Volume 13 (2022) - Issue 2, February
A REVIEW ON SUSCEPTIBILITY OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS TOWARDS COVID-19: LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION FOR BETTERMENT AND CONTROL
Hypertension is a major global health challenge due to its prevalence and increased risk of cardiovascular disorder. Non-pharmacological intervention or lifestyle modification is a safer option to control blood pressure and shows effective results in regulating high blood pressure. In this review, we have described the pathophysiology of a hypertensive patient infected with severe acute respirator...
A REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS USED AGAINST COMMON NEURO-MUSCULO-SKELETAL DISORDERS IN KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA
Karnataka is a southern state of India with richer diversity of plants and nearly 20% of its land area occupied by forest. Geographically Karnataka state is divided into three major zones, Western Ghats (Sahyadri), Coastal region and the Eastern plains which harbor a diversity of medicinal plants that have been used in traditional medicine by tribes and various ethnic groups for their primary heal...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is generally known, is a unique type of virus (retrovirus). HIV is a slow virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a human condition in which the progressive failure of the immune system allows opportunistic infections and life-threatening cancers to spread. Retroviruses are a single positive susceptible RNA virus with a DNA mediator and binding par...
The term "Naturals are the safer" is quite trendy, but the incomplete knowledge of the natural herbs interaction may result in several allergies and unwanted effects that may even take life and sometimes be critical to a life-threatening extent. The responsibility of the FDA is to ensure that the safety and efficacy of the drug consumed by humans and veterinary should be worthful and should cause ...
Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an annual herb with a huge source of essential fatty acids, amino acids, vitamin E, organic acids, and cyanogenetic glycosides. Flax is primarily observed with antioxidative and cell rejuvenating properties. Due to the major ups and downs of lifestyle, metabolic syndrome is the most common terminology associated with humans. Metabolic syndrome is amplified by unhealth...
HIV is a pandemic disease that is rapidly spreading across the world. The current review's objective is to present how comprehensive various advanced anti-HIV drug delivery systems are. The use of a new drug delivery system helps in overcoming the challenges of dosage form growth, such as drug instability, insolubility, and restricted entrapment. Several delivery routes for ARV therapy have been i...
Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in all communities across the world. Today, depression is estimated to affect 350 million people. The World Mental Health Survey conducted in 17 countries found that, on average, about 1 in 20 people reported having an episode of depression in the previous year. Depressive disorders often start at a young ag...
Drugs have been controlled by the nasal route for remedial & therapeutic use since ancient times. Enthusiasm & importance for the basic impacts of drugs directed via the nasal route has developed to last decades. Intra-nasal drug organization provides an attractive substitute for achieving the important beneficial impacts of drugs virtually similar to the parenteral route, that may be impr...
Cubosomes are very stable nanoparticles, which consist of cavernous or honeycombed structures. Cubosomes are formed from some amphiphilic lipids and stabilized by a polymer. They are known as bicontinuous cubic phase liquid crystals. The bicontinuous word refers to the two continuous but non-intersecting aqueous regions by a lipid bilayer. Cubosomes are self-assembled liquid crystalline particles ...
Zolmitriptan is a selective serotonin receptor agonist of 1B and 1D receptors belonging to the triptan class. Zolmitriptan binds to the serotonin (5-HT) 1B receptors, receptor binding leads to inhibition of nociceptive transmission, constriction of cranial vessels, and reduction of vessel pulsation, thereby providing relief of migraine headaches, as Zolmitriptan holds great importance in migraine...
Rutin or quercetin-3-O-rutinose (C27H30O16) is an essential member of the flavonoid family, a classification of total components of plant phenolic compounds. Rutin is typically located in buck herb seeds. Broccoli fruits, especially citrus fruits, red apples, and berries and drinks such as beer, tea, and coffee. This bioflavonoid is accountable for imparting color and flavor to fruits and vegetabl...
The ubiquitous compound 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid, also known as ferulic acid, constitute. A bioactive ingredient of many food that may offer a potential therapeutic effects useful in the treatment of cancer, diabetes, lung and cardiovascular disease. It is also effective against the disorders relative to oxidative stress, including certain neurodegenerative diseases. Ferulic acid is widel...
