Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 1, January
PROTEINS AND PEPTIDES AS TARGETING CARRIERS IN ANTICANCER DRUG DELIVERY: A REVIEW
The treatment of cancer is limited by a number of factors including the low therapeutic index of most chemotherapeutic agents, the emergence of drug- and radiation-resistant tumor cells, tumor heterogeneity and the presence of metastatic disease. One of the means to improve the therapeutic index of drugs is by selective or ‘targeted’ delivery to tumor sites. Tumor-directed therapy has the pote...
ANIMAL MODELS OF CANCER: A REVIEW
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. In USA three persons out of five will develop some type of cancer. Beyond these statistics of mortality, the morbidity due to cancer presents a real scary picture. Last 50 years of research has rendered some types of cancer curable, but still the major fear factor associated with this disease is unchanged. Animal models are classified accordin...
MICRO-TAG: A NOVEL TECHNIQUE OF SECURITY IN PHARMACEUTICALS
According to FDA estimates about 10% of all drugs sold worldwide are counterfeit. Annual global trade in counterfeit goods is estimated to be $600 billion and growing. Counterfeit goods and drugs leads real threat to consumer safety as well as loss of companies brand value and profits. Till date, dosage authentication required forensic analysis in a laboratory which is a slow process involving app...
CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS: A REVIEW
Conformational analysis is an important step in molecular modeling as it is necessary to reduce time spent in screening of compounds for activity. Most drugs are flexible molecules with the ability to adopt different conformations by means of rotation about single bonds. Conformations play an important role in prediction of not just physico-chemical properties but also the biological activity of t...
COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW
Day by day there are new developments in field of colon specific drug delivery system. Colonic drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, etc. but also for the systemic delivery of proteins, therapeutic peptides, anti-asthmatic drugs, antihypertensive ...
A TECHNICAL NOTE ON GRANULATION TECHNOLOGY: A WAY TO OPTIMISE GRANULES
To provide an updated technical note on granulation technology (GT), mostly on novel GT, that will help researcher working/engaged in designing an efficient GT for getting granules with desired features. Granules were most widely used in the production of pharmaceutical oral dosage forms. Advancement in GT had revolutionized the sphere and resulted in development of several processes. Each and eve...
CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS: A REVIEW
Low solubility compounds show dissolution rate limited absorption and hence poor absorption, distribution and target organ delivery. Improvement of aqueous solubility in such a case is valuable goal to improve therapeutic efficacy. Complexation with CDs by different methods like physical mixing, melting, kneding, spray drying, freeze drying, co-evaporation has been reported to enhance the solubili...
NEED FOR NEW HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS: AN OVERVIEW
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Insulin deficiency in turn leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. It is the most common endocrine disorder and by the year 2010, it is estimated that more than 200 million people worldwide will have DM and 300 million will subs...
BUCCAL PATCHES: A REVIEW
Buccal route is an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery and it leads direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism provides high bioavailability. Buccalbioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditiona...
CHRONOTHERAPY: A REVIEW
Chronotherapy refers to the use of circadian, ultradian, infradian & seasonal or other rhythmic cycles in the application of therapy. There are number of conditions which show a circadian pattern and advantage could be taken by timing and adjusting the administration of drugs according to the circadian rhythm of the disease. Some of the conditions, which may be significantly benefited, are hyp...
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CURCUMA LONGA: A REVIEW
Curcuma longa(Turmeric) is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and is thought to be indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. It is grown and harvested commercially in India, China, and many regions of tropical Southeast Asia. Turmeric is an approved food additive and is commercially available at low cost. Indigenous systems of medicine, including the Ayurvedic systems, have widely used tur...
ANTIEMETICS: A REVIEW
The act of emesis is controlled by the vomiting centre in the medulla, which integrates afferent input from the vestibular system, the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), the cortex and the gut. Nausea and vomiting induced by several cancer chemotherapy agents is often the most distressing side effect of treatment. The mechanism of action of antiemetic is related to blockage of various type of recep...
IMMEDIATE RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (TABLETS)
Tablet is the most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self-administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy. There are novel types of dosage forms that act very quickly after administration. The basic approach used in development tablets is the use of superdisintegrants...
