Volume 14 (2023) - Issue 11, November
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the non-essential and highly toxic environmental pollutants. It causes serious environmental and agricultural problems. It ranks seventh on the list of the twenty most toxic metals. Dietary cadmium intake is much higher than the upper limit reported by FAO/WHO. Sources of environmental Cd contamination, soil factors affecting Cd uptake, Cd dynamics in the soil rhizosphere, u...
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main reason for end-stage renal disease on a global scale. About 40% of developing diabetic kidney disease, which is the most common cause of chronic kidney diseases worldwide. Although ESRD may be the most complication of diabetics, as a result of their physical health and any co-morbidities they may have, such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, intrarena...
Stem cell-based therapeutics have considerable potential to treat a variety of illnesses that are now incurable. Because of recent scientific advancements, the area of applied medical research has taken a positive turn, and stem cell-based techniques have moved considerably closer to clinical applications. Since their discovery, stem cells have revolutionized medical research and dramatically alte...
CURRENT LAWS GOVERNING COMPARATIVE STUDIES AND CLINICAL TRIALS IN INDIA, THE UNITED STATES, EUROPE, AND SINGAPORE
Clinical trials (CTs) are carried out to investigate novel, patient-acceptable, and more effective interventional procedures. Specific regulatory criteria for conducting CTs are recommended by the country's drug regulatory authority, and these guidelines are followed when conducting CTs. The USFDA oversees regulating CTs in the USA in accordance with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act's 21 C...
Cefpodoxime proxetil is an oral antibiotic belonging to 3rd generation Cephalosporin category. It has shown its antibiotic activity against both Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria and has high stability in the presence of β-lactamase except Enterococci species. The drug has found its effectiveness in pediatric patients in treating respiratory tract infections. At the present time the most f...
Orphan drugs are used to treat rare diseases that affect fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Development and approval of orphan drugs are challenging due to the limited patient population and substantial development costs; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established several programs, such as the Orphan Drug Designation program and Orphan Product Grants program to encour...
THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TREATMENT OF ANXIETY IN CONTEXT TO NEUROTRANSMITTER: AN OVERVIEW
Anxiety is a negative emotional state marked by tension, unease, and emotions of concern and fear. Across the globe, women are more likely than males to suffer from anxiety disorders. Insomnia, cold or sweaty hands and/or feet, shortness of breath, an inability to be steady and calm, dry mouth, numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dizziness, pins and needles, fe...
Currently, COVID-19 pandemic is a major zoonotic disease that has killed millions of people all over the world. Similarly, Nipah virus (NiV), causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) along with febrile encephalitis. NiV belongs to the class of paramyxovirus of the genus Henipavirus is a deadly virus that has caused several outbreaks in recent years. Despite the fact that NiV causes a small ...
A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS OF PHARMA-CEUTICAL DRUG PRODUCTS IN CIS AND GCC COUNTRIES
India may have a potential in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region. Pharmaceuticals are difficult to register with the CIS region's regulating organisation because of the turmoil among these countries. The CIS includes Russia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia. These call for various regulatory s...
A spectroscopic method called Raman spectroscopy is frequently employed to discover the vibrational modes of molecules. Raman spectroscopy is frequently used in chemistry to give compounds a unique structural fingerprint. Using mass spectroscopy, one or more molecules present in a sample can have their mass to charge ratio (m/z) measured. It is frequently possible to estimate the precise molecular...
Diabetes is currently not well managed in the allopathic medical system. The dysfunction and damage to several organs, including as the blood vessels, heart, nerve fibres eyes, kidneys, and, neurons are chronic repercussions of long-term blood glucose elevations. There are many different therapy options available, but they frequently have negative side effects and cannot provide complete relief. T...
Dissolution is an authorized test used by Pharmacopoeias for assessing drug arrival of solid and semisolid measurement structures. The primary utilization of dissolution testing incorporates the biopharmaceutical portrayal of medication items as a device to guarantee reliable item quality and to predict in-vivo drug bioavailability. Dissolution testing was initially grown for solid orals; later on...