Epilepsy is a disorder of episodic brain dysfunction characterized by recurrent unprovoked spontaneous seizures. Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder after stroke. Antiepileptic drug discovery in animal models starts with the assumption that the experimental seizure model mimics human seizure. The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requ...
In the recent advancement of the food and pharmaceutical industry, the encapsulation process has gained interest in the production of functional food and the sustained release of drugs to the target site. The designing and the fabrication of micro or nanocapsule has become the active field of research over the few decades. Encapsulation increases the shelf life of the bioactive materials, increase...
Liposome was derived from two Greek words “Lipos” meaning fat, and “Soma” meaning body. Liposome, where spherical-shaped vesicles consist of phospholipids and cholesterol vesicles which are under extensive investigation as drug carriers for improving the bioavailability and delivery of therapeutic agents. Due to innovative developments in liposome technology, numerous liposome-based drug d...
Perilla frutescens (Linn.) is an annual herbal medicinal, aromatic, vitamins-rich food and ornamental plant that belongs to the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is distributed throughout India, extending to China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. Perilla frutescens seeds, leaves and stems contain fixed oil which is useful edible oil. It is an alternative source of polyunsaturate...
Topical drug delivery is the conventional route of drug administration to the surface of the skin. Barrier present in the various layers of skin hinders the permeability of drug molecules, specifically large size of drug substance into the systemic circulation. A small-sized needle in micron range is found to be a promising approach to penetrate the uppermost layer of the skin i.e., epidermis to t...
Pollution and overgrowing populations cause many problems such as environmental degradation, climate change, disease, etc. Among all the problems, the disease is an important factor that may affect the normal day-to-day activities of human beings, and it may be fatal sometime. Hence many researchers, government and private sectors are involved in the process of formulating new drugs to the existin...
Cancer is a diverse category of diseases involving the growth of unchecked cells. Cancer cells uncontrollably divide and expand, creating malignant tumours that can invade surrounded parts of the body. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) consist solely of a carbon atom organized into a tubular form in a sequence of condensed benzene rings. These sheets are rolled at a particular and distinct angle and the pro...
COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ORPHAN DRUG REGULATIONS IN THE USA, EU, JAPAN, AND AUSTRALIA: POSSIBLE RECOMMENDATIONS TO SPECIFIC CHALLENGES
Orphan drugs are medicinal products intended to diagnose, prevent, or treat life-threatening or debilitating rare diseases. In some parts of the world, a rare disease is also addressed as an orphan disease due to its poor diagnosis mechanism, low prevalence, and limited treatment options. The United States, Japan, Australia, and the European Union have adopted policies promoting orphan drugs devel...
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNICA GRANATUM EXTRACT FOR THE TREATMENT OF RECURRENT APHTHOUS STOMATITIS
Recurrent aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is a painful ulcerous condition that was conservatively treated using topical corticosteroids, immuno-suppressants, thalidomide with some potential risks and reactions. Considering this, herbal extracts are found to be a better alternative with very minimum side effects. Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is one such flavonoid-containing food supplement with ...
Hoarding behavior is a normal phenomenon commonly observed in all corners of the world to prevent future scarcity of resources and overcome challenges of survival. Hoarding signs typically develop in childhood or early adolescence, which may become a serious disorder in the late phase of life. At present, hoarding disorder has been covered under the chapter of ‘Obsessive-Compulsive and Related D...
Although the human eye has multiple physical and chemical barriers to save itself from foreign materials, there are certain times when an attack on the ocular surface may lead to trauma and/or growth of microbial flora, which can be proved lethal if left untreated. However, certain allopathic treatments and therapies are available; still, there is an increased need for herbal medicines because the...
Marine environment is an exceptional storehouse of novel bioactive natural products that are mainly found in invertebrates such as sponges, arthropods, annelids, molluscs, etc. This diversity has been the source of unique chemical compounds. A large portion of these natural compounds has been extracted from marine invertebrates. Marine invertebrates are rich sources of bioactive compounds and thei...
