leaves extracts. Alkaloid of C. area leaves extract at concentrations of 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml were used for in-vitro adult immersion test of ticks and lice, which they were monitored for their mortality rates for 24 h. The activities of test substances were evaluated against...
Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contain many bioactive compounds and have some biological activities and beneficial health properties. This study aimed to screen phytochemicals of cranberry fruits from the different solvent, to estimate the total phenolic and flavonoid content of cranberry fruits and their antioxidant effect in-vitro by DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assa...
IMPACT OF BIOGAS AS PREDISPOSING FACTORS UPON BRONCHIAL ASTHMA (BA) AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISORDER (COPD) AMONG HOUSEWIVES
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of the modifiable risk factors like prolonged kitchen stay, dietary pattern, cooking methods in outpatient (Housewives) bronchial asthma (BA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). This prospective observational study was carried out in Pulmonary Medicine Department in a Multispecialty Tertiary Care Hospital in Kerala, India. A total of 126 [BA...
A STUDY OF SPECIALIZED TROCAR OF REMOVING CUFFED CATHETER AMONG PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM HEMODIALYSIS
Background: Permanent cuffed catheter (permcath) is a method used to access the veins in hemodialysis. In those patients with catheter exit indication, a small incision is made on the skin after feeling the cuff under the skin and catheter is removed after disconnecting its tissue-cuff connection. In this study, the whole connection between catheter cuff and tissue is disconnected using a new tool...
QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF SOLUBILITY AND SURFACE MICRO-HARDNESS OF ENAMEL ON EXPOSURE TO VARIOUS SOFT DRINKS – AN EX-VIVO STUDY
Objective: To evaluate and compare pH and titrable acidity (TA) of various commonly consumed commercially available soft drinks. To evaluate and compare the weight of enamel dissolution and surface micro-hardness of the tooth after exposure to commonly consumed commercially available soft drinks. Methods: 60 human enamel specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups: Group 1: Kinley water (control...