Volume 12 (2021) - Issue 5, May
REVIEW: AVAILABLE ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FIRST LINE, SECOND LINE ORAL AND NEWER ANTI-TB DRUGS
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. Presently, one-quarter of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. New infections occur in about 1% of the population each year. Tuberculosis is a major global health threat. There is a progressive increase in multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR). Multi drug resistance (MDR)-T...
Sulfonamides, sometimes called sulfa drugs, are the first drug that is largely employed and systematically essential for preventive and chemotherapeutic agents against various bacteria. Sulfonamides possess a wide range of pharmacological activities such as Oral hypoglycemic, antileprotic, anti-epileptic, anti-hypertensive, anti-bacterial, anti-protozoal, anti-fungal, antiretroviral, non-peptidic ...
Nano robotics is an emerging, advanced and multidisciplinary field that calls for scientific and technical expertise of medical, pharmaceutical, bio-medical, engineering as well as other applied and basic scientists. Nano robots differ from macro-world robots specifically in their Nano-sized constructs. Due to their small size and wide functional properties, nano robots have created exceptional pr...
A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON THE GENUS LEEA (FAMILY LEEACEAE) WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE INDIAN SPECIES
The genus Leea distributed majorly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Madagascar, belongs to the family Leeaceae. It comprises 36 species that are used worldwide for different medicinal purposes. In this decade, research interests in the genus Leea have grown in the fields of systematics, phylogenetic studies, analytical chemistry, identification and isolation of active metab...
Pharmaceutical chemistry is devoted to the discovery and development of new agents for treating diseases. Inorganic compound continues to be important in therapy, for example, as antacids, mineral supplements, and radiopharmaceuticals, but organic molecules with increasingly specific pharma-cological activities are clearly dominant. The five and six-membered heterocyclic nitrogen-containing system...
In recent years, Plants and herbal drugs obtaining from natural resources are again gaining importance throughout the world in maintaining the healthcare conditions of individuals. The regular use of natural sources and plant-derived products throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety, and efficacy. Adding to the natural scientific resources and knowledge, the t...
NEEDS OF EDUCATION ABOUT INFECTIOUS DISEASE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION (RTI) AND COVID 19
The present study reveals the importance of inclusion of knowledge regarding infectious diseases and their effect on the respiratory system in the school education system and in pharmacy courses. An integrative review of diseases that affect respiratory tract along with COVID 19. Family plays an important role to give protection from any kind of infectious diseases based on the achieved knowledge....
Objective: To evaluate the effect of some counterfeit anti-obesity drugs that are not licensed by the Ministry of Health. Materials and Methods: 100 male rats were divided into 10 groups. The first group received a normal diet for two months. The second group received a high-fat diet (HFD) for two months; the third group received HFD for one month then returned to a normal diet. The remaining seve...
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND DETAILED FLAVONOID PROFILING OF ALGERIAN YEW (TAXUS BACCATA L.) BY LC–ESI–MS/MS
According to recent studies, the antioxidant related properties of Taxus baccata L. needle extracts are remarkable making it a possible raw material for the pharmaceutical industry, hence requiring the identification of major bioactive compounds and the assessment of the antioxidant properties of the extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the individual flavonoids an...
Prednisolone (10mg/day) plus low dose Aspirin (80mg/day) improve the implantation rate in women with autoimmune condition who are undergoing in-vitro fertilization. A new, simple, precise, accurate, and validated simultaneous equation method (Vierordt´s Method) has been developed for simultaneous determination of Prednisolone and Aspirin in the synthetic mixture. The method was based on the measu...
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL GASTRORETENTIVE MULTIUNIT PARTICULATE SYSTEM AND COLON TARGETED TABLET IN CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF ANAEMIA
Malnutrition is a condition in which there is an imbalance in the proportion of essential nutrients that the body requires to stay healthy. The most prevalent form of malnutrition is micronutrient deficiency and of this iron deficiency anaemia is the most common type, affecting over 2 billion people worldwide. Micronutrients are a special class of vital ingredients that are required in minuscule q...