Diabetes Mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder, is prevalent all over the world nowadays. As a result, it is estimated that it can become an epidemic in some parts of the world soon. The number of affected people could be as double as that of the currently affected patients till the next decade. In order to fulfill the increasing demands of newer, safer, and more effective medications for treatme...
VALIDATION STUDY FOR PARACETAMOL DETERMINATION IN LIQUID PRODUCTS (PARACEROL) USING RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used as an analytical quality control methodology to evaluate the paracetamol (PCT) quantity in a commercially available formulation in the pharmaceutical industry. The Raman Spectroscopy has been established for the validation and the quantification of PCT in a commercial product called Paracerol (Prc) Solution for I.V. Infusion containing 10.0 mg.mL-1 PCT. T...
Amantadine hydrochloride (1) is an antiviral drug currently used to treat certain influenza infections (type A). It is also used as an anti-dyskinetic agent to treat Parkinson’s disease. Several methods for the preparation of amantadine hydrochloride (1) were reported, these procedures started from adamantane (2), using procedure four reaction steps to obtain amantadine hydrochloride with an ove...
PREFORMULATION, FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND DRUG RELEASE STUDIES OF CLOPIDOGREL BISULPHATE FLOATING MICROBALLOONS
Multi particulate systems are of greater importance than the single unit dosage forms in oral drug delivery. Floating micro balloons are among the best methods to increase gastric retention among all the multi particulate drug delivery systems. They offer more reproducible drug absorption, reduce the risk of local irritation and improve the bioavailability of the drug. In the current research work...
The main objective presents research work to synthesize, characterization, and in-vivo evaluation of Pyridazine derivatives. To study the different synthesized derivatives by using different analytical parameters like IR, Mass, and NMR analysis. And also find out the antihypertensive activity. The studies on the hydralazine group drugs led to the synthesis of many Pyridazine derivatives with a wid...
Medicinal plants and their investigation towards the phytoconstituents is much interested in today’s research. The plant Achyranthes aspera Linn. is one of the most use full drugs in Siddha and Ayurvedha medicines for treating various diseases in different formulations. Here the aim of this study is to evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters and identify the phytoconstituents. A preliminary ph...
SCREENING OF NATURAL PIGMENTS FROM SEAWEED KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII AND ITS EFFICACY IN PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
This paper focused on research on seaweed contains good nutritional source of protein, carbohydrate, pigments, vitamins, and antioxidants and has low lipid content. The source of natural substances has considered more efficient bio-molecules in building immunity and improving resistance to cancer development, prevent infections were analyzed. Classical biochemical methods were applied for extracti...
Genistein is phytoestrogens that function on estrogen receptors through a receptor-dependent mechanism. Genistein is commonly used to alleviate menopause symptoms, lower breast cancer risk, protect against prostate problems, improve bone health and lower the risk of heart disease. This research aims to create Genistein oral tablets with a long release time. In a rotary tableting machine, tablets w...
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL 1, 2, 3-TRIAZOLE-CHALCONE HYBRIDS AS ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE AGENTS AGAINST HT29 COLON CANCER CELLS
Independent studies have shown that chalcones and 123 triazole exhibited cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we prepared a series of novel 1,2,3-triazole-chalcone hybrid compounds and evaluated the cytotoxic effect and probable mode of action in HT29 colon cancer cell line. Among the 10 evaluated compounds, compounds 4 (3-nitro) and 8 (3-chloro) were the only compou...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF QUINAPRIL EXTENDED-RELEASE TRILAYERED MATRIX TABLETS BY DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
Objective: The present research was focused on designing, formulate and evaluate the trilayer matrix tablets incorporated with quinapril for extending drug release. Methods: Quinapril trilayer matrix tablets were formulated using response surface methodology wherein initially 27 formulations (QF1-QF27) were designed for active layer from which one best formulation was chosen based on drug content,...
ISOLATION AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POTENTIAL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM ALBIZIA STIPULATA BARK
The present research effort was undertaken to isolate phytoconstituents from pharmacologically active extracts of stem bark of Albizia stipulata based on in-vitro pharmacological screening and their subsequent characterization. Methods: Crude extracts of bark of Albizia stipulata were prepared using various solvents such as methanol, hydro alcohol, and water. These extracts were screened for in-vi...
