Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 10, October
THE DIELS-ALDER-REACTION WITH INVERSE-ELECTRON-DEMAND – A REVIEW OF AN EFFICIENT & ATTRACTIVE CLICK-REACTION CONCEPT
Here, we review the development of prospective image processing systems in molecular diagnostics and of pharmacologically active ingredients for patient-specific therapeutic approaches. These projects require not only high demands on quality, safety, and specificity but also, rapid, efficient and irreversible ligation routes during the synthesis of future pharmaceuticals. The Diels-Alder ligation ...
CHEMISTRY OF HYALURONIC ACID AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN DRUG DELIVERY STRATEGIES: A REVIEW
Hyaluronic acid is an important naturally occurring polysaccharide present in extracellular matrices. The network-forming, viscoelastic and the charge characteristics of hyaluronic acid are important to many biochemical functions of living tissues. Its involvement in many diseases such as cancer, arthritis and osteoporosis, and the fact that it has specific protein receptors present on the cell su...
ARE THE MELATONIN SUPPLEMENTS POTENTIAL TREATMENT OPTIONS? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Introduction: Melatonin is a neuro-hormone secreted from the pineal gland and involved in various regulatory activities in body. Ever-increasing use of melatonin supplements and enlarging research evidences make the authors undertook the review to arrive at a qualitative conclusion whether melatonin supplements can act as potential treatment options or not. Methodology: A comprehensive search w...
A REVIEW ON ANIMAL MODELS OF DEPRESSION
As described by the world health organization (WHO), depression is the most common and serious disorder leading to suicide. Numbers of synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of this fatal disease, but are associated with serious complications. A wide diversity of animal models has been used to examine antidepressant activity. These range from relatively simple models sensitive to acute tr...
SOURCE, PRODUCTION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PICEATANNOL: A REVIEW
Phenolic compounds are group of molecules which contain different families of secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites, are abundantly found in plants and are mostly categorized into two major groups: non-soluble compounds and soluble compounds. Stilbenes which come under the category of soluble compounds of phenolics are small molecules, ranges in their weight from ~200 to...
BENEFITS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS IN COSMETICS: A REVIEW
Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of sci...
HERBAL PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OVERVIEW: A NEW THERAPEUTIC APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT OF CARDIAC DISORDERS
Worldwide, cardiac disorders constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac disorders include high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, stroke etc. Increase in incidence of cardiac disorders is a manifestation of lifestyle changes. Although modern drugs are effective in preventing the cardiac disorders, their use is often limited because of their s...
HERB-DRUG INTERACTION: AN OVERVIEW
Plants have always provided an important source of medicines. They may be used by natives in folk medicine and later adopted by conventional western medicine as their efficacy was confirmed. Any pharmacological modification caused by herbal substances to another prescription medication (diagnostic, therapeutic or other action of a drug) in or on the body. An herb might increases or decreases the e...
INDIGOFERA ASPALATHOIDES VAHL EX. DC. (SIVANAR VEMBU): A PHYTO PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW
Since ancient times, herbal drugs are used in traditional system of medicine such as Siddha, Ayurvedaand Unani. The allopathic system of medicine adopted many medicinal plants to derive newer molecules for challenging diseases. The plant Indigofera aspalathoides which is well known as ‘Sivanar vembu’ is widely used for skin diseases. Phytochemical and Pharmacological researchers have screened ...
CURRENT STRATEGIES IN HERBAL DRUG DELIVERY FOR ARTHRITIS: AN OVERVIEW
Arthritis is still a challenge for medical research. Pharmaceutical research has resulted in several new approaches for treatment/management of arthritis including drugs like the biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Several disadvantages like serious side effects, high costs and requirement of parenteral administration still invite more research in this area to provide a conve...
ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALITY OF MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW
Cancer is a substantial world health threat, & a largest cause of death in peoples of various age groups and economic backgrounds. This dramatic increase in the global burden of cancer has spurred research and many pharmacological studies as an attempt to limit the progression of this disease. Painful, expensive chemotherapy by dietary supplements have come forth as a novel significant approac...
RECENT NOVEL ADVANDCEMENTS IN PELLET FORMULATION: A REVIEW
Pelletization can be defined as an agglomeration process that converts fine powders or particles of a bulk drug and excipients into small, free-flowing, more or less spherical units, called pellets. The size of the pellets is 0.5-2mm. Pellets have the free flowing capacity and have low porosity about 10%. Preparation methods include direct pelletizing,powder layering,Suspension or Solution layerin...