The main purpose of the current research work is to enhance solubility and dissolution of BCS Class II drug, Flurbiprofen using liquid-solid compact technology. Flurbiprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indicated for acute and chronic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and spondylytis. The rationale to select Flurbiprofen as the model drug is that it belongs to BCS Cla...
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLES OF FERROUS SULFIDE BY TWO DIFFERENT STARTING MATERIALS IN THE PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUID-CAPPING AGENT
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), a class of green and neoteric solvents, have attracted increasing interest over recent years as environmentally benign excellent alternatives to organic solvents in homogeneous and biphasic processes synthesis of several nanoparticles. A novel magnetically recoverable ionic liquid (1,1–Bis(3-Methylimidazolium-1-yl)methanechloride)-stabilized ferrous sulfid...
A simple stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method which is economic, selective, and precise for analysis of Sofosbuvir (SFB), both as a bulk drug and in formulations, was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. The method employed HPTLC precoated Merck TLC plates RP-18 F254 as the stationary phase while the solvent system prepared by mixing n-Hexane: Eth...
The biotransformation of different nitrile compounds into valuable acids was attempted using whole cells of nitrile hydrolyzing enzyme produced from a bacteria strain (BITSN007) isolated from sludge sample of Hot spring Surajkund, Jharkhand. Based on the biochemical characterization, the isolate producing nitrilase is predicted as Bacillus sp. The nitrilase production was observed as intracellular...
Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a secondary bile salt that is a major active constituent of Chinese traditional medicine, “Niuhuang” which is known to have immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Although data from the literature indicate possible immunomodulatory effects of Deoxycholic acid on the immune system, little has been reported regarding the mode of activity of DCA in modulating...
The present study aimed to examine the anti-hypertensive constituents present in Nardostachys jatamansi. Crude solvent extracts (dichloromethane; ethyl acetate; methanol, and water) of this plant rhizomes based on the difference in polarity were prepared and tested for inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed bioactive compounds such as alkaloids...
Forced degradation studies are a vital tool in pharmaceutical research and development to predict long-term stability. Stress studies should be performed in method development to know drug behavior but can also be performed with method validation for regulatory filling predict stability, and measure impurities. It is especially valuable when little data is free about potential degradation products...
The aim of the present study was to enhance the solubility of the poorly soluble drug Ranolazine. Solid dispersions were prepared using PVP K-30 and PEG 4000 & 6000 by melting, solvent evaporation using varying polymer ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4). The prepared formulations were characterized for saturation solubility, IR, PXRD, SEM. The aqueous solubility of Ranolazine was favored by the prese...
ANTIHYPERGLYCAEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CAPPARIS DECIDUA (FORSSK.) EDGEW. IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The present study evaluates the antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Capparis decidua (CDMtE) fruits in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50mg/kg body weight/) was injected intraperitoneally in rats to induce diabetes. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated with CDMtE (200 mg/kg body weight /day) for seven days. Biochemical analysis...
Traditional systems of medicine emphasize the importance of life-style, including dietary habits, for maintaining holistic health. Ayurveda recommends the use of fruits and vegetables in our diet for maintaining mental health. Chenopodium album is one such popular green vegetable. This plant is rich in phenolic compounds – compounds that are valued for their antioxidant activity and potential fo...
An alternative, economically viable, and laboratory-friendly synthetic method described for the preparation of Bimatoprost, an anti-glaucoma drug. Stereospecific synthesis of Bimatoprost has been achieved with commercially available (-) Corey lactone i.e., diol, as a starting material. To our delight, the replacement of the benzoyl (Bz) group with Tetrahydropyranyl ether (Thp) protection resulted ...
Antimicrobial activity of the various species of Cymbopogon plants like Cymbopogon citrates, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon schoenanthus against various pathogens like E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus species, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens were studied with the help ...
