Volume 2 (2011) - Issue 3, March
SOLID STATE CRYSTALLINITY, AMORPHOUS STATE, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS
Many drugs exist in crystalline solid form due to reasons of stability and ease of handling during the various stages of drug development. Crystalline solids can exist in the form of polymorphs, solvates or hydrates. Phase transitions such as polymorph inter-conversion, formation of hydrates, desolvation of solvates, and conversion of the crystalline to amorphous form may occur during various phar...
¬POST-STROKE DEPRESSION: PATHOLOGLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT STRATEGY
Post stroke depression is most commonly faced psychiatric challenge, causing severe disability. Post stroke depression (PSD) occurs in nearly one-third patients either during acute/chronic stroke period. It’s often under-diagnosed. A good diagnosis must be done within one month after stroke, based on self-reporting tools, followed by observer-rated interview. Mechanism is multifactorial, present...
PONGAMIA PINNATA: AN OVERVIEW
The word herb, as used in herbal medicine, is also known as botanical medicine or as Phytotherapy or Phytomedicine which means a plant or plant part is used to make medicine to assist in the healing process during illness and disease. So there are many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medicinal treatises for the cure of different diseases. It contains...
A REVIEW ON HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
A phytotherapeutic approach to modern drug development can provide many invaluable drugs from traditional medicinal plants. Search for pure phytochemicals as drugs is time consuming and expensive. Numerous plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of liver diseases. However, in most of the severe cases, the treatments are not satisfactory. Although experimental evaluations were...
ROUTINE BLEEDING TECHNIQUES IN LABORATORY RODENTS
Collecting blood from Lab animals is necessary for a wide variety of scientific studies, and there are a number of efficient methods available. It is important to remember that blood collection can stress the animals, and may have an impact on the outcome of research data. Potential adverse affects viz. Hypovolemic shock, anemia, stress, haemorrhage, bruising, thrombosis; infection at the site of...
HERBAL REMEDIES: A NEW ERA FOR PSORIASIS DISEASES
The objective of this study was to review and explore the top fifteen currently herbal remedies used and the historically used herbal remedies in the treatment of psoriasis. Psoriasis is undoubtedly distressing, affected individuals are typically otherwise healthy and thus well suited to thoughtful outpatient care. Recent advances in our understanding of psoriasis have provided parallel advances i...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A HPLC METHOD WITH UV DETECTOR FOR QUANTIFICATION OF GEMIFLOXACIN IN HUMAN PLASMA: APPLICATION TO BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY
A simple, sensitive, high throughput and specific HPLC method with UV detection was developed and validated to according to the FDA guideline for quantification of gemifloxacin in human plasma. The bioanalytical method consists of liquid-liquid extraction and quantification by UV detection. The analyte was separated isocratically on a Cyano column (250 X 4.6 mm, 5µ particle size) with a mobile ph...
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF CO-PROCESSED DILUENT CONTAINING MODIFIED STARCH AND DICALCIUM PHOSPHATE
The objective of present study was to develop a co-processed diluent consisting of physically modified starch and dicalcium phosphate and to assess its suitability in direct compression. Native starch was exposed to nitric acid under controlled conditions. Dicalcium phosphate was incorporated in the neutralized aqueous starch dispersion to prepare co-processed excipient. The modification did not c...
INFLUENCE OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION VIA COTYLEDONARY NODE IN CLITORIA TERNATEA L.
The present study was aimed to establish a protocol for multiple shoot induction via the culture of cotyledonary nodes of Clitoria ternatea L., procured from 15 days old aseptic seedlings. Seeds were germinated on MS basal medium supplemented with gibberellic acid (1.0 μM) within one week of inoculation. Cotyledonary node of Clitoria ternatea L. gave rise to multiple shoots (number of shoots vari...
INHIBITION OF SWARMING MOTILITY, BIOFILM FORMATION AND VIRULENCE FACTOR EXPRESSION OF URINARY PATHOGENS BY EUPHORBIA TRIGONA LATEX EXTRACTS
Euphorbia trigona latex has been used most effectively in the traditional Indian medicinal system of Ayurveda for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI). However, various organic and aqueous extracts of its latex were found not to possess any antimicrobial activity against several gram positive and gram negative organisms including Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (selected for...
DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE USING METHOCEL K100M CR POLYMER
In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of hydrophilic polymers on the release profile of drug from matrix system. Salbutamol sulphate, an anti-asthmatic agent, was used as a model drug to evaluate its release characteristics from different matrices. Matrix tablets of salbutamol sulphate were prepared by direct compression process using methocel K100M CR polymer. Rele...
ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY KORKUS IN MELGHAT FOREST AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS
Use of plants as a source of traditional healing systems around the world that utilize herbal remedies is an important source for the discovery of new antimicrobials against resistant strains of bacteria. Medicinal plants have been a major source of therapeutic agents in Korkus from Melghat since time immemorial. Incredible knowledge of phytomedicine is acquired in non-coded form by these tribals ...
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY FROM BARK EXTRACTS OF PTEROSPERMUM ACERIFOLIUM (L.) WILLD.
Although there are many studies on antimicrobial activities of different plants, there is no report on antibacterial activity of Pterospermum acerifolium (Sterculiaceae). Therefore, a microbiological study was conducted to detect antibacterial activity of P. acerifolium. Successive ethanolic extract of bark of P. acerifolium were fractionated with hexane, butanol, methanol and water. In vitro anti...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF RITONAVIR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
A simple, precise, specific and accurate reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Ritonavir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 100mm, 3.5 μm) column using a mixture of Buffer: Acetonitrile (50:50) as the mobile phase at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min. Linearity was observed in concentration range of 50-1...