NEEDLE FREE INJECTION SYSTEMS
Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. Needle-free technology offers the very obvious benefit of reducing patient concern about the use of needle. Needle free injection gives very effective injections for a wide range of drugs and bioequivalent to syringe and needle, results in less pain, a...
A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF PLANTS USED AS CONTRACEPTIVES
Evaluation of herbs for anti-fertility effects has been in progress worldwide for several decades to identify effective and safe substances for control of population explosion. This population explosion will have negative impact on our economic policies and would simultaneously misbalance our socio-economic infrastructure. Family planning has been promoted through several methods of contraception,...
PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS
This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties....
SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: AN ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, research and clinical medicine, as well as in other varied sciences. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) dispersions have been proposed as a new type of colloidal drug carrier system suitable for intravenous administration. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN...
SOFT MALLEABLE VESICLES TAILORED FOR ENHANCED DELIVERY OF ACTIVE AGENTS THROUGH THE SKIN: AN UPDATE
Ethosomes are noninvasive delivery carriers that enable drugs to reach the deep skin layers and/or the systemic circulation. These are soft, malleable vesicles tailored for enhanced delivery of active agents. They are composed mainly of phospholipids, high concentration of ethanol and water. The high concentration of ethanol makes the ethosomes unique, as ...
DRUG REGULATORY STATUS ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA: A CONTRAST AMONG 2 COUNTRIES
After a laborious and extravagant procedure the drug finally enters the market for use. But who determines the new drug status as a prescription only or an OTC? There is a clear cut contrast between the US and India with respect to their assignment guidelines and the future prospect of a new drug. In the US the regulatory status of the approved drug is determined as per the FDA guidelines (FDCA of...
ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS FROM SCRATCH TO THE PRESENT
Mental illness constitutes the second-largest disease burden in the United States. Psychosis is one of the most common and severe mental illnesses. It is an extremely devastating condition characterised by delusions, hallucinations, distortion of thoughts and deteriorating social functioning experiences. Psychosis in all human societies has approximately same incidence of occurrence as in accordan...
SONOPHORESIS EFFECT ON THE PERMEATION OF METRONIDAZOLE USING 3D SKIN EQUIVALENT
Transdermal drug delivery is highly advantageous method for drug administration, yet the compact structure of stratum corneum is an effective barrier which limited the use of this route to very few drug molecules. Ultrasound enhances the permeation through the skin by altering this barrier function in a phenomenon named sonophoresis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of variable ultrasonic c...
LIPOSOMAL GEL AS OCULAR DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR DICLOFENAC SODIUM: IN- VITRO AND IN-VIVO STUDIES
The aim of this work is to formulate topically effective controlled release ophthalmic liposomal gel for targeting diclofenac sodium to the eye in an attempt to heal the inflamed tissue of ocular ulcerative area. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) gel formulations composing of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) in the molar ratios of (7:2; 7:4 and 7:7)...
DRUG USE EVALUATION OF SHENMAI INJECTION IN THE FIRST AFFILIATED HOSPITAL OF BENGBU MEDICAL COLLEGE: A PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS
Introduction: To investigate the evaluation pattern of Traditional Chinese medicine injection, establish the drug use evaluation(DUE) standards of shenmai injection, and implement of DUE programs of shenmai injection in the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College. Methods: Three hundred and thirty four patients were included in this retrospective analysis. The study duration was divide...
ANALYSIS OF THE CHANGES IN PRICING REGULATION ON LEADING ANALGESICS MEDICINES PRICES AND UTILIZATION IN BULGARIA
In 2004, the new pricing regulation was enforced in Bulgaria. It liberates the OTC medicines pricing procedure from reference pricing to registration according to marketing authorization holder proposal. The goal is to analyse the changes in the pricing regulations concerning OTC and its impact on prices and utilization of analgesic medicines. Two main hypotheses are tested in the study. H1: The ...