COMBINED MIXTURE DESIGN-DOE AND ION PAIR REAGENT: A SYNERGISTIC MODEL FOR THE SEPARATION OF MULTIPLE AMINO ACIDS IN RP-HPLC
The aim of the present study is to apply the Design of Experiments (DoE) to develop an assay method for the separation of amino acids by RP-HPLC. The method used in this study is the DoE Combined- Randomized method. Design of Experiments allows interpreting the results with better outcomes and enhanced understanding process. Ion pair reagent- Octane 1 Sulphonic acid sodium salt monohydrate of 0.01...
Blood parameters (Hb%, TLC, TLC, ESR, PCV, MCV and MCH) of the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) were investigated, exposed to different concentrations of lead [Group- A (control), (Group- B (0.5ppm), Group- C (1.0ppm) and Group- D (3.0 ppm)] during different time intervals (7, 14, 21 and 28 days). Haemoglobin values fell to the maximum (11.5%) from its control value (13.0%). TEC values were al...
EFFECT OF FEW INDIGENOUS PLANT EXTRACTS ON CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION WITH REFERENCE TO UROLITHIASIS
Preliminary screening study had employed to extract inhibitors of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization in-vitro from four plant species, namely Saraca asoca, Berginia ciliata, Boerhavia diffusa, and Crateva nurvala These plants were selected based on their frequent medicinal usage by folks. Plant material (150 g) used for this study was successively extracted with Soxhlet apparatus using the sol...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF LEAF AND FRUIT OF TRICHOSANTHESIS DIOICA ROXB.
Medicinal plants are considered to be the most important in the primary health care system of developing countries. The therapeutic properties of a plant depend upon the biochemical compounds present in the plant parts employed in the preparation of a medicine. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. is being used as popular Ayurveda and Siddha medicine used to treat various diseases. Objective: The objective ...
Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an herbaceous weed belonging to the family Portulacaceae. It has high nutritional value and possesses potent pharmacological actions such as analgesic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, bronchodilator, neuropharmacological, anti-diabetic, antioxidant and antihypertensive. It is listed in a World Health Organization database because of these man...
PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF DRAGON FRUIT HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS EXTRACTS AGAINST HUMAN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA CANCER (HEPG-2) CELLS
To investigate the phytoconstituents and anticancer potential followed by apoptotic studies of H. undatus fruit extracts on HepG-2 cells. Qualitative phytochemical profiling and anti-proliferation activity of Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Hexane, and Methanol extracts of dragon fruit pulp was carried out. Based on the results of anti-proliferation studies, methanol extract was taken further ...
IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST MEDIATED PATIENT COUNSELING IN DYS-LIPIDEMIA PATIENTS BY USING LIPID LOWERING AGENTS
Aim: To estimate the impact of clinical pharmacist mediated patient counseling in dyslipidemia patients in RIMS hospital, Kadapa. Objectives: To conduct a randomized study on patients. To categorize patients on demographic basis, comorbidities. To compare the lipid levels based on 20 mg and 40 mg doses of atorvastatin, the outcome based on lipid profile. Methodology: It is a prospective observatio...
TERATOGENICITY AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF NANOSYNTHESIZED JUSTICIA ADHATODA IN THE EMBRYOS OF DANIO RERIO
In the present study, Justicia adhatoda was used for synthesizing AgNPs and characterized using UV-visible, FTIR, XRD, and SEM analysis and checked for its teratogenic effect and bactericidal activity. UV–Vis spectra analysis revealed that the synthesized AgNPs had a peak around 434 nm, while XRD and SEM analysis showed that AgNPs have spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 22 to 29 nm. Fourie...
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CURCUMIN ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AGAINST CADMIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY IN HEART (AURICLES AND VENTRICLES) OF ALBINO MICE
Cadmium can cause various health problems even at low concentrations by inducing oxidative damage in tissues of organisms. Nowadays, the focus has been raised toward the use of herbal treatment against heavy metal toxicity. Hence, the present research work was aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against Cd-induced toxicity in the auricles and ventricles of the heart in albino mi...