One of the most important difficulties in contemporary medical biology is the creation of a cutting-edge, effective drug delivery system with a considerable improvement in its efficacy and increased therapeutic value. The advancement and development of innovative drug-delivery nanocarrier systems with accuracy and reduced side effects have been made possible by merging nanomaterial science with mo...
Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease of supporting structures of teeth caused by specific microorganisms or groups of microorganisms. Formation of a new connective tissue attachment and bone deposition are the main goals of periodontal therapy. The excisional new attachment procedure (ENAP) is especially sub-gingival curettage performed with a knife performed by internal bevel incision pe...
Since ancient times, natural products, especially plants have been utilized to treat variety of disorders, and an astounding number of contemporary medications have been created from them. All across the world, liver problems are prevalent. These conditions are only mildly handled traditionally; however, allopathic treatment always makes the situation worse when used to address more severe conditi...
Caffeine anhydrous is used as a stimulant to improve individual alertness and mental focus due to its ability of inhibiting the function of phosphodiesterase enzyme in the cells. Recent studies also discovered where caffeine reduced the risk of Parkinson’s disease by its inhibitory action on adenosine receptor. With the aim of masking the bitter taste of caffeine, increasing the compliance and c...
DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF ECONAZOLE NITRATE CO-CRYSTAL LOADED GEL TO CURE TOPICAL ANTIFUNGAL DISEASE
In the past years many drug discoveries were investigated to be poorly soluble in aqueous medium. These poorly aqueous soluble drugs include Econazole Nitrate (ECZN) having high permeability. ECZN is an effective, potent anti-fungal drug used to cure large range of fungus. Oral administration of ECZN causes gastrointestinal irritation. To overcome or avoid the “first pass metabolism” and to op...
MOLECULAR DESIGN AND ANTI-BREAST CANCER ACTIVITY OF TUPICHINOL E IN HER2+ BREAST CANCER AND EGFR SENSITIZED TO OSMERTINIB THERAPY
The epidermal growth factor receptor is a tyrosine kinase receptor and its overexpression triggers cancers. EGFR inhibition is one of the most unique and popular technique for cancer treatment. There are various approved EGFR inhibitors like osmertinib, lapatinib, afatinib, etc. Huge natural products are discovered every year and Rhamnocitrin derivative Tupichinol E obtained from the Northern Sikk...
DESIGN AND STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE LOADED FLOATING MICROSPHERES: INFLUENCE OF NATURAL POLYMERS
Floating microspheres have been showing high potential for gastro retention and provide an efficient means of enhancing bioavailability and controlling the release of drugs. Metformin hydrochloride is an effective antidiabetic that required controlled release due to its Short half-life of about 4.5-7 hours and bioavailability 50-60 %. The present research works aim is to develop, evaluate and stat...
TO EVALUATE RHEOLOGICAL SYNERGISM BY COMBINING HYDROPHILIC POLYMERS AND OPTIMIZATION BY SIMPLEX MIXTURE DESIGN
It appears that you have conducted a study on the preparation of Glipizide sustained-release tablets using different HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) polymers of varying viscosity grades, specifically HPMCK 4M and HPMC K 15M, in different proportions. The concentration of the polymers was optimized using a simplex mixture design, with HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M and lactose as the components of the mi...
Carbamazepine (CBZ) has long been a therapeutic option for bipolar disorder. Carbamazepine used for the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. In the present study bilayer tablet was developed to improve dosing convenience and decrease daily fluctuations in serum CBZ concentration, thereby lowering the incidence of adverse events. In bilayer tablet one la...
People utilise plants regularly all around the world for the treatment and prevention of a wide range of illnesses. One abundant plant found in India is the banyan tree, Ficus benghalensis Linn. Oral and dental hygiene is the primary factor of a human being to lead a healthy life. The aim of this study is to design Ficus benghalensis Linn. candy to improve patient oral health, toothache, and accep...
A QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE AMONG INTERNS AND POSTGRADUATES IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL
Background: Evidence based medicine (EBM) integrates the best available data from clinical research into clinical practice. Residents (PGs & CRRIs) are at the frontiers of healthcare who are still struggling to adapt the paradigm shift in the practice of medicine. This study aims to explore the knowledge and attitude of EBM among residents in a tertiary teaching hospital. Materials and Methods...
FABRICATION AND STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF LIPID-BASED NANOPARTICLES FOR THE ENCAPSULATION OF DOLUTEGRAVIR SODIUM
Dolutegravir, an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), is a BCS class II, poorly soluble antiretroviral medication that has been licenced by the FDA for the treatment of HIV infections. DTG has a number of drawbacks, including limited oral bioavailability (16%), hepatotoxicity, and instability in an acidic environment. Due to the medication's limited solubility, 84% of the dose is eliminate...
STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF TOPICAL CREAM CONTAINING VITAMIN D3 NANOPARTICLES FOR ANTI-AGING EFFECT: BOX-BEHNKEN DESIGN
Aging is defined as decreased maximal function and reserve capacity in all body, organs, resulting in an increased likelihood of disease and death. One of the reasons for Premature Aging is deficiency of Vitamin D3. The main aim of the research work is to develop and evaluate the Nanoparticle based Anti-aging cream of Vitamin D3 for Premature aging. Six formulations were prepared by Nano precipita...
Water solubility is the rate limiting step in dissolution and bioavailability. Olmesartan medoxomil is BCS class-II drugs having low water solubility. Olmesartan medoxomil acts on cardiovascular system and used in the treatment of hypertension as antihypertensive agent. Olmesartan medoxomil have low water solubility and low bioavailability as 26%. In this research study we made Olmesartan medoxomi...
A very tiny non-coding RNA molecule with a length of 20 to 24 nucleotides, called microRNAs or miRNAs. They control gene expression by targeting mRNAs with sequence-specificity. Depending on the degree of complementarity with the target mRNA sequences, this might result in translational repression or mRNA destruction. They are very crucial for controlling growth and development in plants. Research...
Annona squamosa (sugar apple) is commonly cultivated in tropical South America occasionally in southern Florida as well as in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Barbados, and dry regions of Australia. It was growing in Indonesia early in the 17th century and has been widely adopted in southern China, tropical Africa, Egypt, and the lowlands of Palestine. This plant is a small well-branched tree or shrub that b...
MICRONUCLEUS COUNT AND ITS PREDICTIVE VALUE IN CERVICAL PAP SMEARS AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE, TRICHY DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU
Objectives: Fragmented micronucleus is a good prognostic indicator for monitoring and detecting chromosomal / genetic damage in human population. The objective of this study was to count the cells with presence of micronucleus in cervical pap smears in women with reproductive age group and to detect its predictive value. To substantiate the importance of Micronucleus evaluation in routine Pap smea...
Ziziphus nummularia is commonly found plant in dry regions of South Asia such as India, Pakistan. Z. nummularia contains numerous phytochemicals such as flavonouds, alkaloids that are responsible for numerous biological activities. In current study, elaborative pharmacognostic studies on the leaves of Z. nummularia were done for standardization purposes for future studies. The study includes morph...
A STUDY ON THE ASSESSMENT OF PAIN AND SLEEP IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMODIALYSIS AND PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
Background: Perception of pain and sleep disturbances are more prevalent in patients undergoing Dialysis. Assessing and determining the pain intensity and sleep disturbances help to establish the need for treatment, which is an important part of therapeutic intervention as they may affect the patient’s Quality of life (QOL). This study was aimed to assess pain intensity and sleep disturbances in...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NOVEL RP- HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF PREGABALIN AND DULOXETINE IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE
A sensitive, rapid, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Pregabalin and Duloxetine in synthetic mixture. To introduce a chromophoric group in Pregabalin structure, derivatization was carried out through benzoylation reaction. RP- HPLC method is carried out using Hypersil BDS column C18 (250 cm × 4.6 cm, 5 μm). Mobile phase used as combination of Methan...