EFFECT OF CHRONIC ALCOHOLIZATION BY KOUTOUKOU ON THE WEIGHT AND ORGANS (LIVER, HEART AND KIDNEY) OF TREATED RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)
Purpose: We evaluate the chronic consumption of koutoukou (KTK) on the weight and organs (liver, heart and kidney) of treated rats. Methods: This study was focused on animals divided into four (4) and by sex. One of the groups being used as control receives distilled water as drinking water; the three other groups receive KTK in their drinking water at a rate of 5 %, 10 % and 12 % for 90 days. ...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CLEMATIS BRACHIATA THUNB LEAF EXTRACTS
The antimicrobial activity as well as phytochemical screening of the hexane, acetone, methanol and water extracts of Clematis brachiata Thunb (Ranunculaceae) leaves was investigated. The agar dilution assay method was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts against 10 bacteria and four fungal species. The phytochemical screenings were performed by using the standard proce...
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EVALUATION OF DICLOFENAC POTASSIUM LYOPHILIZED ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS
Diclofenac Potassium, a sparingly soluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was taken as candidate for decreasing the onset of action time and increasing its bioavailability by overcoming its first pass metabolism. Diclofenac Potassium orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulations were developed using lyophilization technique. The freeze dried tablet formulations were prepared by freeze-dryi...
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIRS OF TERMINALIA BELERICA
The research work was conducted with the fruits of Terminalia belerica (Fam: Combretaceae) to investigate antibacterial & antifungal activities. The fruits of the plant were successively extracted by cold extraction process by using two solvents namely ethanol and acetone. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts of both solvents were investigated by a simple agar diffusion method using ten pa...
ASSESSMENT OF DRUG USE PRACTICES AND COMPLETENESS OF PRESCRIPTIONS IN GONDAR UNIVERSITY TEACHING REFERRAL HOSPITAL
Background: Rational drug use is a tool through which safe, effective and economic medication is provided. Rational prescribing ensures adherence to treatment and protects drug consumers from unnecessary adverse drug reactions. Rational dispensing on the other hand, promotes the safe, effective and economic use of drugs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess drug use practices and com...
BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS
The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a singl...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NEW HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF AZITHROMYCIN IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
A simple, reproducible and efficient reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for quantitative determination of azithromycin in drug substance. The separations were carried out on a Xterra C18 column (150 ×4.6 mm; 5µ) with UV detection at 215 nm. The mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 7.5) in a ratio of 5...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO – IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION OF ORAL FAST DISINTEGRATING FILMS OF A DRUG MEANT FOR CHRONIC DISEASE
The objective of the work was to design oral FDFs of a drug meant for management of chronic disease like type-2 diabetes mellitus which affects mostly elderly population. Glimepiride was the drug of choice because of its low dose. Since in vitro dissolution rate is the rate limiting step in drug absorption for class II drugs, in the present work,it was also proposed to make a complex of the drug...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF CITRUS HYSTRIX AND CITRUS MAXIMA
Since plants are used as therapeutic agents, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methonolic extracts of different components of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit. Studies on the antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, peel, and pulp of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruitwas conducted using agar disc diff...
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR NITAZOXANIDE IN POWDER FOR SUSPENSION DOSAGE FORM
A simple, precise, accurate, rapid and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Nitazoxanide in powder for suspension dosage form. Chromatography was carried out on an ODS C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm length), using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.005 mol L-1 tetra n- butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate (54:46 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and ...
ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MARINE ALGAE KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII USING THREE SOLVENT EXTRACTS
The seaweeds are economically valuable resources, used as food, fodder, fertilizer and medicine and thus useful to mankind in many ways. In the present study, Kappaphycus alvarezii, a marine alga, has been analysed for the presence of bioactive products using three solvent extracts. Antimicrobial activity was also done using the same extracts of seaweed. The results revealed that the selected seaw...
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF A NEW ALLELOCHEMICAL FROM PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L.
Parthenium hysterophorus L. is commonly known as “Gajar ghas" in Hindi and belongs to family Composite. It is an annual herb erect up to 1.5 m in hight. Its stems is branched and covered with trichomes. Its leaves are pale green, branched and covered with soft fine hairs. In Homoeopathy system, allergies caused by Parthenium can be treated by a drug prepared from Parthenium. Root decoction ...