The dry ginger rhizome was extracted with ethyl acetate, and gingerol content was enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed for the percentage of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol by HPLC. The acute toxicity was evaluated as per OECD guidelines 423. Ginger extract was fed at 2000 mg/kg body weight to overnight fasted female rats (8-10 weeks old; 160-180 g). Th...
The study evaluates the medicinal efficacy of Solanum capsicoides fruits as an antioxidant. Fruit extracts were prepared using acetone, ethanol, HCl, and water for the measurement of antioxidant potential by reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and CUPRAC assay and for the spectrophotometric determination of total phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content. Chemical profil...
SIMULTANEOUS HPTLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF GALLIC ACID, VANILLIC ACID AND SYRINGIC ACID IN AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE OF DATE FRUITS
Phoenix dactylifera is a medicinally important plant. Fruits are traditionally used for the nutritional purpose. Date seeds are the rich sources of phenolic acids which exhibits strong antioxidant property. HPTLC is a simple, versatile method and it provides visualization of separated constituents. The advantage of this method is this method requires a small amount of sample for analysis. The pres...
The Nilgiris District is one of the most botanized areas of Southern India. Asteraceae family is one of the largest families consisting of medicinal and aromatic plants in Nilgiris. The chemical compositions of Erigeron canadensis L. plant were investigated using Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract were matched by the Nati...
Globally, a vast number of people are affected by helminth parasites. The emergence of anthelmintic resistance has paved the way for new leads into potential anthelmintic agents, which may be alternatives to already existing ones. The mode of presentation of herbal medicines affects patient compliance. Traditionally, Cinnamomum zeylanicum is used in the management of helminth infestations. This st...
QUERCETIN DEVELOPS SENSITIVITY OF ADENOCARCINOMA CELLS TO RADIATION VIA LOWERING METASTASIS AND PROMOTING CASPASE-3 INDEPENDENT CELL DEATH
Quercetin (QCN) is a flavonoid available in fruits and vegetables, and it has shown several medicinal properties, including anticancer properties. However, the radiosensitizing properties of QCN on adenocarcinoma cells have not been greatly looked into yet. Thus in the present study, we investigate the effect QCN would have on the lung adenocarcinoma cell line NCI-H23 (H23) when QCN is combined wi...
MUCOADHESIVE BIO-FLEXY FILM OF PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA LOADED WITH PHENYTOIN FOR TRANSLABIAL DRUG DELIVERY
Translabial drug delivery system is an attractive approach for drug delivery system possess advantages as a bypass of the first-pass metabolism, prevent from digestive enzymes and rapid action of suitable drugs. The purpose of the current research work is to isolate the biopolymer from Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) and prepare mucoadhesive bio-flexy films loaded with Phenytoin. The isolated biop...
PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EX-VIVO HUMAN SKIN PERMEATION OF IBUPROFEN-SOLUPLUS POLYMERIC NANOMICELLES
Ibuprofen is a widely used non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Ibuprofen oral use is restricted by its potential gastric toxicity, which can be overcome utilizing alternative drug delivery routes. A novel micellar transdermal delivery of Ibuprofen was readily prepared herein using the solubility enhancing co-polymeric excipient polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene g...
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WHOLE PLANT OF MERREMIA TRIDENTATA ON MURINE MODELS
The present study aims to reveal the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic plant extracts of Merremia tridentata against murine models. The Wistar Albino rats of mixed sex were induced inflammation via injecting histamine and formalin. The anti-inflammatory effect of Merremia tridetata was compared with the presence of positive control, Indomethacin. The Paw volume of the control group (grou...
Objective: The current study has been conducted to analyze the potential of antioxidant activity found in two species of genus Urtica, i.e., Urtica dioica and Urtica urens. Methodology: The antioxidant analysis was performed on the crude extract of root, stem and leaves of both the plants, employing both non-enzymatic and enzymatic methods. For non-enzymatic antioxidant activity determination, met...