IMPORTANCE OF EMBELIA RIBES: AN UPDATE
Embelia ribes Burm F. is large scandent shrub, disturbed throughout India and belongs to the family Myrsinacae. It is commonly known as false black pepper or Vidanga. E. ribes grows in semi-evergreen and deciduous forests at an altitude of 1,500m found in central and lower Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh throughout India. Embelia ribes h...
HPLC-UV METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM MICRO-EMULSION DETERMINATION IN RAT PLASMA AND ITS APPLICATION TO ELUCIDATE PHARMACOKINETIC BEHAVIOR AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO RATS
A simple, rapid and validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for the quantification of atorvastatin Calcium microemulsions (ATC-MEs) in rat plasma was developed. The assay procedure involved chromatographic separation using a C-18 chromatographic column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm) and a mobile phase of methanol/water (containing 0.05 % glacial acetic aci...
SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOLTERODINE TARTARATE IN PURE FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION
A Simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of tolterodine tartrate (TOL) in bulk powder and in pharmaceutical preparation. This method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of TOL in methanol at 313 nm after excitation at 285 nm using 1 ml of phosphate buffer pH 6. All variables that affect fluorescence intensity such as ...
CHITOSAN-BASED INTRATUMORAL INJECTABLE NANOPARTICLES FOR GENE DELIVERY TO PANCREATIC CANCER CELLS
One of the obstacles to effective intratumoral gene delivery lies in low transfection efficiency of non-viral vectors. Thus, in this study we evaluate the application of Diethyl methyl chitosan (DEMC) in intratumoral gene delivery of pancreatic cancer. DEMC/ pEGFP nanoparticles are prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation. After nanoparticle characterization via atomic force microscopy (AFM), in i...
INDIAN NATURAL ZEOLITE CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF β-AMINOHETERONAPTHOL AND THEIR POTENT ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY
A highly resourceful, elegant, simple and green technique with exceptionally facile reaction conditions of one pot three component reaction was applied to synthesized series of novel mannich base having an array of biologically and pharmaceutically active novel heterocycles. The present protocol offered a valuable alternative to known methods and will find applications in the field of green synthe...
CHARACTERISATION OF FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES IN PHARMACOPOEIAL PREPARATION OF CISSUS VERTICILLATA (L) NICOLSON & C. E. JARVIS) USING HPLC-DAD AND HPLC-MS
According to Brazilian regulation, the registration of phytomedicines must inform the characterisation of, at least, one of their constituent. In order to contribute to this goal, a tincture of Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis prepared with ethanol 96oGL was investigated. This plant species is widely used due its hypoglycaemic properties, to control diabetes, and empirically to ...
FORMULATION AND IN VIVO EVALUATION OF VETERINARY CHLORPROMAZINE SOLUTIONS FOR INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION
The purpose of the study was to present the know-how of preparing intramuscular injection forms of chlorpromazine HCl (CPZ) solutions for use in veterinary medicine. Aqueous solutions of CPZ were prepared aseptically at concentrations of 10 or 25 mg/ml. The CPZ formulations were intended for veterinary use only. The concentrations of CPZ in the solutions were 1 or 2.5% which were formulated main...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATENOLOL AND NIFEDIPINE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
A simple, precise, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method has been developed for Simultaneous estimation of Atenolol and Nifedipine by employing second order UV derivative Spectrophotometric method in Water: ACN (60:40). The Second order derivative absorption at 245.63 nm (zero cross point of Nifedipine) was used for quantification of Atenolol and 218.7 nm (zero cross point of Atenolo...
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTY OF A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION CONTAINING ACHYRANTHES ASPERA AND PLECTRANTHUS AMBOENICUS
Research in complementary therapies and alternative medicines is increasing and formulating therapeutic medicines based on these findings has become the need of the hour. The present research aims to formulate and evaluate a polyherbal gel containing Achyranthes aspera and Plectranthus amboenicusextract. The formulation was designed by using alcoholic as well as aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspe...
FOSTERED ANTIARTHRITIC UPSHOT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. STEM BARK EXTRACT IN DIVERSELY INDUCED ARTHRITIS IN WISTAR RATS WITH PLAUSIBLE MECHANISM
The present research exertion was undertaken to evaluate the antiarthritic effect of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam stem bark. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation and antiarthritic activity was evaluated with turpentine oil, formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis. Other parameter like body weight and hematological estimation were carried out.The result ...