Objective: Teratogens play a crucial role in the 4-5% of infants who are born with physical or functional abnormalities in this world. Teratogens are recognized for their capacity to harm fetuses or neonates. Observations: Pregnancy-related exposure to certain substances may result in birth abnormalities or malformations of the fetus, such as behavioral or emotional problems, low IQ, physical defo...
Background: Increased anxiety in patients undergoing caesarean delivery has a negative impact on fetus and mother. Music therapy can have beneficial effects. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of preoperative and intraoperative music therapy on anxiety, pain, patient satisfaction and postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia...
EVALUATION OF IN-VIVO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MONO HERBAL SIDDHA FORMULATION KANDUPARANGI CHOORANAM (PYGMAEOPREMNA HERBACEA – ROOT POWDER) IN CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED PAW EDEMA & PLEURISY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Introduction: Monoherbal or polyherbal formulation, which is used in Siddha medication, have a wide variety of phytochemical substances as primary and secondary metabolites, which show many pharmacological activities, including the anti-inflammatory effect. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of Kanduparangi chooranam (KC) was evaluated by using carrageenan-induced paw edema and ...
COMPARISON OF BACTEC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL METHOD FOR CULTURE OF STERILE BODY FLUIDS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Aim & Background: Body fluids are sent to clinical microbiology laboratory for culture to find the etiological agent causing the infection. This study was conducted to compare the culture results of sterile body fluids processed simultaneously by both conventional method and BACTEC blood culture system. Methods: Sterile body fluids except blood were included in the study. A total of 61 body fl...
Objective: The present investigation aims to develop pH-independent mucoadhesive pellets using the extrusion-spheronization procedure and the inter-polyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) of Chitosan-Carbopol 71G. Miconazole was used as a representative drug in this study. Materials and Method: It was found that the composition of the formulation impacts the extrusion of the prepared dough mass. The genera...
Chenopodium album, Chenopodium murale, and Chenopodium giganteum are annual herb. Almost 250 different species of Chenopodium can be found all over the world. They are grown for many purposes, including some for their green leafy vegetables and others for the grains they provide. The phytochemicals, proteins, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, and saponins have at...
EVALUATION OF ENDOCAN AND ENDOGLIN AS PREDICTIVE MARKERS OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH A SINGLE DOSE OF STZ AND HFD
A major susceptibility indicator for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is obesity-related insulin resistance. Vascular endothelial cells strongly express the coreceptors for members of the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily, endocan and endoglin. Examining endocan and endoglin as potential indicators of cardiovascular complications in HFD rats with or without type 2 diabetes me...
The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate a cubosomal gel for the treatment of skin diseases such as athlete's foot (tineapedis), ringworm (tineacruris) and ringworm (tineacorporis). To increase the penetration of the drug and to provide longer duration of treatment this study was performed. Cubosomes are a novel nanoparticle system loaded with butenafine hydrochloride as an antifungal ...
EVALUATION OF ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PETALS OF CHRYSANTHEMUM MORIFOLIUM AGAINST HUMAN LIVER CANCER CELL LINE (HEPG2)
Chrysanthemum morifolium is commonly known as chrysanthemum. It has been widely used in traditional medicine due to its various therapeutic effects. Past studies have shown that chrysanthemum extracts possess significant anticancer activity against breast, prostate, and colon cancer cells. The active compounds in chrysanthemum extracts such as flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, and triterpenoids have bee...
GENOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF POLYPHENOLIC BIOINSECTICIDE FROM STREBLUS ASPER (PBSA) USING MOUSE BONE MARROW MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY
Isolation of plant-based pesticides gaining recent interest due to the clastogenic implications of synthetic insecticides. The polyphenolic-rich fraction from the stem bark of Streblus asper was proven as an insecticide against Dysdercus cingulatus. This study aims to evaluate the genotoxicity of polyphenolic bioinsecticide from Streblus asper (PBSA) using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assa...