IN-VIVO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA L. ROOT
Inflammation plays an imperative role in pathophysiology of various diseases. Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae), commonly known as Atibala is traditionally used for numerous medicinal purposes in India. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Sida rhombifolia L. root using Wistar rats by carrageenan induced acute infla...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
Three simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous analysis of Tolperisone Hydrochloride (TOL) and Diclofenac Sodium (DIC) in their combined dosage form. Method A, Simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method) applies measurement of absorptivities at two wavelengths, 261.00 nm (λmax of Tolperisone Hydrochloride) and 279.00 nm, (λmax of D...
ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TRADITIONAL PHYTOTHERAPY OF CHEST DISEASES BY THE GUJJAR-BAKERWAL TRIBE OF DISTRICT RAJOURI OF JAMMU & KASHMIR STATE
Ethnobotanical study was conducted in district Rajouri, Jammu And Kashmir State aiming at identifying plants used to treat chest diseases mainly related to respiratory system. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview members of the tribal population including traditional healers, herb sellers, and other villagers. The plant parts used as well as the modes of preparation and administra...
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED FLAVONOIDS FROM THE LEAVES OF CORCHORUS AESTUANS LINN.
Preliminary phytochemical investigation of various extracts of leaves of Corchorus aestuans Linn showed the presence of flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An attempt has been made to isolate flavonoids and perform antioxidant potential of the same. The antioxidant activity was performed by two in-vitro testing metho...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PROBIOTIC TABLETS CONTAINING ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG
The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate probiotic tablets containing anti-inflammatory drug Mesalazine. Matrix tablets were prepared using Sodium alginate and Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) as matrix forming components, with three different combinations by wet granulation method. The granules were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, ...
ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF POLYGALA CHINENSIS L. WHOLE PLANT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Administration of ethanol extract of Polygala chinensis whole plant (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight) to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days reduced the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO). The treatment also resulted in significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum, liver and kidney. The res...
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF CHITOSAN OF PODOPHTHALMUS VIGIL IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic activity of chitosan of Podophthalmus vigil on normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced into male albino wistar rats by intraperitonial administration of STZ. Chitosan was administered orally at three different doses to normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 30 days. The diabetic rats showed an increase in lev...
CONCEPTS OF ANTI-HIV THERAPY & ITS APPLICATIONS IN RESOURCE POOR SETTINGS
HIV since its invention has become global burden. In last two decades of the HIV prevalence many anti-retroviral drugs have been developed. Poor countries like India have started central government funded programmes to tackle the menace of the HIV. These programmes have been started because many people cannot afford costly ART drugs. In this review article, we have discussed current ART regimens a...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA) STANDLEY FRUITS AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HAPATOTOXICITY IN MICE
Aim and Objectives: Fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria (LS) belonging to Cucurbitaceae family, has been used traditionally to treat jaundice and to cure certain liver disorders. Antioxidants are well known for their hepatoprotective effect and in curing liver disorders. In this study, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of fruits were investigated. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powde...
COMPARATIVE IN-VITRO QUALITY EVALUATION OF ERYTHROMYCIN STEARATE TABLETS MARKETED IN ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA
In this study, an attempt was made to assess the physicochemical equivalence of four brands of Erythromycin stearate tablets marketed in Addis Ababa. Identity, weight uniformity, disintegration, dissolution and assay for the content of active ingredients were evaluated using the methods described in the British Pharmacopoeia 2007. All the samples passed the identity, disintegration, and dissolutio...
PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL, NON-RANDOMIZED, PARALLEL SEQUENCE STUDY FOR ASSESSMENT OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS DUE TO CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CANCER PATIENTSABSTRACT
Objective: To assess incidence, causality, severity, predictability and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in hospitalised oncology patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational, non-randomized, parallel sequence study was conducted at Dr B. Borooah Cancer Institute (BBCI) after getting an approval from human ethical committee. Patients hospitalised at BBCI from Aug ...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CERTAIN METAL-1, 3-DIKETONATES
A substantial interest in rational design of novel transition metal complexes which bind and cleaves duplex DNA has been a motivation of the present investigation. This DNA adhesion of metal complex which targets bacterial DNA and cleaves it thereby results in an effective antibacterial agent. In the present work two series of metal diketonates were prepared by using diketones like acetyl acetone ...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE FLOATING TABLETS OF LAMIVUDINE EMPLOYING HPMC K4M AND SODIUM ALGINATE
Lamivudine, a BCS Class I synthetic nucleoside analogue, has a a short biological half-life of 5–7 and is mainly absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of the study is to develop a controlled release floating tablets of lamivudine employing HPMC K4M and sodium alginate. The floating tablets of lamivudine were prepared employing HPMC K4M and sodium alginate as m...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING ASSAY METHOD OF MESALAMINE BY USING DIFFERENT STRESS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS
A simple, sensitive, highly accurate UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of mesalamine in bulk and tablet dosage form. Solution of mesalamine in distilled water shows maximum absorbance at 330 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2-16 μg/ml with the slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, detection and quantitation limits were also calcula...