The water extract of Ocimum gratissimum, L Lamiaceae, used in traditional medicine and local food spice, was evaluated for its ocular effect using three ocular parameters, pupil diameter (PD), corneal reflex (CR) and pupillary light reflex (PLR). The phytochemical tests were performed on the pulverized leaves, which were used to ascertain the distribution pattern of some possible bioactive agents ...
IN-VITRO SENSITIVITY OF SALMONELLA TYPHI ISOLATES FROM POULTRY FARMS TO SELECTED BRANDS OF CIPROFLOXACIN ON THE GHANAIAN MARKET
Poultry products are a major source of animal protein in Ghana. However, disease outbreaks have constantly threatened increased poultry production in some regions of the country. The most common source of human salmonellosis is food of poultry origin. The evolution of resistant strains of Salmonella in natural environments and animal houses presents a serious public health concern. Fluoroquinolone...
ANTI-BACTERIAL EFFICACY OF PHYTO-SYNTHESIZED ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES USING MURRAYA PANICULATA L. LEAF EXTRACT
Human beings always tried to protect their body from pathogenic microbes, whereas these pathogens always mimic and mutate themselves to infect humans. Nanotechnology is new and upgrading itself as well as enhancing its applicability in pharmaceuticals. Due to their nano-size structure, property drastically changes from their parent elements. Nanoparticles are used widely in biomedical sciences. Fo...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PREGABALIN AND ETORICOXIB IN PHARMACEUTICAL TABLET DOSAGE FORM
A simple, precise, rapid, linear and economical RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Pregabalin and Etoricoxib in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. The determination was performed on Phenomenex C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, ID, 5µ) column at 30 ºC temperature using a mobile phase Acetonitrile: Water (55:45 %v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min was employed. The RP-HPL...
GREENER SYNTHESIS OF CUO NANOCRYSTALS USING RAMBUTAN NEPHELIUM LAPPACEUM L. PEEL EXTRACT AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATIONS
Green synthesis of copper oxide nanocrystals was carried out via hydroxide precipitation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of copper oxide nanocrystals was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis. XRD analysis confirms the calculated average crystallite size of hig...
DEVELOPMENT OF NATEGLINIDE MODIFIED RELEASE DOSAGE FORM USING ELEMENTARY OSMOTIC PUMP (EOP) AND PUSH-PULL OSMOTIC PUMP (PPOP) METHODS
Objective: The aim of the study was to develop osmotic tablets of nateglinide by two methods, namely elementary osmotic pump (EOP) and push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) method for controlled drug release. Methods: Initially, pre-compression parameters were studies for the tablet blend in both EOP and PPOP methods. The tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method in both methods. The prepared t...
PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF TWO AMARANTHACEAE PLANTS: ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN AND CHENOPODIUM ALBUM LINN
Antioxidants are renowned protective molecules that are significant in the management of many chronic diseases. They can support the free radical mechanism to quench the cellular stress to prevent oxidative damage and improve existing therapy by playing a vital role in protection through antioxidant activities. The family Amaranthaceae is a well-known family for various health benefits. The select...
The acute and sub-acute toxicity analysis of Siddha preparation MV kashayam was carried out with Wistar rats as per the guidelines 423 and 407of the Organization for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD), respectively. In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of MV kashayam (1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to the rats and monitored for 14 days. In the sub-acute ...
Croton membranaceus is a tropical plant that grows wildly in some West African countries. Though several parts of this plant are used for the treatment of diverse disease conditions, its root extracts are traditionally used mainly in Ghana for the management of prostate diseases. This present study aimed to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activities of the stem extracts of C. memb...
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of complexing the poorly water-soluble drug ibrutinib with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based nanosponges (NS), which offer advantages of improving dissolution rate and eventually oral bioavailability. Blank NS were fabricated by reacting β-CD with the cross-linker carbonyldiimidazole at different molar ratios (1:2, 1:4 and 1:8). The effect of formu...