THE IMPACT OF CARCINOGENIC CHEMICAL USE AMONG CARDAMOM FARMERS AND THE PREVALENCE OF CANCER IN IDUKKI DISTRICT, KERALA
The prevalence of cancer is drastically increasing among cardamom farmers using chemical pesticides in Idukki district. The chemicals, mainly Organochlorine and organophosphates, result in various disease conditions. The main aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of cancer and other disease conditions among farmers and other people who were exposed to chemical pesticides. A community-base...
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR DETERMINATION OF PROCESS IMPURITIES AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS OF LEVOLEUCOVORIN CALCIUM FOR INJECTION
Levoleucovorin calcium contains amide and aldehyde groups which makes it vulnerable to degradation. Stability indicating method for determination of all seven process-related impurities and degradation impurities in Fusilev® 50 mg/mL injection was developed with the help of RP-HPLC. A Forced degradation study supports method development to ensure stability indicating conditions. Solutions of the ...
SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICALS, GC-MS BASED PHYTOCONSTITUENTS PROFILING AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICIENCY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF ANISOMELES MALABARICA
The present study aimed to determine the phytochemical components of the leaf extracts of A. malabarica, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and GC-MS analysis. The leaves extracts have folklore and traditional applications in India. The polar and non-polar solvents extracts such as methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane and water were used for various phytochemical analysis proved the exis...
The main aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate valacyclovir-loaded liposomes. A drug and excipient compatibility study was performed by FT-IR, and the study revealed that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. Liposomes are prepared by using two different methods, i.e., ether injection method and thin-film hydration method. Various formulations are prepared by varyi...
USE OF ATENOLOL AND OLMESARTAN AS AN ADD-ON THERAPY WITH CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS FOR HYPERTENSION
Background: Management of hypertension in hemodialysis patients was never the same in all and tends to involve a various classes of drugs with respect to their disease conditions, response to drug therapy, medication adherence, and many more. Atenolol and Olmesartan can be used as add-on therapy in managing hypertension with calcium channel blockers. Methodology: Blood pressure was monitored using...
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF D-PINITOL ISOLATED FROM AERIAL PARTS OF SOYBEAN PLANTS ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE AGAINST DOXORUBICIN INDUCED CYTO-TOXICITY IN MICE
The aim of this research was to examine the protective effect of D-Pinitol on haematological profile against Doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicityin mice. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent valuable in treating various cancers regardless of its toxicity to normal cells, including hematopoietic suppression. Oxidative stress and generation of reactive oxygen species appear to be the reason for Doxor...
Antimycotic activity of Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles prepared by the bio-safe method was evaluated for rot causing fungi. It was observed from the study that all the concentrations of nanoparticles brought about significant inhibition in the spore germination and mycelial growth of all the rot causing fungi. However, the highest inhibition in the germination of all the test fungi was observed at...
Angiogenesis is an inevitable process of tumour growth, invasion, and metastasis. Understanding the process of new blood vessel formation has gained prime importance recently, and anti-angiogenic therapy has now been considered as an important strategy for cancer therapy. Many bioactive compounds, especially of plant origin, have been explored for their anti-angiogenic potential. The present study...
A PRELIMINARY IN-SILICO ANALYSIS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM FLAVONOIDS, ORIENTIN AND VICENIN-1, AS POTENTIAL DRUGS AGAINST SARS-COV-2 INFECTION
The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causative agent of the Covid-19 pandemic. The major proteins of this virus, like covid main protease RNA dependent RNA polymerase, are being extensively studied with the hopes of finding an effective molecule that would bind to these proteins and lead to their inhibition. The inhibition of these critical viral proteins would hamper SARS-CoV-2 infection. With most of the...
GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM MUNTINGIA CALABURA FRUIT EXTRACT AND ITS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fruit extract has been gaining considerable attention as an eco-friendly approach in green chemistry. The present work reports the synthesis of Muntingia calabura silver nanoparticles (McAgNPs) by the addition of an appropriate amount of Muntingia calabura fruit extract to the aqueous AgNO3 solution under constant stirring at room temperature for 24 h. The a...