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ACECLOFENAC ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS
The object of the study was to formulate and evaluate Aceclofenac orodispersible tablets (ODT) by wet granulation method using different super disintegrants in different concentrations. Orodispersible tablets produce rapid dissolution of drug and absorption thereby producing rapid onset of action. Five batches (AFD1, AFD2, AFD3, AFD4, AFD5) of Aceclofenac orodispersible tablets were prepared and c...
GASTROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FRUITS OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. IN PYLORUS-LIGATED WISTAR RAT MODEL
Tribulus terrestris L. (TT; Zygophyllaceae) is employed in the folk medicine against sexual impotence, oedemas, abdominal distention and cardiovascular diseases. Gastroprotective (i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory) potential of methanolic extract of TT fruits was evaluated in pylorus-ligated rat model of Wistar rat. The methanolic extract of TT was tested orally at the doses of 150, 300 & 600 ...
EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE
Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract.It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory...
SYNTHESIS OF SOME NOVEL OXADIAZOLE BASED CHALCONE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS
A series of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives were designed and out of which six compounds have been synthesized via four step synthetic scheme and evaluated for antibacterial activity using cup plate method. The compounds were previously characterized by IR, 1H-NMR spectral analysis. The compounds with hydroxyl and methoxy substituted phenyl rings showed higher activity than the chloro substituted d...
INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE GROWTH OF BUILDING DETERIORATING FUNGI: ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM
The performance of whole building depends on many factors: structure, coating, environment, climate, type of use, service etc. Fungi are essential for the survival of our global ecology but they may pose a significant threat to the health of occupants when they grow in our buildings. The most important factor that affect microbial growth on buildings materials are temperature, moisture and nutrien...
AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY ON COMMONLY USED TRADITIONAL PLAN & HERBAL TREATMENT IN MALAYSIA FOR ORANG ASLI PEOPLE
A qualitative ethnopharmacological survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Buluh Nipis. After meeting and interviewing some informants we have gotten some few traditional plants and treatment used by Orang asli people in their daily life. After Study the results showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Ka...
WHAT PATIENTS WANT TO KNOW ABOUT THEIR MEDICATION? : A SURVEY OF INPATIENTS AND OUTPATIENTS AT GONDAR UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL
Patients want and are seeking more information about drug and nondrug treatment options. While a great deal of patient information about medications, treatments, and diseases exists, much of it contains conflicting, inaccurate, poorly written, or non–evidence-based information. The objective of the study was thus, to assess what patients want to know about their medications at Gondar University ...
POLYSACCHARIDES FROM ALOE LEAF MUCILAGE AS POTENTIAL IMMUNOLOGICAL-BASED ANTI-FERTILITY AGENTS
Mucilaginous exudates from Aloe leaf containing polysaccharides, of which the major proportion has been reported to be composed of acetylated mannose molecules such as Acemannan and other high molecular weight polysaccharides. These polysaccharides, have been reported to elevate the Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GMCSF) ultimately leading to the infiltration of macrophages at re...
ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL PROTEIN OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF ACALYPHA INDICA
Medicinal plants are extensively used to cure various infectious diseases in human. Our present study was undertaken to investigate antibacterial activity in leaf, stem and root extracts of Acalypha indica against the human pathogens such as Staphylococcus sp, E. coli, Salmonella sp, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas. The shade dried leaves, stem and root powder was used to prepare extracts by ...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF 4-BENZYLIDENE- PYRAZOLIDINE-3, 5-DIONE DERIVATIVES
In the present research work, diethyl malonate and phenyl hydrazine were reacted together to give pyrazolidine-3,5-dione nucleus which was further derivatized at fourth position by reacting with different aromatic aldehydes to give 4-benzylidene-pyrazolidine-3,5-diones, followed by the 4-chloro-butyl and 4-nitrooxy-butyl substitution at nitrogen atom. The synthesized products were characterized by...
HYPOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PEPEROMEA PELLUCIDA (L.) HBK (PIPERACEAE)
The aspire of the present research was to explore the hypoglycemic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate extract of Peporemia pellucida in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and hypercholesterolemia and against pain. In the present study hypoglycemic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Peperomea pellucida was significant from (25.35 t...
EXPLORATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SOLANUM NIGRUM – AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
Introduction: Solanum nigrum (S. nigrum) has been shown to be hepatoprotective by Ayurvedic physicians but has not been scientifically evaluated so far. So, the present study was undertaken to explore the hepatoprotective activity of S. nigrum against experimentally induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Aim of the study: To explore the hepatoprotective activity of S. nigrum. Materials and M...
ISOLATION OF EPICATECHIN FROM OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM
Background: Oxystelma esculentum is used traditionally as diuretic, laxative, hepatoprotective and anti-ulcer. Objectives: The present work deals with the isolation and structure elucidation of Epicatechin from O. esculentum. Methods: Methanolic extract of the entire plant of O. esculentum was subjected to pilot TLC experiments and column chromatography. Results: This yielded a pure, whit...
MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS WITH VIRAL PROTEASES
Viruses are the major pathogenic agents that can cause variety of diseases in humans, animals and plants. Several deadly diseases like Hepatitis A, Hepatitis C, encephalitis, meningitis, and influenza are caused by viruses. Due to the constant and rapid emergence of viral pathogens, current recommended commercial drugs for above diseases are becoming resistant. In this view in present study forty ...
STUDY OF STORAGE PERIODS OF CULTURE SUSPENSION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 is an important strain of pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. We studied the viability of culture suspension of Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 6538 at 2 to 8°C up to 360 days in 0.9% w/v NaCl. The culture suspension containing 10000 cfu/ml used in the study was stored at 2 to 8°C for 360 days in 0.9% w/v NaCl. Using 10 µl of above culture suspensio...
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF FLOATING TABLET OF ENALAPRIL MALEATE
The present study was aimed at developing an oral floating system for Enalapril maleate with the objective to enhance the oral bioavailability of the drug. As it is a prodrug, oxidizing agent KMnO4 was used with distilled water and observed at 340 nm against a reagent blank, using PC Shimazdu UV Spectrophotometer. The obtained standard graph of drug was a straight line with coefficient correla...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PROGRAMMED RELEASE OCULAR INSERTS OF MIZOLASTINE
The main objective of this study was to prepare controlled release matrix type ocular inserts of mizolastine for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.The films were prepared by solvent casting technique using Eudragit RL100 and RS100 in different ratios with dibutylphthalate as the plasticizer. The films were evaluated for the physicochemical parameters. In-vitro studies were carried ...
GREENING OF MANAGEMENT: SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
The present time is an era of revolution as rapid changes and developments have been noticed in almost all spheres around the globe. In most of the countries the private sector has played a pioneer role to introduce several changes. The pharmaceutical industry through research and development has brought out a variety of products. There is much of experimentation, researches and trials. The improv...
CONTROLLED RELEASE FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF FELODIPINE MATRIX TABLETS BY USING HYDROPHOBIC POLYMERS
Felodipine is a long-acting 1, 4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, used to control hypertension by selective action on peripheral resistance. The conventional felodipine tablet gives a rather high peak and comparatively low trough levels, due to rapid absorption and distribution. More sustained plasma concentrations might thus produce a more even effect on blood pressure. The main aim of ...
ANTIBACTERIAL AND CYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF DALBERGIA SPINOSA ROXB. LEAVES
Dalbergia spinosa Roxb. (Leguminosae) is a mangrove plant native to Asia and enjoys number of traditional uses. This paper describes the investigation of antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of the ethanol extract of D. spinosa leaves. Antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract of D. spinosa leaves was tested by disc diffusion assay and broth macrodilution assay. The extract was also tested for...