THE REAL-WORLD STUDY OF SHENMAI INJECTION AND ITS ADVERSE REACTIONS ASSOCIATED TO PATIENTS IN CHINESE HOSPITALS: A PROSPECTIVE RESEARCH
Shenmai injection (SMI) is the Traditional Chinese Medicine Injection (TCMI) prepared by Red Ginseng and Radix Ophiopogonis extract. The aim of this study is to reveal the real-word of SMI, to evaluate its use and its adverse reactions associated to patients.A prospective, observational combined nested case-control clinical research carried out in two tertiary care teaching hospitals and two secon...
PHARMACOGENOMIC STUDIES OF CHOLESTERYL ESTER TRANSFER PROTEIN (CETP) GENOTYPES IN SUSPECTED CAD PATIENTS
Recent studies have attempted to identify specific genes that contribute to cardiovascular health and disease. Response to various drugs like statins differs from individual to individual, due to polymorphic variations in drug metabolizing genes related to pharmacogenomics of the diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the association of Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene polym...
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PLANTS AT CHINNATIRUPATHI, SALEM, TAMIL NADU, INDIA
This study was carried out during March - April 2013. The fresh leaves collected were extracted with water and used for antioxidant assay. Nitric oxide scavenging activity, Reducing power assay, Metal chelating activity, Phosphomolybdenum activity was assayed and also secondary metabolites such as phenol, flavonoid was estimated. These metabolites play a major role in antioxidant activity. Here,...
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ANAGRELIDE IN CAPSULE DOSAGE FORMS
An accurate and precise high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative estimation of anagrelide in capsule dosage forms. Chromatographic separation of the drug was achieved on a Kromosil C18 column (150 x 4.6 mm; 5µ) by isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) and acetonitrile (75:25 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The drug i...
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS & ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CLINICAL PATHOGENS OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT ORCHID CYMBIDIUM ALOIFOLIUM (L.) SW.
Cymbidium aloifolium is a potent medicinal epiphytic orchid plant in the Indian systems of medicine. Traditionally this plant was used in the treatment of Anti-inflammatory, Paralysis, joining fractured bones, fever, weakness of eyes, chronic illness, burns, sores etc. In the present study three different solvent (Hexane, Chloroform, Methanol) extracts ofCymbidium aloifolium plant was studied for ...
DETERMINATION OF ANTI-TUBERCULAR ACTIVITY OF FOUR INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS BY BROTH MICRO DILUTION METHOD
Tuberculosis is one of the oldest killer diseases of mankind. It is an airborne communicable disease caused by transmission of aerosolized droplets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The increasing incidence of MDR- and XDR-TB worldwide highlighted the urgent need to search for newer anti-tuberculosis compounds/drugs.The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that approximately 80% of world populat...
EVALUATION OF HAEMATINIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION IN HgCl2 INDUCED ANAEMIA IN LABORATORY ANIMALS
Anaemia constitutes serious health problem in many countries. It is widespread public health problem, and the fourth leading cause of hospital admissions and the second factor contributing to death. Anaemia is characterized by low count of haemoglobin. The empirical use of herbal preparations in the treatment of anaemia dates from ancient times. Despite the obvious effectiveness and efficacy of ir...
IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOLANUM SISYMBRIFOLIUM AERIAL PARTS
Objective: Recently, natural plants have received much attention as sources of biological active substances including antioxidants. In the present study we investigated In-vitro antioxidant activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Solanum sisymbrifolium aerial parts. Methods: In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for extracts by using free radicals Superoxide (Riboflavin pho...
IN VITRO STUDIES OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE TABLET AND COMPARISON WITH FOREIGN BRAND LEADER IN NEPAL
The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of amlodipine besylate tablets. Tablets containing 5 mg of amlodipine besylate were prepared using Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) excipients. Preformulation studies were carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Dissolution studies were performed to a...
DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ATOVAQUONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A very simple and selective U. V. Method was developed and validated for the estimation of Atovaquone in pure form and the nanosuspension. The adequate drug solubility and maximum assay sensitivity was found in 8.00 Ph IPA Phosphate Buffer in 40:60 ratios v/v. The absorbances were measured at the λmax. of 494 nm in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm. The linear calibration range was found to be 2...
IDENTIFICATION OF NEW HIV-1 PROTEASE INHIBITORS BY MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION (MLR) AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTORS
In the present work in mathematical modeling, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed on some 5,6-dihydro-2-pyrones derivativesusing statistical work.Using only 4 topological and physico-chemical molecular descriptors, we have achieved 84.81% correct classification of the compounds with and without its activity.A heurisimatedtic algorithm selects the best multipl...