PATTERN OF ANTIDEPRESSANT PRESCRIPTION IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM DEPRESSIVE DISORDER IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Background: Depression is becoming an important health problem worldwide because of its relatively high lifetime prevalence, significant disability, suffering, dysfunction, and economic burden caused by it. Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective to determine the prescribing pattern of antidepressant drugs in patients suffering from depression disorder in the psychiatric out...
DOSE APPROPRIATENESS AND ADJUSTMENT OF DRUGS IN CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF TELANGANA
Background: Dose appropriateness in Chronic Kidney Disease patients is crucial to avert toxicity since several drugs are eliminated through kidneys. The present study was taken up to identify the degree of appropriateness in the dosage regimen of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods: The study was a prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Nephrology...
PERSISTENCE OF CANDIDA AURIS ON ELEMENTS USED FOR PERSONAL PROTECTION (LATEX GLOVES AND DISPOSABLE GOWN)
Candida sp. is currently associated with nosocomial infection; in this study, we aimed to determine the persistence of Candida auris on inanimate surfaces. Two test surfaces (latex gloves and disposable gown) were inoculated with two strains of Candida auris (clinical Ca1 and environmental H005913). The initial concentration of the inoculum was 108 UFC / mL, sampling was performed by rubbing a ste...
DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF STABILITY INDICATING UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ASSESSMENT OF BILASTINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMULATION
The objective of the present work is to develop and standardize the UV-Spectrophotometric method for the assessment of Bilastine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. On account of not much work being reported on the drug Bilastine and also it is a new second-generation anti-histamine molecule. Hence it is necessary in this context to relook into the older methods and further research for new...
ESTIMATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES AND TOXICITY TO ARTEMIA SALINA L. OF SELECTED PLANTS OF FAMILY COMBRETACEAE: AN APPROACH FOR SCREENING OF HERBAL PREVENTIVE AGENTS
Objective: Combretaceae, a large family, includes more valuable species that are used against many diseases and disorders along with cancer therapy. Cancer is a very common lethal disease throughout the world. Keeping this in view, two species are Combretum roxburghii Spreng and Terminalia catappa L. selected for present studies to provide baseline data for future formulation. Methods: Phytochemic...
DNA BINDING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES WITH PREORGANIZED HEXADENTATE LIGAND
A new preorganized ligand, benzil bis [2-(2-amino-ethylamino) ethanol)] (H2BAE) has been synthesized and characterized for the first time. Copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes of H2BAE have been synthesized and characterized based on molar conductivity data IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy. The complexes are found to have general formula M(BAE)2 (where, M = Cu (II) and Co (II). IR spectral data indica...
RP-UPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF LEVOCETIRIZINE IN LEVOCETIRIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS
Current analytical research and experiments provide the development of a simple, sensitive, accurate, rapid, and stability indicative RP-UPLC method for estimation of Levocetirizine in Levocetirizine dihydrochloride tablets. This development was achieved using a Waters Acquity UPLC with BEH, C18 column of dimensions of 100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column at 0.3 mL/min flow rate and Acquity TUV detect...
IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFECT OF CAPPARIS DECIDUA (KAIR) ON TEGUMENT OF GASTROTHYLAX CRUMENIFER IN GOAT BY LIGHT MICROSCOPY
Paramphistomiasis is the major problems in the yield of goat and human health. This disease causes loss of life of goat, reduce meat and milk production. The medicinal plant Capparis decidua has been used in the treatment of asthma, cough and inflammation. This plant also shows anthelmintic activity. Live amphistome Gastrothylax crumenifer were collected from the rumen of the freshly slaughtered g...
Lupeol (I) is a naturally occurring triterpene that has been isolated from the stem bark of Crataeva nurvala in appreciable amount. Due to the presence of a single hydroxyl group and a large, apolar skeleton, lupeol acts as an amphiphile. The two possible sites for chemical modification present in lupeol are ring-A and isopropenyl side chain. We modified it in three naturally occurring analogous d...
Literature evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a key role that activates and propagates the neurodegenerative process associated with many neurological diseases. Different stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the endotoxin that activates the immune system to create neuroinflammation associated with neurodegeneration. The peak expression of different cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β &a...