HYPOLIPIDEMIC AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA (LINN.) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The study was undertaken to investigate the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of the different fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform) of methanolic extract of Momordica charantia. The different fractions of extract were administered intraperitoneally as a single dose of 150 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced diabetic rats and found to reduce blood lipid level (Total c...
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES
The traditional system of the medicine remains the major source of the health care. It is safe alternative, lesser cost and better tolerance and its complications. The major defense against free radical compounds found in medicinal plants is in the form of natural antioxidants. The present investigation is an attempt to assess the bioactivity of daily oral administration of methanolic extract of T...
PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND BACTERICIDAL POTENTIAL OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA STEM BARK
Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna stem bark samples (Apical bark, middle bark and Mature inner bark) was studied with respect to different pathogenic bacteria species Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoneae, Salmonella typhii, Proteus mirabilis and Micrococcus sp. The methanolic extract of apica...
DOUBLE LIPOSOMES MEDIATED DUAL THERAPY OF AIDS RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC FUNGAL INFECTIONS AND AIDS
To deliver zidovudine (AZT) to asialoglycoprotein receptors, drug-containing galactosylated liposomes were prepared. Simultaneously, miconazole nitrate (MCZ) was entrapped in the outer liposomal bilayer of double liposomes for the treatment of opportunistic fungal infections. Galactosylated liposomes were entrapped in double liposomes. The galactose binding Ricinus communis lectin was used for the...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PIOGLITAZONE AND GLIMEPIRIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
A simple reverse phase liquid Chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of Pioglitazone and Glimepiride in combination. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase of phosphate buffer (pH-4.5): Acetonitrile (45:55) v/v and using methanol as diluent. The column used was Inertsil ODS (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5μm) with flow rate of 1 ml...
BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIALS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LEAVES EXTRACTS STUDIED IN STZ INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels due to inability of the body cells to utilize glucose properly. Though drugs are plenty for the treatment of diabetes, none is found to be ideal due to undesirable side effects and diminution after prolonged use. Hence, search for novel drugs, especially from plant origin continues. Based on folkloric us...
ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (FAM: MENISPERMACEAE)
Tinospora cordifolia, belonging to the Menispermaceae family, has been investigated for isolation of its secondary metabolites and evaluation of biological activities with special emphasis to the antimicrobial screening and cytotoxic study. The crude methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia along with its Pet ether, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform soluble fractions were subjected to microbi...
HUMAN VAGINAL PATHOGEN INHIBITION STUDIES ON AQUEOUS, METHANOLIC AND SAPONINS EXTRACTS OF STEM BARKS OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA
The aqueous, methanolic and saponin extracts of Zizyphus mauritiana barks has been screened for antimicrobial activities against some human vaginal pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, streptococcus facecalis, klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter faecalis, Enterobacter faecium and Proteus mirabilis isolated from patient samples. Extracts were found to produce s...
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROCAPSULES OF VERAPAMIL
Mucoadhesive microcapsules of verapamil, a peripheral vasodilator, used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, have been prepared from sodium alginate, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose- K4M & E5LV, Carbopol 934P using 10% w/v calcium chloride solution by ionic gelation method. Drug : polymer ratio was 1:1 in all formulations and polymer mixtures employed were 1:1, ...
ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WHOLE PLANT OF NELUMBO NUCIFERA GAERTN.
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of methanolic extract of whole plant of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera were tested for antibacterial efficacy against three gram positive bacteria & three gram negative bacteria and antifungal activity against three fungal strains by disc diffusion method. In present study Cipro...
ASSESSMENT OF ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF CAESALPINIA DIGYNA ROTTLER ROOT EXTRACT IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
This study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic activity effect of repeated oral administration of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia digyna (Family: Leguminosae) in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, respectively. The effect of repeated oral administration of methanolic extract on serum lipid profile in diabetic rats was also examined. The doses, viz. 250 and 500mg/kg b...
FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERIC COATED TABLETS OF PREDNISOLONE AS A COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY
In the present investigation an attempt was made to prevent ulcerative colitis and to improve the patient compliance by developing enteric coated (EC) tablets of prednisolone and to reduce the side effects of anti inflammatory drugs in G.I.T. by developing conventional tablets of prednisolone by wet granulation technique and the prepared prednisolone based tablets were coated with different ratios...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSION OF OLANZEPINE
The poor dissolution rate of water-insoluble drugs is still a major problem conforming the pharmaceutical industry. The most common method for improving the solubility is by increasing the surface area of the drug through micronization. But, in practice the effect of micronization is often disappointing, especially when the drugs are encapsulated or tablet. It is generally recognized that low solu...
THE CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND PATTERN OF TREATMENT OF INOPERABLE ADVANCED NONSMALL CELL LUNG CANCER PATIENTS
Abstract: Lung cancer is leading cause of death due to malignancy. Non small cell lung cancer constitutes approximately 85% of all lung cancers. Despite advances in early detection of non small cell lung cancer, about 75%-80% patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease (Stage III & IV) and carries poor prognosis. Majority of these patients are not candidate for a surgical treatment. T...
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF OUGEINIA OOJEINENSIS (ROXB) HOCHR. BARK
Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb) Hochr, an ethanomedicinal plant of Western Ghats seen in deciduous forests. The bark is used to treat various ailments in folk medicine. There are no previous reports on pharmacognostical study on this plant. As a promising ethanomedicinal plant, systematic and detailed pharmacognostical studies were carried out. The present study focused on its macro and micro morpho...
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDIZATION, PHYSICO AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF NIGELLA SATIVA LINN. SEED
Context: Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae) is native to southwest Asia. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it has a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines. Objective: Pharmacognostic Standardization, Physico and Phytochemical Evaluation of the seeds of N. sativa were carried out to determine its macro-and microscopical characters and also s...