Inflammation and pain have all been successfully treated using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Today's nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are typically taken with restriction due to the gastric intolerance they create. The prodrug approach is quite effective in reducing the side effects caused by NSAIDs. Many nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug molecules have been modified in seve...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF THREE COMBINATION DRUGS REMOGLIFLOZIN ETABONATE, METFORMINE AND VILDAGLIPTIN BY RP-HPLC TECHNIQUE
Remogliflozin Etabonate, Metformin, Vildagliptin are anti-diabetic drugs. It inhibits the sodium-glucose transport proteins (SGLT), which are responsible - for glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter causes blood glucose to be eliminated through the urine. Several attempts were made on simultaneous analysis of Metformin with either Vildagliptin or Remogliflozin but no work we...
QUANTIFICATION OF VARIED MIRNAS IN EARLY AND LATE-ONSET PREECLAMPSIA COMPLICATING PREGNANCIES IN SOUTH INDIAN WOMEN- A COHORT STUDY
Introduction: Preeclampsia (PE) is a common pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder that may result from abnormal placental development and is a major threat to the mother’s and foetus’s life. Methods: Placental miRNAs (miRNAs) profile was investigated using next-generation sequencing for the identification of potential biomarkers playing a role in aberrant placental development and to underst...
ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIBIOFILM ACTIVITY OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA SILVER NANOPARTICLES AGAINST ENTERIC PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM EFFLUENT SAMPLES
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of silver nanoparticles of Azadirachta indica (AISNPs) against the pathogens isolated from effluent. Green synthesis approach was opted for the synthesis of the synthesis of AISNPs by using the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica which was added to 1mM solution of AgNO3. These synthesized nanoparticles were molecu...
EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIMICROBIAL, IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT & ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS FRUIT
Raphanus sativus L, belongs to the family Brassicaceae. Phytochemical analysis of its methanolic root extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids and steroids. The antimicrobial activities and in-vitro Pharmacological activities like Antioxidant Activity and Anti-inflammatory activity of the root extract was assessed. Production of ...
Clitoria ternatea was selected because it possesses various medicinal compounds of great significance based on its usage as an ayurvedic drug to cure various diseases. This study helps to understand the significance of plant sources that possess pharmacological activities and is good for health on regular consumption. A comparative study was thus conducted to analyze the potential antioxidant acti...
Introduction: Balance is an integral component of daily (functional) activities. It is very sensitive, complex and multifactorial. It is the ability to maintain the projection of the body’s centre of mass within manageable limits of the base of support, as in the standing or sitting or in transit to a new base of support, as in walking pattern (1). In old age ability to maintain balance is low a...
Guillain-Barre syndrome occurs when the body's immune system targets a portion of the peripheral nervous system. In addition to the nerves that convey pain, temperature, and touch sensations, the condition can also impair the nerves that regulate muscular movement. This may lead to muscular weakness and/or loss of feeling in the arms and/or legs. A 12-year-old boy was taken to the hospital with ch...
A known case of a cervical polyp of a 26-year-old woman presented in the Outdoor-patient Department of Dr. D. Y. Patil Homoeopathic Medical College and Research Centre with complaints of abnormal bleeding in between periods, pain after coition, and profuse white discharge. USG reports confirmed the diagnosis of the cervical polyp. After a detailed history taking of the patient and considering a co...
EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF ZINC AS ADD-ON THERAPY ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF NEUROPATHY IN THE PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS
Introduction: Diabetic neuropathy occurs in about half of the individuals with long-standing diabetes manifested as polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy and autonomic neuropathy. There is evidence indicating the involvement of zinc in diabetes. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Zinc as add-on therapy in Diabetic Neuropathy on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and glycaemic control. Materials and Met...
LACOSAMIDE AS AN ADD-ON THERAPY FOR DRUG-RESISTANT EPILEPSY: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA
Background: Epilepsy is a common and chronic neurological disorder. The prevalence of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is reported as 25-30% among epileptic patients. So, there is a need of drugs for resistant epilepsy. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and tolerability of Lacosamide (LCM) as an add-on therapy in patients with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy in our patient population. Methods and Materi...