FORMULATION OF REGIOSELECTIVE FLOATING MATRIX TABLETS OF DEXTRO-METHORPHAN USING GAS FORMING TECHNIQUE AND EVALUATION
The present study deals with the formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of dextromethorphan. Dextromethorphan is a highly potent and commonly used antitussive agent. It has no narcotic, analgesic or addictive properties and its potency as an antitussive agent is almost equal to that of codeine. The purpose of this research is to increase the gastric residence time by prepar...
IN-SILICO ANALYSIS AND HOMOLOGY MODELING OF ANTIOXIDANT PROTEINS OF ORYZA SATIVA SUBSP. JAPONICA (RICE)
Rice is much revered oriental food and the most important tropical cereal crop. It is the staple food of about half the human race and is often the main source of calories and the principal food of many millions of people. Health benefits of rice include providing fast and instant energy, stabilizing blood sugar levels and providing essential source of vitamin B1 to human body. In this study...
IMPACT OF PEPTOSTREPTOCOCCUS ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS RELATED SECONDARY ROOT CANAL INFECTIONS
Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of Peptostreptococcus on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with secondary root canal infections by evaluating the prevalence of this bacterial species using culture and PCR technique and to correlate their association with specific endodontic signs and symptoms in Indian population. Materials and method: 88 subjects scheduled for root cana...
STANDARDIZATION OF ‘BHUNIMBADI CHURNA’ – AN AYURVEDIC POLYHERBAL FORMULATION
Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs for therapeutic value. The present work is an attempt to standardize ‘Bhunimbadi Churna’, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, used in fever and diabetics etc. The various parameters performed included organoleptic characteristics, physico-chemical parameter, physical characteristics of Churna, prelimina...
ADHATODA VASICA: EFFECT OF ADMINISTERING ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ADHATODA VASICA ON BLOOD COUNT AND SOD ENZYME ACTIVITY AGAINST EXPOSURE TO γ – RADIATIONS
In the present studies, antibacterial studies and medicinal effects of the ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica on the physiological variations including blood countvariations w.r.t. RBC, WBC, Hb and enzyme SOD activity of the subjects under study, Swiss Albino mice, on exposure to gamma radiations, have been evaluated. Phyto-chemical analysis of A. vasica showed the presence of alkaloids, sapon...
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF HYDROETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF GYMNEMA HIRSUTUM WIGHT & ARN IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The present study has investigated the hypoglycaemic effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of G. hirsutum Wight & Arn in normal and Streptozotocin–induced diabetic rats. Albino Wistar rats (190 to 220 gm) were induced diabetic condition by administration of Streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg bw) intraperitoneally. 50% ethanolic extract of G. hirsutum Wight & Arn l...
EFFECT OF XYLIA DOLABRIFORMIS LEAVES EXTRACT ON HIGH FRUCTOSE DIET INDUCED C57BL/6J OB/OB DIABETIC MICE
The objective of the present study was to investigate anti-diabetic and nephroprotective and cardioprotective activity of Xylia dolabriformis leaves extract, using High Fructoseinduced diabetic C57BL/6Job/ob mice as model for clinical type-2 diabetic. At a regular interval of an experimental protocol blood glucose, urinary creatinine, total proteins, insulin resistance, total β-cell count, LDL, H...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING SPECTRO-PHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RIZATRIPTAN BENZOATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A simple, accurate and rugged stability indicating UV Spectrophotometric method was developed using methanol as the solvent to determine Rizatriptan Benzoate content in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The UV Spectrophotometric method for Rizatriptan Benzoate was determined at λmax 278nm and the drug proved linear in the range of 10-80μg/ml, with a good correlation coefficient of 0.9997. Percentage ...
SYNTHESIS OF 2, 4, 5- TRIPHENYL IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION FOR THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY
On the basis of various literature survey, imidazole derivatives show various activity such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitubercular, anticancer etc. The possible improvements in the activity can be further achieved by slight modifications in the substituents on the basic imidazole nucleus. Having structural similarity with histidine imidazole compound can bind with protein m...
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ELEMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AYURVEDIC POWDERED FORMULATION: SHATAVARYADI CHURNA
Most of the traditional systems of medicines are effective but the need is just to validate them to assess the quality, quantity and purity of the drugs. To support the same a polyherbal Ayurvedic powdered formulation Shatavaryadi churna used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator was taken for pharmacognostical, physicochemical and elemental investigation. Shatavaryadi chur...